Gene Symbol: ACTG2
Description: actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric
Alias: ACT, ACTA3, ACTE, ACTL3, ACTSG, VSCM, actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle, actin-like protein, alpha-actin-3
Species: human
Products:     ACTG2

Top Publications

  1. Shoeman R, Kesselmier C, Mothes E, Höner B, Traub P. Non-viral cellular substrates for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. FEBS Lett. 1991;278:199-203 pubmed
  2. Stolp B, Abraham L, Rudolph J, Fackler O. Lentiviral Nef proteins utilize PAK2-mediated deregulation of cofilin as a general strategy to interfere with actin remodeling. J Virol. 2010;84:3935-48 pubmed publisher
  3. Rey O, Canon J, Krogstad P. HIV-1 Gag protein associates with F-actin present in microfilaments. Virology. 1996;220:530-4 pubmed
    ..In vivo and in vitro analyses of this interaction indicated that the unprocessed Gag polyprotein is capable of association with polymerized actin (F-actin). Binding of Gag to F-actin may be involved in the assembly or budding of HIV-1. ..
  4. Bukrinskaya A, Brichacek B, Mann A, Stevenson M. Establishment of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription complex involves the cytoskeleton. J Exp Med. 1998;188:2113-25 pubmed
  5. Liu B, Dai R, Tian C, Dawson L, Gorelick R, Yu X. Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid with actin. J Virol. 1999;73:2901-8 pubmed
  6. Ibarrondo F, Choi R, Geng Y, Canon J, Rey O, Baldwin G, et al. HIV type 1 Gag and nucleocapsid proteins: cytoskeletal localization and effects on cell motility. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17:1489-500 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that interactions between HIV-1 Gag and actin in infected cells enhance cell motility. Ultimately this enhanced motility of infected cells could promote the dissemination of virus into the brain and other tissues. ..
  7. Warrilow D, Harrich D. HIV-1 replication from after cell entry to the nuclear periphery. Curr HIV Res. 2007;5:293-9 pubmed
    ..An actin-transport process may then facilitate the remaining short journey to the nuclear membrane. ..
  8. Readinger J, Schiralli G, Jiang J, Thomas C, August A, Henderson A, et al. Selective targeting of ITK blocks multiple steps of HIV replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6684-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that inhibition of ITK blocks HIV infection by affecting multiple steps of HIV replication. ..
  9. Yoder A, Yu D, Dong L, Iyer S, Xu X, Kelly J, et al. HIV envelope-CXCR4 signaling activates cofilin to overcome cortical actin restriction in resting CD4 T cells. Cell. 2008;134:782-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, induction of active cofilin greatly facilitates it. These findings shed light on viral exploitation of cellular machinery in resting T cells, where chemokine receptor signaling becomes obligatory. ..

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gladnikoff M, Shimoni E, Gov N, Rousso I. Retroviral assembly and budding occur through an actin-driven mechanism. Biophys J. 2009;97:2419-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study show that retroviruses utilize the cell cytoskeleton to expedite their assembly and budding. ..
  2. Gordón Alonso M, Rocha Perugini V, Alvarez S, Moreno Gonzalo O, Ursa A, López Martín S, et al. The PDZ-adaptor protein syntenin-1 regulates HIV-1 entry. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2253-63 pubmed publisher
  3. Spear M, Guo J, Wu Y. The trinity of the cortical actin in the initiation of HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2012;9:45 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the purpose of this review to examine, in detail, the manifestation of viral dependence on the actin cytoskeleton, and present a model of how HIV utilizes actin dynamics to initiate infection. ..
  4. Lehtonen H, Sipponen T, Tojkander S, Karikoski R, Jarvinen H, Laing N, et al. Segregation of a missense variant in enteric smooth muscle actin ?-2 with autosomal dominant familial visceral myopathy. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:1482-1491.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..A heterozygous variant, R148S in enteric smooth muscle actin ?-2 (ACTG2), segregated with disease phenotype...
  5. Ott D, Coren L, Kane B, Busch L, Johnson D, Sowder R, et al. Cytoskeletal proteins inside human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions. J Virol. 1996;70:7734-43 pubmed
    ..The presence of these fragments, as well as the incorporation of a few specific cytoskeletal proteins into virions, suggests an active interaction between cytoskeletal and viral proteins. ..
