ACE

Summary

Gene Symbol: ACE
Description: angiotensin I converting enzyme
Alias: ACE1, CD143, DCP, DCP1, angiotensin-converting enzyme, CD143 antigen, angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1, angiotensin converting enzyme, somatic isoform, carboxycathepsin, dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1, dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I, kininase II, peptidase P
Species: human
Products:     ACE

Top Publications

  1. Bentley P, Peck G, Smeeth L, Whittaker J, Sharma P. Causal relationship of susceptibility genes to ischemic stroke: comparison to ischemic heart disease and biochemical determinants. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9136 pubmed publisher
    ..Meta-analyses demonstrated positive associations with ischemic stroke for factor V Leiden Gln506, ACE I/D, MTHFR C677T, prothrombin G20210A, PAI-1 5G allele and glycoprotein IIIa Leu33Pro polymorphisms (ORs: 1.11 - 1...
  2. Ginevičienė V, Pranculis A, Jakaitienė A, Milašius K, Kucinskas V. Genetic variation of the human ACE and ACTN3 genes and their association with functional muscle properties in Lithuanian elite athletes. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:284-90 pubmed
    Based on the results of many studies, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the ?-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are considered strong candidate genes associated with human physical performance...
  3. Nesterovitch A, Hogarth K, Adarichev V, Vinokour E, Schwartz D, Solway J, et al. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Trp1197Stop) causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8282 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling...
  4. Zivko M, Kusec R, Galesic K. Impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism on proteinuria and arterial hypertension. Coll Antropol. 2013;37:765-70 pubmed
    ..Some authors have suggested that the DD genotype of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene would be an adverse renal prognosis factor...
  5. Zarouk W, Hussein I, Esmaeil N, Raslan H, Reheim H, Moguib O, et al. Association of angiotensin converting enzyme gene (I/D) polymorphism with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012;113:14-8 pubmed
    This study was conducted to determine the association of insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene in hypertensive and T2DM subjects in Egyptian population...
  6. Mansoor Q, Javaid A, Bilal N, Ismail M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene II genotype protects against the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes. 2012;4:257-61 pubmed publisher
    ..have found an association between the development and progression of DPN in T2DM and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms...
  7. Narne P, Ponnaluri K, Singh S, Siraj M, Ishaq M. Relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism, angiographically defined coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012;13:478-86 pubmed publisher
    The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases...
  8. Masuyer G, Schwager S, Sturrock E, Isaac R, Acharya K. Molecular recognition and regulation of human angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity by natural inhibitory peptides. Sci Rep. 2012;2:717 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), a two-domain dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase, is a key regulator of blood pressure as a result of its critical role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and kallikrein-kinin systems...
  9. Jing Q, Wang X, Ma Y, Yang M, Huang G, Zhao X, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism and the risk of thoracic aortic dissection in Chinese Han population. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the association of the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene with the risk of TAD in a Chinese Han population, a hospital-based case-control study was designed consisting ..

More Information

Publications94

  1. Camos S, Cruz M, Morell F, Solé E. Genetic-based reference values for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) according to I/D polymorphism in a Spanish population sample. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2012;50:1749-53 pubmed publisher
    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity has been related to sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases. It has been demonstrated that serum ACE activity is influenced by ACE gene I/D polymorphism...
  2. Demurtas P, Di Girolamo N, Corrias M, Zucca I, Maxia C, Diana A, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of angiotensin converting enzyme in Sardinian pterygium. Histol Histopathol. 2013;28:759-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE or ACE I) is the major component of the Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) converting the inactive ..
  3. Dhar S, Ray S, Dutta A, Sengupta B, Chakrabarti S. Polymorphism of ACE gene as the genetic predisposition of coronary artery disease in Eastern India. Indian Heart J. 2012;64:576-81 pubmed publisher
    A case control study was designed to assess whether the prevalence of ACE gene polymorphism has any role in the development of CAD. The study included unrelated 217 cases with CAD and 255 healthy controls...
  4. Bernstein K, Ong F, Blackwell W, Shah K, Giani J, Gonzalez Villalobos R, et al. A modern understanding of the traditional and nontraditional biological functions of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Pharmacol Rev. 2013;65:1-46 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc-dependent peptidase responsible for converting angiotensin I into the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II...
