ACE2

Summary

Gene Symbol: ACE2
Description: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
Alias: ACEH, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE-related carboxypeptidase, angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme homolog, metalloprotease MPROT15, peptidyl-dipeptidase A
Species: human
Products:     ACE2

Top Publications

  1. Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, et al. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. Circ Res. 2000;87:E1-9 pubmed
    b>ACE2, the first known human homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was identified from 5' sequencing of a human heart failure ventricle cDNA library...
  2. Wang S, Fu C, ZOU Y, Wang H, Shi Y, Xu X, et al. Polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene associated with magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy in male patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121:27-31 pubmed
    ..Modifier genes may contribute to the diversity. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene has been established to be associated with parameters of left ventricular hypertrophy in community based male ..
  3. Fan X, Wang Y, Sun K, Zhang W, Yang X, Wang S, et al. Polymorphisms of ACE2 gene are associated with essential hypertension and antihypertensive effects of Captopril in women. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;82:187-96 pubmed
    b>ACE2 appears to counterbalance the vasopressor effect of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in the reninangiotensin system...
  4. Li W, Moore M, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong S, Berne M, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature. 2003;426:450-4 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a metallopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), isolated from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-permissive Vero E6 cells, that efficiently binds the S1 domain of the ..
  5. Feng Y, Yue X, Xia H, Bindom S, Hickman P, Filipeanu C, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 overexpression in the subfornical organ prevents the angiotensin II-mediated pressor and drinking responses and is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor downregulation. Circ Res. 2008;102:729-36 pubmed publisher
    ..of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 in brain regions controlling cardiovascular function; however, the role of ACE2 in blood pressure regulation remains unclear because of the lack of specific tools to investigate its function...
  6. Kawajiri M, Mogi M, Higaki N, Matsuoka T, Ohyagi Y, Tsukuda K, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2009;15:262-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify the mechanism underlying this reduction, we assayed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 concentrations along with angiotensin II concentrations in CSF samples from 20 patients with MS and 17 controls ..
  7. Sriramula S, Cardinale J, Lazartigues E, Francis J. ACE2 overexpression in the paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;92:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a negative regulator of the pro-hypertensive actions of Ang II...
  8. Rice G, Thomas D, Grant P, Turner A, Hooper N. Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism. Biochem J. 2004;383:45-51 pubmed
    ..angiotensin peptide cleavage by full-length human ACE, the separate N- and C-domains of ACE, the homologue of ACE, ACE2, and NEP (neprilysin)...
  9. Imai Y, Kuba K, Rao S, Huan Y, Guo F, Guan B, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure. Nature. 2005;436:112-6 pubmed
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are homologues with different key functions in the renin-angiotensin system...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Li W, Zhang C, Sui J, Kuhn J, Moore M, Luo S, et al. Receptor and viral determinants of SARS-coronavirus adaptation to human ACE2. EMBO J. 2005;24:1634-43 pubmed
    Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Here we identify the SARS-CoV spike (S)-protein-binding site on ACE2...
  2. Santos R, Ferreira A, Simoes e Silva A. Recent advances in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin(1-7)-Mas axis. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of: the renin/prorenin receptor; the angiotensin-converting enzyme homologue, ACE2, as an angiotensin peptide-processing enzyme and a virus receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome, the Mas as ..
  3. Haga S, Yamamoto N, Nakai Murakami C, Osawa Y, Tokunaga K, Sata T, et al. Modulation of TNF-alpha-converting enzyme by the spike protein of SARS-CoV and ACE2 induces TNF-alpha production and facilitates viral entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7809-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the proposed model of respiratory failure, SARS-CoV down-regulates its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), but the mechanism involved is unknown...
  4. Epelman S, Shrestha K, Troughton R, Francis G, Sen S, Klein A, et al. Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in human heart failure: relation with myocardial function and clinical outcomes. J Card Fail. 2009;15:565-71 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an endogenous counterregulator of the renin-angiotensin system...
  5. Ferrario C, Trask A, Jessup J. Advances in biochemical and functional roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and angiotensin-(1-7) in regulation of cardiovascular function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H2281-90 pubmed
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the first human homologue of ACE to be described...
  6. Wang Y, Moreira M, Heringer Walther S, Ebermann L, Schultheiss H, Wessel N, et al. Plasma ACE2 activity is an independent prognostic marker in Chagas' disease and equally potent as BNP. J Card Fail. 2010;16:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potency of circulating ACE2 activity in patients with heart failure (HF) from Chagas' disease (CD)...