  6. Wilk T, Gowen B, Fuller S. Actin associates with the nucleocapsid domain of the human immunodeficiency virus Gag polyprotein. J Virol. 1999;73:1931-40 pubmed
    ..The same result was obtained when mature HIV-1 particles were disrupted with detergent. Taken together, these results indicate that actin molecules are associated with the NC domain of the viral polyprotein. ..
  7. Jolly C, Mitar I, Sattentau Q. Requirement for an intact T-cell actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient assembly and spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2007;81:5547-60 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we propose that HIV-1 requires both actin and tubulin components of the T-cell cytoskeleton to direct its assembly and budding and to elaborate a functional VS. ..
  8. Moore S, Maluleke T, El Hosny A. Is Hirschsprung disease a purely neurological condition? A study of the Actin G2 smooth muscle gene in Hirschsprung disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..PCR amplification of the ACTG2 gene, were subjected to semi-automated bi-directional sequencing analysis...
  9. Kalita M, Małek W. The ftsA gene as a molecular marker for phylogenetic studies in Bradyrhizobium and identification of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. J Appl Genet. 2019;60:123-126 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the ftsA gene sequences revealed a single-nucleotide polymorphism unique to Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains, and the potential use of this SNP for identification of this species was discussed. ..
  10. Huang C, Huang B, Niu J, Yu Y, Qin X, Yang Y, et al. Global mRNA and Long Non-Coding RNA Expression in the Placenta and White Adipose Tissue of Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;50:2260-2271 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene network demonstrated that Actg2, Cnfn, Muc16, Serpina3k, NONMMUT068202, and NONMMUT068203, were the core of the network in placental tissue, and ..
  11. Halim D, Wilson M, Oliver D, Brosens E, Verheij J, Han Y, et al. Loss of LMOD1 impairs smooth muscle cytocontractility and causes megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans and mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E2739-E2747 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic basis of MMIHS has been ascribed to spontaneous and autosomal dominant mutations in actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a smooth muscle contractile gene. However, evidence suggesting a recessive origin of the disease also exists...
  12. Bratton B, Shaevitz J, Gitai Z, Morgenstein R. MreB polymers and curvature localization are enhanced by RodZ and predict E. coli's cylindrical uniformity. Nat Commun. 2018;9:2797 pubmed publisher
    ..93). Our data thus suggest RodZ promotes the assembly of geometrically-localized MreB polymers that lead to the growth of uniform cylinders. ..
  13. Collyer G. Links between law enforcement and veterinary animal health: a case study of the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Rev Sci Tech. 2017;36:549-556 pubmed publisher
    ..Il était pratiquement inconcevable qu’un groupe criminel ou terroriste puisse commettre un tel acte, même si des armes biologiques avaient déjà été utilisées contre les populations humaines et animales au ..
  14. Maluleke T, Mangray H, Arnold M, Moore H, Moore S. Recurrent ACTG2 gene variation in African degenerative visceral leiomyopathy. Pediatr Surg Int. 2019;35:439-442 pubmed publisher
    ..This study of the Actin G2 gene (ACTG2) in an African population explores a possible molecular basis abnormal muscle function in a visceral myopathy...
  15. Jin M, Kim Y, Jeong K. BAF53A regulates androgen receptor-mediated gene expression and proliferation in LNCaP cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;505:618-623 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results suggested that BAF53A plays an important role in the expression of AR target genes in prostate cancer, and can be used clinically for the treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  16. Hosseinzadeh H, Mehri S, Heshmati A, Ramezani M, Sahebkar A, Abnous K. Proteomic screening of molecular targets of crocin. Daru. 2014;22:5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings revealed that crocin physically binds to a wide range of cellular proteins such as structural proteins, membrane transporters, and enzymes involved in ATP and redox homeostasis and signal transduction. ..
  17. Pedersen J, Pedersen N, Brix S, Grunddal K, Rosenkilde M, Hartmann B, et al. The glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor is expressed in enteric neurons and not in the epithelium of the intestine. Peptides. 2015;67:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence for the expression of the GLP-2R in intestinal compartments rich in enteric neurons and, importantly they exclude significant expression in the epithelium of rat jejunal mucosa. ..