  5. Persu A, Lambert M, Deinum J, Cossu M, de Visscher N, Irenge L, et al. A novel splice-site mutation in angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, c.3691+1G>A (IVS25+1G>A), causes a dramatic increase in circulating ACE through deletion of the transmembrane anchor. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59537 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 4.15.1) metabolizes many biologically active peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling...
  6. Wu S, Hsieh T, Kuo M, Tsai M, Tsai K, Chen C, et al. Functional regulation of Alu element of human angiotensin-converting enzyme gene in neuron cells. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:1921.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) genotype and its protein activity have been widely implicated to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  7. Yang S, Kim S, Park H, Kim S, Choi K, Lim Y, et al. Sex-dependent association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and obesity in relation to sodium intake in children. Nutrition. 2013;29:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is well characterized in the control of blood pressure...
  8. Al Rubeaan K, Siddiqui K, Saeb A, Nazir N, Al Naqeb D, Al Qasim S. ACE I/D and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in Arab ethnicity: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2013;520:166-77 pubmed publisher
    ..268), p<0.0001 and I(2)=32.40% in Caucasians and a pooled OR of 1.28(1.111-1.475), p=0.001 among Arabs. The ACE I/D polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with a pooled OR of 1.992 (95%C.I.=1.774-2.236), p<0...
  9. He Q, Fan C, Yu M, Wallar G, Zhang Z, Wang L, et al. Associations of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression with hypertension in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75870 pubmed publisher
    The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (..
  10. Kohlstedt K, Trouvain C, Boettger T, Shi L, Fisslthaler B, Fleming I. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates endothelial cell angiotensin-converting enzyme expression via p53 and the post-transcriptional regulation of microRNA-143/145. Circ Res. 2013;112:1150-8 pubmed publisher
    High-angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the regulation of its expression...
  11. Soubrier F. From an ACE polymorphism to genome-wide searches for eQTL. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:111-2 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, or DCP1) is a zinc metallopeptidase that converts angiotensin I into the vasoactive and aldosterone-stimulating peptide angiotensin II and cleaves bradykinin into inactive peptides...
  12. Yu Z, Chen L, Zhang L, Zhou T. Meta-analysis of the relationship between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and end-stage renal disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Nephrology (Carlton). 2012;17:480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from published studies on the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism and ESRD risk in DN patients are still conflicting...
  13. Zhou D, Ruiter R, Zhang J, Zhou M, Liu H, Liu W, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism is not associated with type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012;13:372-8 pubmed publisher
    A role for the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been suggested in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, results have been inconsistent...
  14. El Baz R, Settin A, Ismaeel A, Khaleel A, Abbas T, Tolba W, et al. MTHFR C677T, A1298C and ACE I/D polymorphisms as risk factors for diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012;13:472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..check for the association of genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes with the development of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients...
  15. Kabadou I, Soualmia H, Jemaa R, Feki M, Kallel A, Souheil O, et al. G protein beta3 subunit gene C825T and angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphisms in hypertensive Tunisian population. Clin Lab. 2013;59:85-92 pubmed
    We investigated the interaction between the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) C825T variant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Insertion/Deletion (I/D) polymorphism in hypertensive Tunisian population...
  16. Zhu M, Zhang J, Nie S, Yan W. Associations of ACE I/D, AGT M235T gene polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension in Chinese population: a meta-analysis. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012;29:921-32 pubmed publisher
    There have been many studies concerning the associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) among Chinese populations...
  17. Ajala A, Almeida S, Rangel M, Palomino Z, Strufaldi M, Puccini R, et al. Association of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism with birth weight, blood pressure levels, and ACE activity in healthy children. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:827-32 pubmed publisher
    The human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene contains a polymorphism consisting of either an insertion (I) or a deletion (D) of a 287 bp Alu repetitive sequence in intron 16...
  18. Firouzabadi N, Shafiei M, Bahramali E, Ebrahimi S, Bakhshandeh H, Tajik N. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism with elevated serum ACE activity and major depression in an Iranian population. Psychiatry Res. 2012;200:336-42 pubmed publisher
    ..chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method...