  7. Lambert D, Yarski M, Warner F, Thornhill P, Parkin E, Smith A, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase (ADAM17) mediates regulated ectodomain shedding of the severe-acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30113-9 pubmed
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a critical regulator of heart function and a cellular receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), SARS-CoV (coronavirus)...
  8. Hofmann H, Simmons G, Rennekamp A, Chaipan C, Gramberg T, Heck E, et al. Highly conserved regions within the spike proteins of human coronaviruses 229E and NL63 determine recognition of their respective cellular receptors. J Virol. 2006;80:8639-52 pubmed publisher
    ..have recently demonstrated that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) also mediates cellular entry of the newly discovered human coronavirus (hCoV) NL63...
  9. Lieb W, Graf J, Götz A, Konig I, Mayer B, Fischer M, et al. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene polymorphisms with parameters of left ventricular hypertrophy in men. Results of the MONICA Augsburg echocardiographic substudy. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:88-96 pubmed
    ..Recently, a second ACE, named ACE2, has been identified...
  10. Hamming I, Timens W, Bulthuis M, Lely A, Navis G, van Goor H. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol. 2004;203:631-7 pubmed
    ..Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the functional receptor for SARS-CoV...
  11. Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison S. Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor. Science. 2005;309:1864-8 pubmed
    ..S) of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) attaches the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). A defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) on S mediates this interaction. The crystal structure at 2...
  12. Oudit G, Liu G, Zhong J, Basu R, Chow F, Zhou J, et al. Human recombinant ACE2 reduces the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2010;59:529-38 pubmed publisher
    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure. Inhibition of ACE2 function accelerates diabetic kidney injury, whereas renal ACE2 is downregulated in diabetic nephropathy...
  13. Goulter A, Goddard M, Allen J, Clark K. ACE2 gene expression is up-regulated in the human failing heart. BMC Med. 2004;2:19 pubmed
    b>ACE2 is a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE2 is highly expressed in human heart and animal data suggest that ACE2 is an essential regulator of cardiac function in vivo...
  14. Harmer D, Gilbert M, Borman R, Clark K. Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme. FEBS Lett. 2002;532:107-10 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in probing the functional significance of this novel peptidase, some consideration should be given to a role in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. ..
  15. Bindom S, Hans C, Xia H, Boulares A, Lazartigues E. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) gene therapy improves glycemic control in diabetic mice. Diabetes. 2010;59:2540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using 8- and 16-week-old obese db/db mice, we examined the ability of ACE2 to alter pancreatic β-cell function and thereby modulate hyperglycemia...
  16. Mizuiri S, Aoki T, Hemmi H, Arita M, Sakai K, Aikawa A. Urinary angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in patients with CKD. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011;16:567-72 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a type I membrane protein that antagonizes the action of angiotensin II. Because of the need for invasive kidney biopsy, little is known about the role of renal ACE2 in human kidney diseases...
  17. Wang G, Lai F, Lai K, Chow K, Kwan C, Li K, et al. Urinary mRNA expression of ACE and ACE2 in human type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Diabetologia. 2008;51:1062-7 pubmed publisher
    The interplay of ACE and type 2 ACE (ACE2) has been recognised as playing an important role in the tissue renin-angiotensin system within the kidney...
  18. Towler P, Staker B, Prasad S, Menon S, Tang J, Parsons T, et al. ACE2 X-ray structures reveal a large hinge-bending motion important for inhibitor binding and catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17996-8007 pubmed
    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-related carboxypeptidase, ACE2, is a type I integral membrane protein of 805 amino acids that contains one HEXXH + E zinc-binding consensus sequence...
  19. Patel S, Wai B, Ord M, MacIsaac R, Grant S, Velkoska E, et al. Association of ACE2 genetic variants with blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and cardiac function in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 is a recently described member of the RAS, and this study investigated whether ACE2 polymorphisms are associated with hypertension, left ventricular (LV) mass, and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes...
  20. Tipnis S, Hooper N, Hyde R, Karran E, Christie G, Turner A. A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33238-43 pubmed
    ..This metalloprotease (angiotensin-converting enzyme homolog (ACEH)) contains a single HEXXH zinc-binding domain and conserves other critical residues typical of the ACE family...
  21. Hofmann H, Pyrc K, van der Hoek L, Geier M, Berkhout B, Pohlmann S. Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7988-93 pubmed
    ..revealed that NL63-S binds angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, the receptor for SARS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 uses ACE2 as a receptor for infection of target cells...
  22. Guy J, Lambert D, Turner A, Porter K. Functional angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is expressed in human cardiac myofibroblasts. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:579-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are key players in the RAS and act antagonistically to regulate the levels of angiotensin II...