  18. Davalieva K, Kiprijanovska S, Maleva Kostovska I, Stavridis S, Stankov O, Komina S, et al. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Urine Reveals Down-Regulation of Acute Phase Response Signaling and LXR/RXR Activation Pathways in Prostate Cancer. Proteomes. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..proteins with highly confirmed involvement in PCa, while 9 (AZU1, IGHG1, RNASE2, PZP, REG1A, AMY1A, AMY2A, ACTG2, COL18A1) have been associated with different cancers, but not with PCa so far, and may represent novel findings...
  19. Poloméni A. [Information as an act of care]. Soins. 2015;:51-3 pubmed publisher
    The information process may be conceived as an acte of care. Taking into account its' subjective aspects brings into play the notions of "expertise" and "transparency"...
  20. Gayathri P, Harne S. Structure and Dynamics of Actin-Like Cytomotive Filaments in Plasmid Segregation. Subcell Biochem. 2017;84:299-321 pubmed publisher
    ..The components that link the filaments to the plasmid DNA also regulate filament dynamics. The modulation of the dynamics facilitates the cytomotive filament to function as a mitotic spindle with a minimal number of components. ..
  21. Rioux J, Philippe N, Pereira S, Pignol D, Wu L, Ginet N. A second actin-like MamK protein in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 encoded outside the genomic magnetosome island. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9151 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus MamK-like is a new member of the prokaryotic actin-like family. This is the first evidence of a functional mam gene encoded outside the magnetosome genomic island. ..
  22. Anand A, Zhao H, Nagaraja T, Robinson L, Ganju R. N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Retrovirology. 2013;10:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells...
  23. Jiang X, Wang H, Shen R, Chen G. Engineering the bacterial shapes for enhanced inclusion bodies accumulation. Metab Eng. 2015;29:227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular mechanism of enlarged bacterial size was found to be directly relate to weakened cytoskeleton which was the result of broken skeleton helix. ..
  24. Valiya Veettil M, Sadagopan S, Kerur N, Chakraborty S, Chandran B. Interaction of c-Cbl with myosin IIA regulates Bleb associated macropinocytosis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001238 pubmed publisher
  25. Thorson W, Diaz Horta O, Foster J, Spiliopoulos M, Quintero R, Farooq A, et al. De novo ACTG2 mutations cause congenital distended bladder, microcolon, and intestinal hypoperistalsis. Hum Genet. 2014;133:737-42 pubmed publisher
    ..R178L, in the gene encoding the smooth muscle gamma-2 actin, ACTG2. We subsequently detected another de novo ACTG2 mutation, p.R178C, in an additional child with MMIHS...
  26. Defeu Soufo H, Reimold C, Breddermann H, Mannherz H, Graumann P. Translation elongation factor EF-Tu modulates filament formation of actin-like MreB protein in vitro. J Mol Biol. 2015;427:1715-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show that MreB can direct the localization of EF-Tu in vivo, which in turn positively affects the formation and dynamics of MreB filaments. Thus, EF-Tu is a modulator of the activity of a bacterial actin-like protein. ..
  27. Park I, Park S, Cho J, Moon Y, Kim T, Lee S, et al. Role of reactive oxygen species in transforming growth factor beta1-induced alpha smooth-muscle actin and collagen production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;159:278-86 pubmed publisher
  28. Drew J, Farquharson A, Mayer C, Vase H, Coates P, Steele R, et al. Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113071 pubmed publisher
    ..differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2), apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1), fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1), structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES), gene transcription (HDAC1), stem cell (LGR5), endothelial (VWF) and mucin production (MUC2)...
  29. Benzoubir N, Mussini C, Lejamtel C, Dos Santos A, Guillaume C, Desterke C, et al. Gamma-smooth muscle actin expression is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like properties in hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130559 pubmed publisher
    ..This correlation suggests that γSMA represents a novel and powerful marker to predict HCC progression. ..
  30. Refojo P, Calisto F, Ribeiro M, Teixeira M, Pereira M. The monoheme cytochrome c subunit of Alternative Complex III is a direct electron donor to caa3 oxygen reductase in Rhodothermus marinus. Biol Chem. 2017;398:1037-1044 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work we further explored ACIII investigating the role of its monoheme cytochrome c subunit (ActE)...