  19. Purnamasari D, Widjojo B, Antono D, Syampurnawati M. ACE gene polymorphism and atherosclerotic lesion of carotid artery among offsprings of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acta Med Indones. 2012;44:128-34 pubmed
    to investigate the association among ACE gene polymorphism, serum ACE level and atherosclerotic lesion in offspring of type 2 diabetes in Jakarta, Indonesia...
  20. Zhang Z, Xu G, Liu D, Fan X, Zhu W, Liu X. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism contributes to ischemic stroke risk: a meta-analysis of 50 case-control studies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46495 pubmed publisher
    Many studies have investigated the association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke...
  21. Rasyid H, Bakri S, Yusuf I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms, blood pressure and pulse pressure in subjects with essential hypertension in a South Sulawesi Indonesian population. Acta Med Indones. 2012;44:280-3 pubmed
    to investigate the potential association between the ACE gene polymorphism, essential hypertension and pulse pressure. the study included 99 non-hypertensive and 104 hypertensive subjects...
  22. Sakai T, Shikishima K, Matsushima M, Tsuneoka H. Genetic polymorphisms associated with endothelial function in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Mol Vis. 2013;19:213-9 pubmed
    ..in three candidate genes associated with endothelial function: endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)...
  23. Liang S, Pan M, Hu N, Wu Y, Chen H, Zhu J, et al. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene 2350 G/A polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in Chinese Han population. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:463-8 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is one of the most studied candidate genes related to diabetic retinopathy (DR)...
  24. Sun M, Liu C, Wei F, Zhong J, Sun Y. Association of angiotensin I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism with breast cancer: a meta-analysis. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:611-6 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene have been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk. We examined these associations by performing a meta-analysis...
  25. Rice G, Jones A, Grant P, Carter A, Turner A, Hooper N. Circulating activities of angiotensin-converting enzyme, its homolog, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and neprilysin in a family study. Hypertension. 2006;48:914-20 pubmed
    ..system is a key regulator of blood pressure (BP), with inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) used clinically to treat hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions...
  26. Agema W, Jukema J, Zwinderman A, van der Wall E. A meta-analysis of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary revascularization: evidence for publication bias. Am Heart J. 2002;144:760-8 pubmed
    ..Hence, screening for this mutation in clinical practice is not justified. Future research should preferentially focus on gene-gene interaction and comply with the rules of genetic epidemiology. ..
  27. Hamelin B, Zakrzewski Jakubiak M, Robitaille N, Bogaty P, Labbe L, Turgeon J. Increased risk of myocardial infarction associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is age dependent. J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;51:1286-92 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is a candidate genetic locus for coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  28. Guneri S, Baris N, Aytekin D, Akdeniz B, Pekel N, Bozdemir V. The relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease, and stent restenosis: the role of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in stent restenosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Int Heart J. 2005;46:889-97 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationships between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) and stent ..
  29. Benedetto C, Marozio L, Ciccone G, Chieppa G, Quaglia M, Matullo G, et al. Synergistic effect of renin-angiotensin system and nitric oxide synthase genes polymorphisms in pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86:678-82 pubmed
    ..04, 95% CI=1.16-7.93). Synergism of angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D and other polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system components and nitric oxide synthase may be a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. ..
  30. Onizuka M, Kasai M, Oba T, Atsuta Y, Terakura S, Suzuki R, et al. Increased frequency of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene D-allele is associated with noninfectious pulmonary dysfunction following allogeneic stem cell transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36:617-20 pubmed
    ..An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been extensively studied in relation to cardiovascular and renal disease, and lung fibrosis...
  31. Kohlstedt K, Busse R, Fleming I. Signaling via the angiotensin-converting enzyme enhances the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in endothelial cells. Hypertension. 2005;45:126-32 pubmed
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors elicit outside-in signaling via ACE in endothelial cells...
  32. Namazi S, Monabati A, Ardeshir Rouhani Fard S, Azarpira N. Association of angiotensin I converting enzyme (insertion/deletion) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C) polymorphisms with breast cancer prognostic factors in Iranian population. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:1022-30 pubmed publisher
    ..insertion/deletion (I/D) is one of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphisms and A1166C is one of angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) polymorphisms which have been associated ..