  23. Vickers C, Hales P, Kaushik V, Dick L, Gavin J, Tang J, et al. Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14838-43 pubmed
    Human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) is a zinc metalloprotease whose closest homolog is angiotensin I-converting enzyme...
  24. Warner F, Lew R, Smith A, Lambert D, Hooper N, Turner A. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), but not ACE, is preferentially localized to the apical surface of polarized kidney cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39353-62 pubmed
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a homologue of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), the central enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
  25. Burrell L, Risvanis J, Kubota E, Dean R, Macdonald P, Lu S, et al. Myocardial infarction increases ACE2 expression in rat and humans. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:369-75; discussion 322-4 pubmed
    ..b>ACE2 deficiency impairs cardiac contractility and upregulates hypoxia-induced genes, suggesting a link with myocardial ..
  26. Reich H, Oudit G, Penninger J, Scholey J, Herzenberg A. Decreased glomerular and tubular expression of ACE2 in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008;74:1610-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, ACE2 generates angiotensin 1-7, which may protect the kidney by attenuating the effects of angiotensin II, since ..
  27. Lambert D, Clarke N, Hooper N, Turner A. Calmodulin interacts with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and inhibits shedding of its ectodomain. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:385-90 pubmed
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a regulatory protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the SARS-coronavirus...
  28. Lin Q, Keller R, Weaver B, Zisman L. Interaction of ACE2 and integrin beta1 in failing human heart. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1689:175-8 pubmed
    b>ACE2 purified from failing human heart was found to form a complex with integrin beta1 by immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, activity assay, and ESI tandem mass spectroscopy. The ACE2/integrin complex showed a Km of 6...
  29. Soro Paavonen A, Gordin D, Forsblom C, Rosengård Bärlund M, Wadén J, Thorn L, et al. Circulating ACE2 activity is increased in patients with type 1 diabetes and vascular complications. J Hypertens. 2012;30:375-83 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a homolog of ACE that counterbalances the actions of angiotensin (AT)II and promotes vasodilatation. Circulating ACE2 activity is increased in diabetes in experimental models...
  30. Xiao L, Gao L, Lazartigues E, Zucker I. Brain-selective overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 attenuates sympathetic nerve activity and enhances baroreflex function in chronic heart failure. Hypertension. 2011;58:1057-65 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been suggested to be involved in the central regulation of autonomic function...
  31. Zhong J, Yan Z, Liu D, Ni Y, Zhao Z, Zhu S, et al. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene A/G polymorphism and elevated blood pressure in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome. J Lab Clin Med. 2006;147:91-5 pubmed
    To establish whether angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene A/G single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with hypertension in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome...
  32. Lin H, Feng Y, Wong G, Wang L, Li B, Zhao X, et al. Identification of residues in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of human coronavirus NL63 that are critical for the RBD-ACE2 receptor interaction. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1015-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may help to delineate the molecular interactions between the S protein of NL63 and the hACE2 receptor, and may also enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of NL63 and SARS-CoV. ..
  33. Crackower M, Sarao R, Oudit G, Yagil C, Kozieradzki I, Scanga S, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function. Nature. 2002;417:822-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) maps to a defined quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the X chromosome in three different rat models of hypertension...
  34. Turner A, Hiscox J, Hooper N. ACE2: from vasopeptidase to SARS virus receptor. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25:291-4 pubmed
    The zinc metallopeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the only known human homologue of the key regulator of blood pressure angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)...
  35. Yi L, Gu Y, Wang X, An L, Xie X, Shao W, et al. Association of ACE, ACE2 and UTS2 polymorphisms with essential hypertension in Han and Dongxiang populations from north-western China. J Int Med Res. 2006;34:272-83 pubmed
    ..of polymorphisms of the genes for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and urotensin II (UTS2) as risk factors for essential hypertension in two populations from north-western China, we ..
  36. Benjafield A, Wang W, Morris B. No association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene (ACE2) polymorphisms with essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:624-8 pubmed
    ..in mice and rats led us to conduct the first investigation of the novel angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene (ACE2) in human hypertension (HT)...
  37. Liu T, Shang H, Zhang K, Chen L, Zhu X, Zhang Y, et al. [Association of angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphism with essential hypertension in Chinese]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2005;22:569-71 pubmed
    To identify the genetic variants of angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene in a Chinese population and to determine whether the ACE2 gene polymorphisms are associated with essential hypertension (EH)...
  38. Lu N, Yang Y, Wang Y, Liu Y, Fu G, Chen D, et al. ACE2 gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: an updated meta-analysis involving 11,051 subjects. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6581-9 pubmed publisher
    The polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene have been suggested to be linked to increase risk of essential hypertension in multiple populations. However, the results are still debatable...
  39. Imai Y, Kuba K, Ohto Nakanishi T, Penninger J. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in disease pathogenesis. Circ J. 2010;74:405-10 pubmed
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a first homolog of ACE, regulates the renin-angiotensin system by counterbalancing ACE activity...
  40. Raizada M, Ferreira A. ACE2: a new target for cardiovascular disease therapeutics. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007;50:112-9 pubmed
    The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in 2000 is an important event in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) story...
  41. Vangjeli C, Clarke N, Quinn U, Dicker P, Tighe O, Ho C, et al. Confirmation that the renin gene distal enhancer polymorphism REN-5312C/T is associated with increased blood pressure. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010;3:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that renin is an important susceptibility gene for arterial hypertension in whites. ..
  42. van der Merwe L, Cloete R, Revera M, Heradien M, Goosen A, Corfield V, et al. Genetic variation in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene is associated with extent of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hum Genet. 2008;124:57-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are plausible candidate hypertrophy modifiers because of their role in controlling blood pressure and biological effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. ..
  43. Chen W, Tang X, Yang X, Weng C, Yang K, Wen J, et al. Effects and Mechanisms of Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Sympathetic Nerve on Anti-Hypertension in Canine. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017;108:237-245 pubmed publisher
    ..that abnormal levels of norepinephrine (NE) and changes in NE-related enzymes and angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2), angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) and Mas receptor mediate the anti-hypertensive effects of RDN...
  44. Bukowska A, Spiller L, Wolke C, Lendeckel U, Weinert S, Hoffmann J, et al. Protective regulation of the ACE2/ACE gene expression by estrogen in human atrial tissue from elderly men. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242:1412-1423 pubmed publisher
    ..Estrogen substantially modulates the local RAS via downregulation of ACE and simultaneous upregulation of ACE2, AT2R and MAS expression levels...
  45. Lovren F, Pan Y, Quan A, Teoh H, Wang G, Shukla P, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 confers endothelial protection and attenuates atherosclerosis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H1377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) has been identified as a critical negative modulator of ANG II bioactivity, counterbalancing the effects of ACE in ..
  46. Maier C, Schadock I, Haber P, Wysocki J, Ye M, Kanwar Y, et al. Prolylcarboxypeptidase deficiency is associated with increased blood pressure, glomerular lesions, and cardiac dysfunction independent of altered circulating and cardiac angiotensin II. J Mol Med (Berl). 2017;95:473-486 pubmed publisher
    ..An ex vivo assay showed that recombinant PRCP, unlike recombinant ACE2, did not degrade AngII to form Ang(1-7) in plasma at pH 7.4...
  47. Liu X, Yang N, Tang J, Liu S, Luo D, Duan Q, et al. Downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by the neuraminidase protein of influenza A (H1N1) virus. Virus Res. 2014;185:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays a protective role in pathogenesis of acute lung ..
  48. Hayashi N, Yamamoto K, Ohishi M, Tatara Y, Takeya Y, Shiota A, et al. The counterregulating role of ACE2 and ACE2-mediated angiotensin 1-7 signaling against angiotensin II stimulation in vascular cells. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:1182-5 pubmed publisher
    To clarify the role of endogenous angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its cleavage product, Ang 1-7, in the atherogenic stimulation of vascular cells, we investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACE2 and Mas, ..
  49. Kinoshita M, Suhardan S, Danila Danila D, Chiang C, Aoyama A. Estimating Post-Emergency Fertility Among Disaster-Affected Adolescents: Findings From a Case-Control Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2016;10:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A case-control study was conducted in Aceh Province, Indonesia, 2 years after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004...
  50. Fan R, Mao S, Gu T, Zhong F, Gong M, Hao L, et al. Preliminary analysis of the association between methylation of the ACE2 promoter and essential hypertension. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:3905-3911 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether methylation of the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) promoter increases the risk of essential hypertension (EH)...
  51. Li G, Zhang H, Zhao L, Zhang Y, Yan D, Liu Y. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation ameliorates pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension through mediating phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2017;11:842-852 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to investigate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activation on pulmonary endothelial function in the process of preventing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rat models and to explore the ..
  52. Bai F, Pang X, Zhang L, Wang N, McKallip R, Garner R, et al. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor alters ACE2 activity, eNOS expression and CD44-hyaluronan interaction in rats with hypertension and myocardial fibrosis. Life Sci. 2016;153:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..angiotensin II (Ang II) AT1 receptor is involved in development of hypertension and cardiac fibrosis via modifying ACE2 activity, eNOS expression and CD44-hyaluronan interaction...
  53. Wang G, Lai F, Kwan B, Lai K, Chow K, Li P, et al. Expression of ACE and ACE2 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2011;34:141-9 pubmed publisher
    The interplay between intrarenal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and type 2 ACE (ACE2) might play important roles in the pathogenesis of hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HTN), but human data are limited.
  54. Zulli A, Burrell L, Buxton B, Hare D. ACE2 and AT4R are present in diseased human blood vessels. Eur J Histochem. 2008;52:39-44 pubmed
    ..body of evidence suggests that the angiotensin II fragments, Ang(1-7) and Ang(3-8), have a vasoactive role, however ACE2, the enzyme that produces Ang(1-7), or AT4R, the receptor that binds Ang (3-8), have yet been simultaneously ..
  55. Lo J, Patel V, Wang Z, Levasseur J, Kaufman S, Penninger J, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 antagonizes angiotensin II-induced pressor response and NADPH oxidase activation in Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Exp Physiol. 2013;98:109-22 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a monocarboxypeptidase capable of metabolizing angiotensin II (Ang II) into angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], has emerged as a potential therapeutic target...
  56. Vuille dit Bille R, Camargo S, Emmenegger L, Sasse T, Kummer E, Jando J, et al. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors. Amino Acids. 2015;47:693-705 pubmed publisher
    ..was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)...
  57. Saputo S, Norman K, Murante T, Horton B, Diaz J, Didone L, et al. Complex Haploinsufficiency-Based Genetic Analysis of the NDR/Lats Kinase Cbk1 Provides Insight into Its Multiple Functions in Candida albicans. Genetics. 2016;203:1217-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to a large set of genes regulated by the RAM transcription factor Ace2, genes related to cell wall biosynthesis, cell cycle, polarity, oxidative stress, and nitrogen utilization were ..
  58. Huentelman M, Zubcevic J, Katovich M, Raizada M. Cloning and characterization of a secreted form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Regul Pept. 2004;122:61-7 pubmed
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a newly discovered, membrane-bound aminopeptidase responsible for the production of vasodilatory peptides such as angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7)...
  59. Vangjeli C, Dicker P, Tregouet D, Shields D, Evans A, Stanton A. A polymorphism in ACE2 is associated with a lower risk for fatal cardiovascular events in females: the MORGAM project. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The associations of polymorphisms in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene with cardiovascular risk have not been fully determined...
  60. Harapan H, Anwar S, Setiawan A, Sasmono R. Dengue vaccine acceptance and associated factors in Indonesia: A community-based cross-sectional survey in Aceh. Vaccine. 2016;34:3670-5 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to explore and understand DV acceptance and its associated explanatory variables among healthy inhabitants of Aceh, Indonesia...
  61. Bennion D, Rosado C, Haltigan E, Regenhardt R, Sumners C, Waters M. Serum activity of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 is decreased in patients with acute ischemic stroke. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    Levels of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a cardio and neuro-protective carboxypeptidase, are dynamically altered after stroke in preclinical models...
  62. Yoshikawa N, Yoshikawa T, Hill T, Huang C, Watts D, Makino S, et al. Differential virological and immunological outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in susceptible and resistant transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. J Virol. 2009;83:5451-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data revealed a more intense viral infection and immunosuppression in AC70 mice than in AC22 mice, thereby providing us with an immunopathogenic basis for the fatal outcome of SARS-CoV infection in the AC70 mice...
  63. Ren X, Glende J, Al Falah M, de Vries V, Schwegmann Wessels C, Qu X, et al. Analysis of ACE2 in polarized epithelial cells: surface expression and function as receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1691-5 pubmed
    ..The cellular receptor for SARS-CoV, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), has been shown to be localized on the apical plasma membrane of polarized respiratory epithelial cells and to ..
  64. Trojanowicz B, Ulrich C, Fiedler R, Martus P, Storr M, Boehler T, et al. Modulation of leucocytic angiotensin-converting enzymes expression in patients maintained on high-permeable haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..cut-off (MCO) and high-flux (HF) dialysis on leucocytic transcripts of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2)...
  65. Calo L, Schiavo S, Davis P, Pagnin E, Mormino P, D Angelo A, et al. ACE2 and angiotensin 1-7 are increased in a human model of cardiovascular hyporeactivity: pathophysiological implications. J Nephrol. 2010;23:472-7 pubmed
    ACE and ACE2 produce angiotensin II (Ang II), a vasopressor that induces cardiovascular remodeling, and Ang 1-7, a vasodilator with an antiremodeling effect...