  31. Moreno C, Sobreira N, Pugh E, Zhang P, Steel G, Torres F, et al. Homozygous deletion in MYL9 expands the molecular basis of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2018;26:669-675 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular basis of this condition started to be defined recently, and the genes related to the syndrome (ACTG2-heterozygous variant in sporadic cases; and MYH11 (myosin heavy chain 11), LMOD1 (leiomodin 1) and MYLK (myosin ..
  32. Hearps A, Jans D. Regulating the functions of the HIV-1 matrix protein. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:341-6 pubmed
    ..J Virol 2005;79:13028-13036) confirms the importance of this protein for HIV infection and highlights a potentially new avenue in multivalent drug therapy. ..
  33. Lu W, Xiao Y, Huang J, Tao Y, Yan W, Lu L, et al. Mutation in Actin γ-2 Responsible for Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome in 4 Chinese Patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;63:624-626 pubmed
    ..Our report suggested that R257 variant in the ACTG2 appear to be more frequent in populations of Asian ancestry; mutation of this locus could cause alterations of the ..
  34. Peyron P, David M. [Suicide risk assessment tools for adults in general medical practice]. Presse Med. 2015;44:590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The Grille d'estimation de la dangerosité d'un passage à l'acte suicidaire is the only interview to have been validated in primary care so far...
  35. Sun W, Wang W, Lei J, Li H, Wu Y. Actin-like protein 6A is a novel prognostic indicator promoting invasion and metastasis in osteosarcoma. Oncol Rep. 2017;37:2405-2417 pubmed publisher
  36. Lu W, Fang L, Ouyang B, Zhang X, Zhan S, Feng X, et al. Actl6a protects embryonic stem cells from differentiating into primitive endoderm. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1782-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover a novel function of Actl6a in mESCs, where it acts as a gatekeeper to prevent mESCs from entering into the PrE lineage through a Yin/Yang regulating pattern. ..
  37. Moreno C, Metze K, Lomazi E, Bertola D, Barbosa R, Cosentino V, et al. Visceral myopathy: Clinical and molecular survey of a cohort of seven new patients and state of the art of overlapping phenotypes. Am J Med Genet A. 2016;170:2965-2974 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic bases of these conditions recently begun to be clarified with the identification of pathogenic variants in ACTG2, ACTA2, and MYH11 in individuals with visceral motility dysfunction...
  38. Radke I, Götte M, Smollich M, Scharle N, Kiesel L, Wülfing P. Expression of PRL-3 regulates proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;296:1153-1160 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of PRL-3 function induces an antimetastatic gene expression profile in breast cancer cells. Due to its role in tumor growth and metastasis, PRL-3 emerges as a new therapeutic target in breast cancer therapy. ..
  39. Ueyama H. A HindIII DNA polymorphism in the human enteric type smooth muscle actin gene (ACTSG). Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:411 pubmed
  40. Szewczak Harris A, Lowe J. Cryo-EM reconstruction of AlfA from Bacillus subtilis reveals the structure of a simplified actin-like filament at 3.4-Å resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:3458-3463 pubmed publisher
  41. Zaretsky D, Zaretskaia M, DiMicco J. Characterization of the relationship between spontaneous locomotor activity and cardiovascular parameters in conscious freely moving rats. Physiol Behav. 2016;154:60-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Act and HR could be approximated by the negative exponential function HR(Act)=HRmax-(HRmax-HRmin)∗exp(-Act/Acte), where HRmax, HRmin, and Acte are constants...
  42. Mura A, Fadda D, Perez A, Danforth M, Musu D, Rico A, et al. Roles of the Essential Protein FtsA in Cell Growth and Division in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we focus on the properties of the actin-like protein FtsA as an essential orchestrator of peripheral and septal growth in this bacterium. ..
  43. Halim D, Brosens E, Muller F, Wangler M, Beaudet A, Lupski J, et al. Loss-of-Function Variants in MYLK Cause Recessive Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101:123-129 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, three genes are known to be involved in MMIHS pathogenesis: ACTG2, MYH11, and LMOD1...
  44. Klar J, Raykova D, Gustafson E, Tóthová I, Ameur A, Wanders A, et al. Phenotypic expansion of visceral myopathy associated with ACTG2 tandem base substitution. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015;23:1679-83 pubmed publisher
    ..806_807delinsAA (p.(Gly269Glu)) in ACTG2, encoding smooth muscle actin γ-2, in affected family members...