  33. Yuan X, Hou Q, WU S, Pei H, Li H. [A cross-sectional study on angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type I receptor gene polymorphism and cerebral infarction]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003;24:822-6 pubmed
    To explore the relation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism, angiotensin II type I receptor (ATIR) gene polymorphism and other factors on cerebral infarction...
  34. Azar S, Zalloua P, Medlej R, Halabi G. The DD genotype of the ACE gene polymorphism is associated with diabetic nephropathy in the type-1 diabetics. Endocr Res. 2001;27:99-108 pubmed
    ..We are examining the association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the presence of diabetic nephropathy in type-1 diabetic patients...
  35. Amir O, Amir R, Yamin C, Attias E, Eynon N, Sagiv M, et al. The ACE deletion allele is associated with Israeli elite endurance athletes. Exp Physiol. 2007;92:881-6 pubmed
    An Alu insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with ACE activity...
  36. Smilde T, Zuurman M, Hillege H, van Veldhuisen D, van Gilst W, van der Steege G, et al. Renal function dependent association of AGTR1 polymorphism (A1166C) and electrocardiographic left-ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:1097-103 pubmed
    ..RAS polymorphisms were determined: angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AGTR1 A1166C), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), and angiotensinogen (AGT G-6A)...
  37. Munshi A, Sultana S, Kaul S, Reddy B, Alladi S, Jyothy A. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and the risk of ischemic stroke in a South Indian population. J Neurol Sci. 2008;272:132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred and sixty two patients and one hundred and fifty controls were studied for the presence of ACE gene polymorphism by PCR technique...
  38. Tanriverdi H, Evrengul H, Mergen H, Acar C, Seleci D, Kuru O, et al. Early sign of atherosclerosis in slow coronary flow and relationship with angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism. Heart Vessels. 2007;22:1-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of deletion (D) allele in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is associated with coronary artery disease...
  39. Pera J, Slowik A, Dziedzic T, Wloch D, Szczudlik A. ACE I/D polymorphism in different etiologies of ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006;114:320-2 pubmed
    Data concerning an association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and ischemic stroke (IS) remain inconsistent...
  40. Voors A, van Geel P, Oosterga M, Buikema H, van Veldhuisen D, van Gilst W. Vascular effects of quinapril completely depend on ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2004;5:130-4 pubmed
    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) DD-genotype is associated with increased plasma and myocardial ACE-activity...
  41. Rice G, Thomas D, Grant P, Turner A, Hooper N. Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism. Biochem J. 2004;383:45-51 pubmed
    In the RAS (renin-angiotensin system), Ang I (angiotensin I) is cleaved by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) to form Ang II (angiotensin II), which has effects on blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis...
  42. Baghai T, Schule C, Zill P, Deiml T, Eser D, Zwanzger P, et al. The angiotensin I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism influences therapeutic outcome in major depressed women, but not in men. Neurosci Lett. 2004;363:38-42 pubmed
    b>Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where its primary function comprises degradation of neuropeptides including substance P (SP)...
  43. Wei L, Alhenc Gelas F, Soubrier F, Michaud A, Corvol P, Clauser E. Expression and characterization of recombinant human angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Evidence for a C-terminal transmembrane anchor and for a proteolytic processing of the secreted recombinant and plasma enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:5540-6 pubmed
    ..cells have been transfected with either a full-length cDNA encoding human angiotensin I-converting enzyme (kininase II; EC 3.4.15...
  44. Camelo D, Arboleda G, Yunis J, Pardo R, Arango G, Solano E, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and alpha-2-macroglobulin gene polymorphisms are not associated with Alzheimer's disease in Colombian patients. J Neurol Sci. 2004;218:47-51 pubmed
    Polymorphisms in alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes have been considered as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) independently of the risk conferred by the apolipoprotein E sigma4 allele (..
  45. Glavnik N, Petrovic D. M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene and insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-1 converting enzyme gene in essential arterial hypertension in Caucasians. Folia Biol (Praha). 2007;53:69-70 pubmed
    ..in pathogenesis of EAH, we analysed the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene, and the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene in a group of adult Caucasians (Slovene population) with EAH...