  45. Matera I, Rusmini M, Guo Y, Lerone M, Li J, Zhang J, et al. Variants of the ACTG2 gene correlate with degree of severity and presence of megacystis in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Eur J Hum Genet. 2016;24:1211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..After identifying a heterozygous missense variant in the ACTG2 gene in one of 10 patients undergone WES, targeted Sanger sequencing of this gene allowed to detect heterozygous ..
  46. Jiang S, Narita A, Popp D, Ghoshdastider U, Lee L, Srinivasan R, et al. Novel actin filaments from Bacillus thuringiensis form nanotubules for plasmid DNA segregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in this prokaryote, the actin fold has evolved to produce a filament system with comparable features to the eukaryotic chromosome-segregating microtubule. ..
  47. Lin G, McCormick J, Johnstone R. Is gamma-actin a regulator of amino acid transport?. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:C1647-55 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the gamma-actin-like protein coded for by E51 cDNA may play a significant regulatory role in amino acid transport...
  48. Szucsik J, Lessard J. Cloning and sequence analysis of the mouse smooth muscle gamma-enteric actin gene. Genomics. 1995;28:154-62 pubmed
    ..Putative regulatory elements are noted as well as regions of the gene that have the potential to form non-B DNA conformations that may influence gene expression. ..
  49. Colavin A, Shi H, Huang K. RodZ modulates geometric localization of the bacterial actin MreB to regulate cell shape. Nat Commun. 2018;9:1280 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, E. coli can control its shape and dimensions by differentially regulating RodZ and MreB to alter the patterning of cell-wall insertion, highlighting the rich regulatory landscape of cytoskeletal molecular biophysics. ..
  50. Bathula C, Tripathi S, Srinivasan R, Jha K, Ganguli A, Chakrabarti G, et al. Synthesis of novel 5-arylidenethiazolidinones with apoptotic properties via a three component reaction using piperidine as a bifunctional reagent. Org Biomol Chem. 2016;14:8053-63 pubmed publisher
    ..52 ?M) as an apoptotic agent. A novel chemical proteomics approach identified ?-actin-like protein 2, ?-enolase and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MMIF) as putative cellular binding partners of 17i. ..
  51. Cornejo E, Subramanian P, Li Z, Jensen G, Komeili A. Dynamic Remodeling of the Magnetosome Membrane Is Triggered by the Initiation of Biomineralization. MBio. 2016;7:e01898-15 pubmed publisher
  52. Wu R, Gu Y, Xu Y, Mitola S, Bussolino F, Terada L. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat regulates endothelial cell actin cytoskeletal dynamics through PAK1 activation and oxidant production. J Virol. 2004;78:779-89 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Tat induces actin cytoskeletal rearrangements through PAK1 and downstream activation of the endothelial NADPH oxidase. ..
  53. Lai J, Moya L, An J, Hoffman A, Srinivasan S, Panchadsaram J, et al. A microsatellite repeat in PCA3 long non-coding RNA is associated with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16862 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis indicated that three of these STRs (TAAA-ACTG2, TTTTG-TRIB1, and TG-PCA3) are polymorphic and differentially expressed in prostate tumors compared to adjacent ..
  54. Snasel J, Pichova I. The cleavage of host cell proteins by HIV-1 protease. Folia Biol (Praha). 1996;42:227-30 pubmed
  55. Lattanzi G, Cenni V, Marmiroli S, Capanni C, Mattioli E, Merlini L, et al. Association of emerin with nuclear and cytoplasmic actin is regulated in differentiating myoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:764-70 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence of a modulation of emerin-actin interaction in muscle cells, possibly through differentiation-related stimuli. ..
  56. Webb R. Smooth muscle contraction and relaxation. Adv Physiol Educ. 2003;27:201-6 pubmed
    ..Removal of Ca(2+) from the cytosol and stimulation of myosin phosphatase initiate the process of smooth muscle relaxation...
  57. Coiras M, Camafeita E, Ureña T, Lopez J, Caballero F, Fernández B, et al. Modifications in the human T cell proteome induced by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein expression. Proteomics. 2006;6 Suppl 1:S63-73 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in addition to its role in viral mRNA elongation, the proteomic approach has provided insight into the way that Tat modifies host cell gene expression. ..