  46. Harding D, Baines P, Brull D, Vassiliou V, Ellis I, Hart A, et al. Severity of meningococcal disease in children and the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:1103-6 pubmed
    ..Given that tissue angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) regulates such responses and that the deletion (D) [rather than insertion (I)] variant of the ACE gene is ..
  47. Mulder H, van Geel P, Schalij M, van Gilst W, Zwinderman A, Bruschke A. DD ACE gene polymorphism is associated with increased coronary artery endothelial dysfunction: the PREFACE trial. Heart. 2003;89:557-8 pubmed
  48. Jeunemaitre X, Lifton R, Hunt S, Williams R, Lalouel J. Absence of linkage between the angiotensin converting enzyme locus and human essential hypertension. Nat Genet. 1992;1:72-5 pubmed
    The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key component of the renin angiotensin system that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure (BP)...
  49. Qin Y, Zhou T, Su L, Lei F, Huang W, Zhao Y. Association between ACE polymorphism and risk of IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:215-23 pubmed publisher
    and objective: The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on risk or progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is still debated...
  50. Okuno S, Utsugi T, Ohno T, Ohyama Y, Uchiyama T, Tomono S, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism as a potent risk factor for developing microalbuminuria in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 9-year follow-up study. J Int Med Res. 2003;31:290-8 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism were examined...
  51. Firouzabadi N, Tajik N, Shafiei M, Ebrahimi S, Bakhshandeh H. Interaction of A-240T and A2350G related genotypes of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is associated with decreased serum ACE activity and blood pressure in a healthy Iranian population. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, the frequencies of common polymorphisms in the RAS genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e...
  52. Zhang Y, Li X, Zhang J, Huang J, He C, Tian C, et al. The I/D polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and asthma risk: a meta-analysis. Allergy. 2011;66:197-205 pubmed publisher
    The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been implicated in susceptibility to asthma, but a large number of studies have reported inconclusive results...
  53. Tiago A, Badenhorst D, Nkeh B, Candy G, Brooksbank R, Sareli P, et al. Impact of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene variants on the severity of hypertension in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:1006-10 pubmed
    ..The CYP11B2 gene variant also did not affect DBP. A variant within the CYP11B2 locus has a clinically important impact on the severity of SBP changes in individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension who are of African ethnicity. ..
  54. Tian J, Shi J, Bailey K, Harris J, Pritchard A, Lambert J, et al. A polymorphism in the angiotensin 1-converting enzyme gene is associated with damage to cerebral cortical white matter in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2004;354:103-6 pubmed
    The impact of the insertion (I)/deletion (D) (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) gene on the extent of white matter myelin loss (ML) was investigated in four regions of the cerebral cortex in an autopsy-..
  55. Tsianos G, Sanders J, Dhamrait S, Humphries S, Grant S, Montgomery H. The ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and elite endurance swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;92:360-2 pubmed
    ..A variation in the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified, in which the insertion (I) variant may be associated with elite endurance performance, ..
  56. Hemming M, Selkoe D. Amyloid beta-protein is degraded by cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and elevated by an ACE inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37644-50 pubmed
    Human genetic data have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with Alzheimer disease (AD), and purified ACE has been reported to cleave synthetic amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in vitro...
  57. Muthumala A, Montgomery H, Palmen J, Cooper J, Humphries S. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype interacts with systolic blood pressure to determine coronary heart disease risk in healthy middle-aged men. Hypertension. 2007;50:348-53 pubmed
    The impact of the ACE I/D polymorphism on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is modest at most, however it may act as a modifier gene. ACE genotype was determined in 2711 healthy middle-aged men (mean age 56 years) followed for 15 years...
  58. Bautista L, Vargas C, Oróstegui M, Gamarra G. Population-based case-control study of renin-angiotensin system genes polymorphisms and hypertension among Hispanics. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the effects of the angiotensinogen T174M and M235T, angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D), and angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) A1166C gene polymorphisms on the ..
  59. Vairaktaris E, Serefoglou Z, Avgoustidis D, Yapijakis C, Critselis E, Vylliotis A, et al. Gene polymorphisms related to angiogenesis, inflammation and thrombosis that influence risk for oral cancer. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A), MMP-9 (-1562C/T), TIMP-2 (-418C/G), VEGF (+936C/T), GPI-alpha (+807C/T), PAI-1 (4G/5G), ACE (intron 16D/I) and TAFI (+325C/T) upon overall, early and advanced stages of OSCC...