  58. Goldberg M, Han Y, Yan C, Shaw M, Garner W. TNF-alpha suppresses alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts: an implication for abnormal wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2645-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the balance of cytokines in a wound defines the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix and optimal wound healing. ..
  59. Denard J, Rundwasser S, Laroudie N, Gonnet F, Naldini L, Radrizzani M, et al. Quantitative proteomic analysis of lentiviral vectors using 2-DE. Proteomics. 2009;9:3666-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defines for the first time, the protein stoichiometry of infectious HIV-1-derived LV particles. ..
  60. Milunsky A, Baldwin C, Zhang X, Primack D, Curnow A, Milunsky J. Diagnosis of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction and Megacystis by Sequencing the ACTG2 Gene. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;65:384-387 pubmed publisher
    ..This report aimed to determine the efficacy of sequencing the actin γ-2 (ACTG2) gene for diagnosis...
  61. Adams L, Tomasselli A, Robbins P, Moss B, Heinrikson R. HIV-1 protease cleaves actin during acute infection of human T-lymphocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992;8:291-5 pubmed
    ..Hydrolysis by the HIV-1 protease of physiologically important host cellular proteins during infection may have important consequences relative to viral pathogenesis. ..
  62. Dordor A, Poudevigne E, Gottlinger H, Weissenhorn W. Essential and supporting host cell factors for HIV-1 budding. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:1159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of host cell factors recruited by Gag during HIV-1 assembly and budding. ..
  63. Al Soraj M, He L, Peynshaert K, Cousaert J, Vercauteren D, Braeckmans K, et al. siRNA and pharmacological inhibition of endocytic pathways to characterize the differential role of macropinocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton on cellular uptake of dextran and cationic cell penetrating peptides octaarginine (R8) and HIV-Tat. J Control Release. 2012;161:132-41 pubmed publisher
  64. Chandrasekaran P, Buckley M, Moore V, Wang L, Kehrl J, Venkatesan S. HIV-1 Nef impairs heterotrimeric G-protein signaling by targeting G?(i2) for degradation through ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:41481-98 pubmed publisher
    ..By specifically degrading G?(i2), Nef directly subverts leukocyte migration and homing. Impaired trafficking and homing of HIV Nef-expressing lymphocytes probably contributes to early immune dysfunction following HIV infection. ..
  65. Edfeldt K, Hellman P, Westin G, Stalberg P. A plausible role for actin gamma smooth muscle 2 (ACTG2) in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016;16:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Low mRNA expression levels of actin gamma smooth muscle 2 (ACTG2) have been demonstrated in metastases relative to primary SI-NETs...
  66. Zhang Y, Cui P, Li Y, Feng G, Tong M, Guo L, et al. Mitochondrially produced ATP affects stem cell pluripotency via Actl6a-mediated histone acetylation. FASEB J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Zhang, Y., Cui, P., Li, Y., Feng, G., Tong, M., Guo, L., Li, T., Liu, L., Li, W., Zhou, Q. Mitochondrially produced ATP affects stem cell pluripotency via Actl6a-mediated histone acetylation...
  67. Ueyama H, Inazawa J, Nishino H, Han Xiang D, Ochiai Y, Ohkubo I. Chromosomal mapping of the human smooth muscle actin gene (enteric type, ACTA3) to 2p13.1 and molecular nature of the hindIII polymorphism. Genomics. 1995;25:720-3 pubmed
    The human gene for smooth muscle actin (enteric type, ACTA3) has been isolated, and three overlapping clones, lambda HACTSG-17, -2, and -112, were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization of human chromosomes...
  68. Filmore R, Dean D, Zimmer W. The smooth muscle gamma-actin gene is androgen responsive in prostate epithelia. Gene Expr. 2002;10:201-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, SMGA gene activity in prostate epithelia is due, in part, to the androgen-dependent expression of Nkx 3.1. As such, our studies provide the initial description of Nkx 3.1 target gene regulatory activity in the prostate. ..