  60. Conen D, Glynn R, Buring J, Ridker P, Zee R. Association of renin-angiotensin and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms with blood pressure progression and incident hypertension: prospective cohort study. J Hypertens. 2008;26:1780-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Six previously characterized single nucleotide polymorphisms (NOS3 rs1800779, NOS3 rs3918226, NOS3 rs1799983, ACE rs1799752, AGT rs699, and AGTR1 rs5186) were genotyped...
  61. Min J, Kim Y, Lee H, Park E, Cho S, Hong Y, et al. Is the association between ACE genes and blood pressure mediated by postnatal growth during the first 3 years?. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88:425-9 pubmed publisher
    Unlike the defined role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in adult hypertension, ACE gene did not show direct influence on childhood blood pressure (BP), rather, seemed to be related to childhood growth with age-dependent ..
  62. Fahmy M, Fattouh A, Hegazy R, Essawi M. ACE gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008;109:298-301 pubmed
    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is a common renal disease in children. ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been studied as a predictor of clinical response to steroid therapy...
  63. Markoula S, Giannopoulos S, Asproudis I, Kostoulas C, Nikas A, Bagli E, et al. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1254-60 pubmed
    ..Large-scale, multicentered, controlled prospective studies are needed to further explore the effects of RAAS polymorphisms or other genetic factors on NAION susceptibility. ..
  64. Nakayama Y, Nonoguchi H, Kohda Y, Inoue H, Memetimin H, Izumi Y, et al. Different Mechanisms for the Progression of CKD with ACE Gene Polymorphisms. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;111:c240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker has been reported to show additive renoprotection...
  65. Bawazier L, Sja bani M, Haryana S, Soesatyo M, Sadewa A. Relationship of angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and hypertension in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Acta Med Indones. 2010;42:192-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the association between ACE gene polymorphism I/D and hypertension in Yogyakarta population. This study is a cross-sectional...
  66. Zee R, Fernandez Ortiz A, Macaya C, Pintor E, Lindpaintner K, Fernandez Cruz A. Ace D/I polymorphism and incidence of post-PTCA restenosis: a prospective, angiography-based evaluation. Hypertension. 2001;37:851-5 pubmed
    ..The D/I polymorphism of the ACE gene, which has variably been reported to represent a risk factor for manifestations of ischemic heart disease, has ..
  67. Petrovic D, Bidovec M, Peterlin B. Gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and essential arterial hypertension in childhood. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2002;50:53-6 pubmed
    ..system (RAAS) in pathogenesis of essential arterial hypertension (EAH), the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene, the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGT,R) A1166C ..
  68. Gordon K, Redelinghuys P, Schwager S, Ehlers M, Papageorgiou A, Natesh R, et al. Deglycosylation, processing and crystallization of human testis angiotensin-converting enzyme. Biochem J. 2003;371:437-42 pubmed
    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a highly glycosylated type I integral membrane protein...
  69. Um J, Moon K, Lee K, Cho K, Heo Y, Moon B, et al. Polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensinogen, and apolipoprotein E genes in Korean patients with cerebral infarction. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;21:23-8 pubmed
    The homozygous deletion allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE/DD), homozygous threonine allele of the angiotensinogen gene (AGN/TT), and the epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (apoE/epsilon4) are reported to be ..
  70. Zuliani G, Ble A, Zanca R, Munari M, Zurlo A, Vavalle C, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in older subjects with vascular or Alzheimer's dementia. Acta Neurol Scand. 2001;103:304-8 pubmed
    Paraoxonase, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and apo E gene polymorphisms were evaluated in older patients with vascular dementia (VD) or late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD)...
  71. Daimon M, Oizumi T, Saitoh T, Kameda W, Hirata A, Yamaguchi H, et al. The D allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/ deletion (I/D) polymorphism is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in a population-based Japanese sample. Endocr J. 2003;50:393-8 pubmed
    The association of the ACE gene I/D polymorphism with type 2 diabetes (DM) was examined in a population-based Japanese sample. A total of 902 individuals (490 females and 412 males, age 58.8 +/- 12...