  69. Cheng C, Sharp P. RNA polymerase II accumulation in the promoter-proximal region of the dihydrofolate reductase and gamma-actin genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1961-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the accumulation of paused Pol II in promoter-proximal regions may be a common feature of gene regulation in mammalian cells. ..
  70. Brainard A, Miller A, Martens J, England S. Maxi-K channels localize to caveolae in human myometrium: a role for an actin-channel-caveolin complex in the regulation of myometrial smooth muscle K+ current. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C49-57 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the actin cytoskeleton is involved as part of a caveolar complex in the regulation of myometrial maxi-K channel function. ..
  71. García Expósito L, Ziglio S, Barroso González J, de Armas Rillo L, Valera M, Zipeto D, et al. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2013;10:39 pubmed publisher
  72. Wangler M, Gonzaga Jauregui C, Gambin T, Penney S, Moss T, Chopra A, et al. Heterozygous de novo and inherited mutations in the smooth muscle actin (ACTG2) gene underlie megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004258 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations...
  73. Miwa T, Kamada S. The nucleotide sequence of a human smooth muscle (enteric type) gamma-actin cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4263 pubmed
  74. Chang K, Yang P, Lai H, Yeh T, Chen T, Yeh C. Identification of a novel actin isoform in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Res. 2006;36:33-9 pubmed
    ..A novel class of actin isoforms was expressed in some hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, replacing beta-actins to become the major constituents of actin cytoskeleton. ..
  75. Laasanen J, Helisalmi S, Iivonen S, Eloranta M, Hiltunen M, Heinonen S. Gamma 2 actin gene (enteric type) polymorphism is not associated with obstetric cholestasis or preeclampsia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008;23:36-40 pubmed
    ..680) groups compared to the control group. This insertion-deletion polymorphism in the intron 1 of the gamma 2 actin gene is unlikely to play any significant role in obstetric cholestasis or preeclampsia in patients from eastern Finland. ..
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    ..We suggest that T cell activation-induced repression of nuclear receptor-dependent transactivation is in part through the modification of actin dynamics. ..
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    ..Subsequently, striated muscle actin and smooth muscle actin genes may have evolved from this prototype by loss of an intron at site 4 and acquisition of a new intron at site 3, respectively. ..
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    ..These findings suggest that an important function of gp41C is to modulate the activity of p115-RhoGEF and they thus reveal a new potential anti-HIV-1 target. ..
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    ..This mechanism involves the trapping of acidic lipids by the viral Gag protein by means of ionic protein-lipid interactions, inducing thereby formation of acidic lipid-enriched microdomains (ALEM). ..
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    ..These data provide insight as to how ITK influences HIV-1 replication and suggest that targeting host factors that regulate HIV-1 egress provides an innovative strategy for controlling HIV infection. ..
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    ..This neurorestoration was mediated by estrogen receptors (ER). These results suggest that plant-derived phytoestrogens may promote recovery from HIV-1-induced synaptodendritic damage...
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    ..Preventing such early synaptic loss may attenuate HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. ..
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    ..Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing of the ACTG2 gene. We identified a novel heterozygous de novo missense variant in ACTG2 c.770G>A (p...
  85. Halim D, Hofstra R, Signorile L, Verdijk R, Van Der Werf C, Sribudiani Y, et al. ACTG2 variants impair actin polymerization in sporadic Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:571-83 pubmed publisher a rare congenital disorder, in which heterozygous missense variants in the Enteric Smooth Muscle actin γ-2 (ACTG2) gene have been recently identified...
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    ..Here, we describes actin gamma smooth muscle 2 (ACTG2) over-express in HCC and demonstrates high-expression of ACTG2 as a promising therapeutic target in HCC metastasis...
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    ..Thus all the known actin-like polymers are likely to be the descendants of a single, ancestral, polymer-forming actin-like protein. ..
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    ..Conservative amino acid differences between HXB2 and NL4-3 NCs were sufficient to explain the difference in infectivity of viruses carrying the R10A and K11A mutations. ..
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    ..In addition, it was suggested that peritubular alphaSMA-positive myofibroblastic cells, in collaboration with interstitial macrophages, contribute to the progression of interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. ..
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    ..We demonstrate for the first time the existence of direct tropomyosin-nebulin interactions in vitro, and show that nebulin interactions with actin and tropomyosin are altered by disease-causing mutations in nebulin and tropomyosin. ..
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