  72. Szolnoki Z, Somogyvari F, Kondacs A, Szabo M, Fodor L, Bene J, et al. Evaluation of the modifying effects of unfavourable genotypes on classical clinical risk factors for ischaemic stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:1615-20 pubmed
    ..the prothrombin G20210A, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) mutations, the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D (ACE I/D), and apolipoprotein allele e4 (APO e4) genotypes were examined by the polymerase chain ..
  73. Jerng J, Yu C, Wang H, Chen K, Cheng S, Yang P. Polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene affects the outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1001-6 pubmed
    ..Patients with the II genotype have a significantly better chance of survival. This study did not show an increased risk for ARDS in Chinese patients with the D allele. ..
  74. Oktem F, Sirin A, Bilge I, Emre S, Agachan B, Ispir T. ACE I/D gene polymorphism in primary FSGS and steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:384-9 pubmed
    The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism in various renal disorders has been investigated...
  75. Fabris B, Bortoletto M, Candido R, Barbone F, Cattin M, Calci M, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and renal insufficiency in essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2005;23:309-16 pubmed
    ..Genotyping for insertion/deletion of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D), angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) A1166C and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) -..
  76. Moran C, Vassilopoulos C, Tsiokanos A, Jamurtas A, Bailey M, Wilson R, et al. Effects of interaction between angiotensin I-converting enzyme polymorphisms and lifestyle on adiposity in adolescent Greeks. Obes Res. 2005;13:1499-504 pubmed
    Genetic variation in the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with many heritable traits, including obesity...
  77. Min S, Takahashi K, Ishigami H, Hiranuma K, Mizuno M, Ishii T, et al. Is there a gender difference between ACE gene and race distance?. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34:926-32 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to examine the association between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene (insertion (I) and deletion (D)) polymorphism in Japanese university track athletes and race distance, as well as to evaluate the gender effects ..
  78. Zakrzewski Jakubiak M, de Denus S, Dube M, Belanger F, White M, Turgeon J. Ten renin-angiotensin system-related gene polymorphisms in maximally treated Canadian Caucasian patients with heart failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65:742-51 pubmed publisher
    ..in our population and that the AGT(M174)-AGT(T235) haplotype, as well as the AGT/angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene combination, may play an important role in disease predisposition...
  79. Shehab D, Al Jarallah K, Alawadhi A, Al Herz A, Nahar I, Haider M. Prevalence of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion-deletion polymorphism in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2008;26:305-10 pubmed
    b>Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in a number of inflammatory and immune related disorders...
  80. Zhang X, Wang C, Dai H, Lin Y, Zhang J. Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms and exercise performance in patients with COPD. Respirology. 2008;13:683-8 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene are closely associated with pulmonary disorders...
  81. Ramachandran V, Ismail P, Stanslas J, Shamsudin N, Moin S, Mohd Jas R. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian subjects. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2008;9:208-14 pubmed publisher
    The deletion (D) allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been studied in various populations in relation to hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with contradictory results...
  82. Anbazhagan K, Sampathkumar K, Ramakrishnan M, Gomathi P, Gomathi S, Selvam G. Analysis of polymorphism in renin angiotensin system and other related genes in South Indian chronic kidney disease patients. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;406:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined 118 CKD patients and 98 control subjects for the occurrence of common polymorphisms in angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE; I/D), angiotensinogen (AGT; M235T), chymase (CMA; -1903G>A), angiotensin ..
  83. Bukreeva L, Grigorov A, Kiesewetter H, Hoppe B. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme intron 16 insertion/deletion polymorphism with history of foetal loss. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2009;10:237-40 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism is associated with ACE activity and has been discussed as a risk factor for pre-eclampsia...
  84. Marshall R, Webb S, Bellingan G, Montgomery H, Chaudhari B, McAnulty R, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with susceptibility and outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:646-50 pubmed
    ..b>Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has a potential role in the pathogenesis of ARDS via effects on pulmonary vascular tone/..
  85. Danilov S, Gordon K, Nesterovitch A, Lünsdorf H, Chen Z, Castellon M, et al. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Y465D) causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE via accelerated ACE shedding. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25952 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) metabolizes a range of peptidic substrates and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling...