Gene Symbol: ACACB
Description: acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta
Alias: ACC2, ACCB, HACC275, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, ACC-beta, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase beta
Species: human
Products:     ACACB

Top Publications

  1. Ha J, Lee J, Kim K, Witters L, Kim K. Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and its unique features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11466-70 pubmed
    ..A fragment of ACC-beta cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli and antibodies against the peptide were generated to establish that the cDNA sequence that we cloned is that for ACC-beta. ..
  2. Maeda S, Kobayashi M, Araki S, Babazono T, Freedman B, Bostrom M, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000842 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) as a candidate for a susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy; the landmark SNP was found in the intron 18 of ACACB ..
  3. Phillips C, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, Field M, Cupples L, Ordovas J, et al. ACC2 gene polymorphisms, metabolic syndrome, and gene-nutrient interactions with dietary fat. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:3500-7 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACC2) plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation pathways. Disturbance of these pathways is associated with impaired insulin responsiveness and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
  4. Riancho J, Vazquez L, García Pérez M, Sainz J, Olmos J, Hernandez J, et al. Association of ACACB polymorphisms with obesity and diabetes. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;104:670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to check the hypothesis that allelic variants of ACACB influence the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  5. Widmer J, Fassihi K, Schlichter S, Wheeler K, Crute B, King N, et al. Identification of a second human acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 3):915-22 pubmed
    ..human (RACC265; HACC265) and a higher-molecular-mass species (275,000-280,000 Da) in the same species (RACC280; HACC275). An HACC265 gene has previously been localized to chromosome 17...
  6. Vavvas D, Apazidis A, Saha A, Gamble J, Patel A, Kemp B, et al. Contraction-induced changes in acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 5'-AMP-activated kinase in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13255-61 pubmed
    ..These alterations in ACC and AMPK activity, by diminishing the concentration of malonyl-CoA, could be responsible for the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed in skeletal muscle during exercise. ..
  7. Abu Elheiga L, Brinkley W, Zhong L, Chirala S, Woldegiorgis G, Wakil S. The subcellular localization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1444-9 pubmed
    Animals, including humans, express two isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC ), ACC1 (M(r) = 265 kDa) and ACC2 (M(r) = 280 kDa)...
  8. Ma L, Mondal A, Murea M, Sharma N, Tonjes A, Langberg K, et al. The effect of ACACB cis-variants on gene expression and metabolic traits. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23860 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase ? (ACACB) is the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, and continuous fatty acid oxidation in Acacb knock-out mice increases insulin sensitivity...
  9. Abu Elheiga L, Almarza Ortega D, Baldini A, Wakil S. Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Molecular cloning, characterization, chromosomal mapping, and evidence for two isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10669-77 pubmed
    cDNA encoding the 280-kDa acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) isoform was isolated from human liver using the polymerase chain reaction...

More Information


  1. Tang S, Leung V, Chan L, Wong S, Chu D, Leung J, et al. The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene is associated with nephropathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3931-4 pubmed publisher
    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2268388, in the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) in Japanese and European-American populations...
  2. Cho Y, Lee J, Shin D, Kim H, Jung H, Lee T, et al. Molecular mechanism for the regulation of human ACC2 through phosphorylation by AMPK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the crystal structures of the biotin carboxylase (BC) domain of human ACC2 phosphorylated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  3. Castle J, Hara Y, Raymond C, Garrett Engele P, Ohwaki K, Kan Z, et al. ACC2 is expressed at high levels in human white adipose and has an isoform with a novel N-terminus [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4369 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2 catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, regulating fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation, and are potential targets for treatment of metabolic syndrome...
  4. Szabo de Edelenyi F, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, Phillips C, Macmanus R, Roche H, et al. Prediction of the metabolic syndrome status based on dietary and genetic parameters, using Random Forest. Genes Nutr. 2008;3:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3(n-6) and C18.2. Three SNPs were selected by Random Forest (APOB rs512535, LTA rs915654 and ACACB rs4766587). These SNPs were also significantly associated to the MS by a univariate Fisher test.
  5. Chen G, Li Y, Su Y, Zhou L, Zhang H, Shen Q, et al. Identification of candidate genes for necrotizing enterocolitis based on microarray data. Gene. 2018;661:152-159 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes in the corresponding sub-pathway, such as ACACB and CAT were regarded as critical genes in NEC...
  6. Wei F, Cai C, Yu P, Lv J, Ling C, Shi W, et al. Quantitative candidate gene association studies of metabolic traits in Han Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:15471-81 pubmed publisher
    ..SMAD3, FTO, FANCA, and PCSK2 polymorphisms were associated with blood lipid traits; CAMTA1, SPAG16, TOX, KCNQ1, ACACB, and MYH9 polymorphisms were associated with blood pressure; and UBE2E3, SPAG16, SLC2A9, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, ..
  7. Fullerton M, Galic S, Marcinko K, Sikkema S, Pulinilkunnil T, Chen Z, et al. Single phosphorylation sites in Acc1 and Acc2 regulate lipid homeostasis and the insulin-sensitizing effects of metformin. Nat Med. 2013;19:1649-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Ampk phosphorylates mouse acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acc1; refs. 3,4) at Ser79 and Acc2 at Ser212, inhibiting the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA...
  8. Giblin L, Darimont C, Leone P, McNamara L, Blancher F, Berry D, et al. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015;13:16 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and ..
  9. Hunkeler M, Hagmann A, Stuttfeld E, Chami M, Guri Y, Stahlberg H, et al. Structural basis for regulation of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Nature. 2018;558:470-474 pubmed publisher
    ..Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase occurs in two isoforms: the metabolic, cytosolic ACC1, and ACC2, which is anchored to the outer mitochondrial membrane and controls fatty acid ?-oxidation1,3...
  10. Klintman M, Buus R, Cheang M, Sheri A, Smith I, Dowsett M. Changes in Expression of Genes Representing Key Biologic Processes after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer, and Prognostic Implications in Residual Disease. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:2405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In a multivariable model, ACACB, CD3D, MKI67, and TOP2A added prognostic value independent of clinical ER(-), PgR(-), and HER2(-) status...
  11. Chow J, Lawrence R, Healy M, Dominy J, Liao J, Breen D, et al. Genetic inhibition of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity increases liver fat and alters global protein acetylation. Mol Metab. 2014;3:419-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and ACC2 are powerful regulators of hepatic fat storage; therefore, their inhibition is expected to prevent the development ..
  12. Chen G, Luo Z, Chen F, Shi X, Song Y, You W, et al. PPAR?, PPAR? and SREBP-1 pathways mediated waterborne iron (Fe)-induced reduction in hepatic lipid deposition of javelin goby Synechogobius hasta. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;197:8-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with single Fe-incubated group, the mRNA levels of G6PD, ME, FAS, ACCa, ACCb and PPAR? were up-regulated while the CPT I mRNA levels were down-regulated after troglitazone pre-treatment; ..
  13. Xu Z, He X, Shi X, Xia Y, Liu X, Wu H, et al. Analysis of differentially expressed genes among human hair follicle-derived iPSCs, induced hepatocyte-like cells, and primary hepatocytes. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018;9:211 pubmed publisher
    ..were the important upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), while ALB, ACACB, etc...
  14. Xuan W, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Feng D, Luo M. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel BCCP subunit gene from Aleurites moluccana. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:9922-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolated full-length cDNA sequence (designated AM-accB) was 1188 bp, containing a 795-bp open reading frame coding for 265 amino acids...
  15. Wu Q, Tian Y, Zhang J, Tong X, Huang H, Li S, et al. In vivo CRISPR screening unveils histone demethylase UTX as an important epigenetic regulator in lung tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E3978-E3986 pubmed publisher
    ..knockout of 55 potential TSGs, we identify five genes, including Utx, Ptip, Acp5, Acacb, and Clu, whose knockout significantly promotes lung tumorigenesis...
  16. Locke G, Cheng D, Witmer M, Tamura J, Haque T, Carney R, et al. Differential activation of recombinant human acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 by citrate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;475:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we found that citrate activated recombinant human ACC2 by more than approximately 1000-fold, but activated recombinant human ACC1 only by approximately 4-fold...
  17. Camara Teixeira D, Cordonier E, Wijeratne S, Huebbe P, Jamin A, Jarecke S, et al. A cell death assay for assessing the mitochondrial targeting of proteins. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;56:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our screen may be useful for linking the mitochondrial proteome with rare diseases and for devising drug- and nutrition-based strategies for altering the mitochondrial targeting of proteins. ..
  18. Altamimi T, Thomas P, Darwesh A, Fillmore N, Mahmoud M, Zhang L, et al. Cytosolic carnitine acetyltransferase as a source of cytosolic acetyl-CoA: a possible mechanism for regulation of cardiac energy metabolism. Biochem J. 2018;475:959-976 pubmed publisher
    ..acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the cytosolic enzyme catalyzing malonyl-CoA production from acetyl-CoA, we studied ACC2-knockout mouse hearts which showed decreased CrAT protein levels and activity, associated with increased palmitate ..
  19. Galic S, Loh K, Murray Segal L, Steinberg G, Andrews Z, Kemp B. AMPK signaling to acetyl-CoA carboxylase is required for fasting- and cold-induced appetite but not thermogenesis. elife. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..and promotes fatty acid oxidation by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 at Ser79 and ACC2 at Ser212...
  20. Valsangkar D, Downs S. Acetyl CoA carboxylase inactivation and meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2015;82:679-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse oocyte-cumulus cell complexes contain both isoforms of ACAC (ACACA and ACACB); when wild-type and Acacb(-/-) oocytes characteristics were compared, we found that these single-knockout oocytes ..
  21. Chaumontet C, Even P, Schwarz J, Simonin Foucault A, Piedcoq J, Fromentin G, et al. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats. Br J Nutr. 2015;114:1132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..lipogenesis by reducing mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (fasn), acetyl-CoA carboxylase a and b (Acaca and Acacb) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (Srebf-1c)...
  22. Sakamoto K, Zarrinpashneh E, Budas G, Pouleur A, Dutta A, Prescott A, et al. Deficiency of LKB1 in heart prevents ischemia-mediated activation of AMPKalpha2 but not AMPKalpha1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E780-8 pubmed
    ..They also provide genetic evidence that an alternative upstream kinase can activate AMPKalpha1 in cardiac muscle...
  23. Tzanavari T, Varela A, Theocharis S, Ninou E, Kapelouzou A, Cokkinos D, et al. Metformin protects against infection-induced myocardial dysfunction. Metabolism. 2016;65:1447-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b; reduction of fatty acid oxidation, as reflected by the regulation of Ppara, Acaca and Acacb; increased glucose transport, as shown by Slc2a4 levels; reduction of ATP synthesis; significant increase of ..
  24. Wang W, Zhang Y, Wang N, Zhu Z. Molecular Mechanisms of Several Novel Dipeptides with Angiotensin-I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity from In-silico Screening of Silkworm Pupae Protein. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2014;15:691-9 pubmed
    ..A 3D pharmacophore model with three H-bond acceptor projections (Acc2), and one H-bond donor projection (Don2) was obtained...
  25. Nanthirudjanar T, Furumoto H, Zheng J, Kim Y, Goto T, Takahashi N, et al. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes. Lipids. 2015;50:1093-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver ..
  26. Kim S, Bang C, Guo Y, Choung S. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats. J Med Food. 2016;19:353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT)...
  27. Kiseljak Vassiliades K, Zhang Y, Bagby S, Kar A, Pozdeyev N, Xu M, et al. Development of new preclinical models to advance adrenocortical carcinoma research. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018;25:437-451 pubmed publisher
    ..CU-ACC2 cell line and PDX were derived from a liver metastasis in a patient with Lynch syndrome...
  28. Harriman G, Greenwood J, Bhat S, Huang X, Wang R, Paul D, et al. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition by ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, and modulates dyslipidemia in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1796-805 pubmed publisher
    Simultaneous inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) isozymes ACC1 and ACC2 results in concomitant inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and may favorably affect the morbidity and mortality ..
  29. Svensson R, Parker S, Eichner L, Kolar M, Wallace M, Brun S, et al. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase suppresses fatty acid synthesis and tumor growth of non-small-cell lung cancer in preclinical models. Nat Med. 2016;22:1108-1119 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the ability of ND-646-an allosteric inhibitor of the ACC enzymes ACC1 and ACC2 that prevents ACC subunit dimerization-to suppress fatty acid synthesis in vitro and in vivo...
  30. Järvinen E, Ismail K, Muniandy M, Bogl L, Heinonen S, Tummers M, et al. Biotin-dependent functions in adiposity: a study of monozygotic twin pairs. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:788-95 pubmed publisher
    ..034). ΔBiotin correlated negatively with Δtriglycerides (r=-0.56, P=0.045) within-pairs. In AT, HLCS and ACACB were hypermethylated and biotin cycle genes HLCS and BTD were downregulated (P<0.05)...
  31. Parker N, Wang Y, Meinke D. Analysis of Arabidopsis Accessions Hypersensitive to a Loss of Chloroplast Translation. Plant Physiol. 2016;172:1862-1875 pubmed
    ..These differences can be attributed in part to variation in a duplicated nuclear gene (ACC2) that targets homomeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) to plastids...
  32. Xin W, Zhao X, Liu L, Xu Y, Li Z, Chen L, et al. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 suppression rescues human proximal tubular cells from palmitic acid induced lipotoxicity via autophagy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;463:364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) plays a crucial role in the fatty acid metabolism, it keeps unknown whether ACC2 is associated with autophagic ..
  33. Chen F, Luo Z, Chen G, Shi X, Liu X, Song Y, et al. Effects of waterborne Cu exposure on intestinal copper transport and lipid metabolism of Synechogobius hasta. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;178:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..ME on day 42), up-regulated mRNA levels of lipogenic genes (G6PD, 6PGD, ME, ICDH, FAS and ACCa), lipolytic genes (ACCb, CPT I and HSLa) and genes involved in intestinal fatty acid uptake (IFABP and FATP4) on both days 21 and 42...
  34. Wojtaszewski J, Mourtzakis M, Hillig T, Saltin B, Pilegaard H. Dissociation of AMPK activity and ACCbeta phosphorylation in human muscle during prolonged exercise. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:309-16 pubmed
  35. Oates C, Koenig D, Rhyne J, Bogush N, O CONNELL J, Mitchell B, et al. Novel polymorphisms associated with hyperalphalipoproteinemia and apparent cardioprotection. J Clin Lipidol. 2018;12:110-115 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of each nsSNP on the gene product, rare, deleterious polymorphisms in UGT1A3, PLLP, PLEKHH1, ANK2, DIS3L, ACACB, and LRP4 were identified in 16 subjects with HALP but not in any tested subject with low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL)...
  36. Lee A, Han S. Pinolenic Acid Downregulates Lipid Anabolic Pathway in HepG2 Cells. Lipids. 2016;51:847-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and ACC1), fatty acid oxidation (ACC2, PPARα, CPT1A, and ACADL), cholesterol synthesis (SREBP2 and HMGCR), and lipoprotein uptake (LDLr) and of genes ..
  37. He S, Guo X, Tan W, Su X, Li J, Pan W, et al. Effect of Selenium Deficiency on Phosphorylation of the AMPK Pathway in Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;169:254-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta (ACACB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and protein levels of p-AMPKÎ..
  38. Zhang L, Tan X, Wu K, Zhuo M, Song Y, Chen Q. Regulation and mechanism of leptin on lipid metabolism in ovarian follicle cells from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;222:116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..CPT I, FAS, G6PD, and 6PGD) and/or expression level of several enzymes (CPT I, FAS, G6PD, 6PGD, ACCa and ACCb), as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors (PPARα, PPARγ and SREBP-1) involved in lipid ..
  39. Luo J, Hong Y, Lu Y, Qiu S, Chaganty B, Zhang L, et al. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase rewires cancer metabolism to allow cancer cells to survive inhibition of the Warburg effect by cetuximab. Cancer Lett. 2017;384:39-49 pubmed publisher
  40. Qi L, Heredia J, Altarejos J, Screaton R, Goebel N, Niessen S, et al. TRB3 links the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 to lipid metabolism. Science. 2006;312:1763-6 pubmed
  41. Adam T, Opie L, Essop M. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2% (p<0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACCbeta gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACCbeta to the transcriptional level. ..
  42. Ruderman N, Prentki M. AMP kinase and malonyl-CoA: targets for therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004;3:340-51 pubmed
  43. Cheng D, Chu C, Chen L, Feder J, Mintier G, Wu Y, et al. Expression, purification, and characterization of human and rat acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) isozymes. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;51:11-21 pubmed
    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase isozyme 1 (ACC1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase isozyme 2 (ACC2) are critical for de novo fatty acid synthesis and for the regulation of beta-oxidation...
  44. Pazhouhandeh M, Sahraian M, Siadat S, Fateh A, Vaziri F, Tabrizi F, et al. A Systems Medicine Approach Reveals Disordered Immune System and Lipid Metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, RELB, EP300, ACACB, ADIPOQ, and PCK2 had major contributions to viral infections and lipid metabolism, as significant events in RP...
  45. Schiavone S, Camerino G, Mhillaj E, Zotti M, Colaianna M, De Giorgi A, et al. Visceral Fat Dysfunctions in the Rat Social Isolation Model of Psychosis. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:787 pubmed publisher
    ..enzymes (Prdx1 and Ucp-1) and oxidative stress-induced damage markers (Cidea, Slc2a4, and Acacb)...
  46. Lee A, Kyriakou T, Weston A, O Dell S. Functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACACB gene promoter. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:703-12 pubmed publisher initiated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) binding to steroid response elements SRE in ACACB gene promoter P-II. We proposed that sequence variation in the promoter might affect expression...
  47. de Leon J, Correa J, RUANO G, Windemuth A, Arranz M, Diaz F. Exploring genetic variations that may be associated with the direct effects of some antipsychotics on lipid levels. Schizophr Res. 2008;98:40-6 pubmed
    ..These genes may be promising candidates for studies of the direct effects of some antipsychotics on hyperlipidemia. ..
  48. An L, Jiang H, Tang R. The ACACB gene rs2268388 polymorphism is associated with nephropathy in Caucasian patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Ren Fail. 2015;37:925-8 pubmed publisher
    ..association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2268388, in the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene and diabetic nephropathy have provided controversial results...
  49. Frøsig C, Jørgensen S, Hardie D, Richter E, Wojtaszewski J. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity and protein expression are regulated by endurance training in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E411-7 pubmed
    ..Except for the increase in gamma1 protein, all observed adaptations to training could be ascribed to local contraction-induced mechanisms, since they did not occur in the contralateral untrained muscle. ..
  50. Oh S, Lee M, Kim J, Yoon S, Shin S, Park Y, et al. Alternative usages of multiple promoters of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene are related to differential transcriptional regulation in human and rodent tissues. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5909-16 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to explain the mechanisms underlying the differential regulation of ACCbeta gene expression between tissues in living organisms. ..
  51. Ding Z, Qi J, Shang A, Zhang Y, Wei J, Hu L, et al. Docking of CDK1 with antibiotic drugs revealed novel therapeutic value in breast ductal cancer in situ. Oncotarget. 2017;8:61998-62010 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus concluded that Five genes: CDK1, CCNB2, MAD2L1, PPARG, ACACB were finally identified to participate in the regulation and serve as potential diagnosis signatures in in ..
  52. Campa D, Husing A, Chang Claude J, Dostal L, Boeing H, Kröger J, et al. Genetic variability of the fatty acid synthase pathway is not associated with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:420-7 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the SNPs reached statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Common SNPs in the fatty acid synthase pathway are not major contributors to prostate cancer risk. ..
  53. Kim K, Yamane H, Zondlo J, Busby J, Wang M. Expression, purification, and characterization of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;53:16-23 pubmed
    ..Purif., in press). However, neither group was successful in expressing the full-length ACC2 due to issues of solubility and expression levels...
  54. Umezawa M, Nakamura M, El Ghoneimy A, Onoda A, Shaheen H, Hori H, et al. Impact of diesel exhaust exposure on the liver of mice fed on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-deficient diet. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;111:284-294 pubmed publisher increased hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and expression of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis: Acaca, Acacb, and Scd1...
  55. Madauss K, Burkhart W, Consler T, Cowan D, Gottschalk W, Miller A, et al. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their ..
  56. Ullrich C, Widmer J, Park J, Mohandas T, Witters L. Assignment of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta (ACACB) to human chromosome band 12q24.1 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1997;77:176-7 pubmed
  57. Schrauwen P, van Aggel Leijssen D, Hul G, Wagenmakers A, Vidal H, Saris W, et al. The effect of a 3-month low-intensity endurance training program on fat oxidation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 expression. Diabetes. 2002;51:2220-6 pubmed
    ..07). In conclusion, a minimal amount of physical activity tends to increase fat oxidation and leads to marked changes in the expression of genes encoding for key enzymes in fat metabolism. ..
  58. Ramsay R, Gandour R, van der Leij F. Molecular enzymology of carnitine transfer and transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1546:21-43 pubmed
    ..The kinetic and chemical mechanisms are also discussed in relation to the different inhibitors under study for their potential to control diseases of lipid metabolism. ..
  59. Diaz F, Meary A, Arranz M, RUANO G, Windemuth A, de Leon J. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha gene variations may be associated with the direct effects of some antipsychotics on triglyceride levels. Schizophr Res. 2009;115:136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene (rs1468271) and ACACB gene (rs2241220) SNPs were significantly associated with severe hypercholesterolemia...
  60. Ma L, Murea M, Snipes J, Marinelarena A, Krüger J, Hicks P, et al. An ACACB variant implicated in diabetic nephropathy associates with body mass index and gene expression in obese subjects. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56193 pubmed publisher
    Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase B gene (ACACB) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2268388 is reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-associated nephropathy (DN). ACACB knock-out mice are also protected from obesity...
  61. Meng F, Li M, Song M, Yuan L, Gong Y, Qian Y, et al. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure disturbs lipid metabolism in juvenile yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco. J Fish Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The highest mRNA level of ACCb was in the 0·1 mg l-1 DEHP group...
  62. Rajamohan F, Marr E, Reyes A, Landro J, Anderson M, Corbett J, et al. Structure-guided inhibitor design for human acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by interspecies active site conversion. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41510-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have cloned, expressed, and purified the CT domain of human ACC2 using baculovirus-mediated insect cell expression system...
  63. Conde E, Suarez Gauthier A, Garcia Garcia E, Lopez Rios F, Lopez Encuentra A, Garcia Lujan R, et al. Specific pattern of LKB1 and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein immunostaining in human normal tissues and lung carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1351-60 pubmed
  64. Zhang H, Wu M. SIRT1 regulates Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation through activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Virus Res. 2009;146:51-7 pubmed publisher
  65. Sone H, Kamiyama S, Higuchi M, Fujino K, Kubo S, Miyazawa M, et al. Biotin augments acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 gene expression in the hypothalamus, leading to the suppression of food intake in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;476:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), a biotin-dependent enzyme, has two isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2) and serves to catalyze the reaction of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA...
  66. Zhou H, Xu M, Huang Q, Gates A, Zhang X, Castle J, et al. Genome-scale RNAi screen for host factors required for HIV replication. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:495-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights both the power and shortcomings of large scale loss-of-function screens in discovering host-pathogen interactions. ..
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    ..Collectively, our data provide new insights into understanding of the molecular mechanisms of curcumin inhibited Tat-regulated transcription, suggesting that targeting AMPK/HDAC1/NF?B pathway could serve as new anti-HIV-1 agents. ..
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    ..The structure of S14 suggests a mechanism whereby heterodimer formation with MIG12 attenuates the ability of MIG12 to activate ACC. ..
  69. Kreuz S, Schoelch C, Thomas L, Rist W, Rippmann J, Neubauer H. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 show distinct expression patterns in rats and humans and alterations in obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009;25:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..ACC1 and ACC2 transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in metabolically relevant ..
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    ..TT genotypes of ACAC? gene and CC genotype of AGTR1 gene confers the risk of DN and both genes had significant epistatic interaction in Asian Indian patients with T2DM. ..
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    ..Through signaling, metabolic, and gene expression effects, AMPK enhances insulin sensitivity and fosters a metabolic milieu that may reduce the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
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    ..Gene ontology analysis revealed these DEGs (including CYP21A2, PC, ACACB, APOA1, and FADS2) were significantly enriched in lipid biosynthetic process, regulation of cholesterol ..
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    ..We propose that the N-terminal domain of hHCS recognizes the charged region of biotin acceptor protein, distinctly from the recognition by the catalytic domain. ..
  74. German N, Yoon H, Yusuf R, Murphy J, Finley L, Laurent G, et al. PHD3 Loss in Cancer Enables Metabolic Reliance on Fatty Acid Oxidation via Deactivation of ACC2. Mol Cell. 2016;63:1006-20 pubmed publisher
    ..rapidly triggers repression of FAO in response to nutrient abundance via hydroxylation of acetyl-coA carboxylase 2 (ACC2)...
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    ..We assessed ACC2 mRNA expression variations in skeletal muscle of subjects who have undergone biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) ..
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    ..apolipoprotein E (ApoE), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACACB), and type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN)...
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    ..05, of which 3399 genes were upregulated and 1966 were downregulated. Among those genes, BTNL9, MMP14, ABCA10, ACACB, COL11A1, and PKM2 were expressed differentially with the highest significance between tumor and normal bone...
  78. Shu J, Liu Z, Jin L, Wang H. An RNA?sequencing study identifies candidate genes for angiotensin II?induced cardiac remodeling. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..According to the enrichment analysis, acetyl coA carboxylase ? (ACACB), interleukin 1? (IL1B), interleukin 1? (IL1A), nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3)..
  79. Arguin G, Bourzac J, Placet M, Molle C, Paquette M, Beaudoin J, et al. The loss of P2X7 receptor expression leads to increase intestinal glucose transit and hepatic steatosis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12917 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, P2rx7 -/- mice developed a hepatic steatosis characterized by a reduction of Acaca, Acacb, Fasn and Acox1 mRNA expression, as well as for ACC and FAS protein expression...
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  81. Kim C, Addy C, Kusunoki J, Anderson N, Deja S, Fu X, et al. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Inhibition Reduces Hepatic Steatosis but Elevates Plasma Triglycerides in Mice and Humans: A Bedside to Bench Investigation. Cell Metab. 2017;26:394-406.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..similarly in humans, we developed MK-4074, a liver-specific inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1) and (ACC2), enzymes that produce malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis...
  82. Tanaka Y, Kume S, Maeda S, Osawa N, Takeda N, Chin Kanasaki M, et al. Overexpression of acetyl CoA carboxylase ? exacerbates podocyte injury in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1115-1121 pubmed publisher
    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) ? gene (ACACB), rs2268388, has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to development of proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  83. Yu Q, Lutz K, Maliga P. Efficient Plastid Transformation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2017;175:186-193 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study revealed that null mutations in ACC2, encoding a plastid-targeted acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, cause hypersensitivity to spectinomycin...
  84. Jones J, Esler W, Patel R, Lanba A, Vera N, Pfefferkorn J, et al. Inhibition of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and 2 (ACC2) Reduces Proliferation and De Novo Lipogenesis of EGFRvIII Human Glioblastoma Cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169566 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibition was investigated using a dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibitor as well as dual siRNA knock down on the cellular ..
  85. Zhao L, Iwasaki Y, Zhe W, Nishiyama M, Taguchi T, Tsugita M, et al. Hormonal regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoenzyme gene transcription. Endocr J. 2010;57:317-24 pubmed
    ..Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), consisting of two isoenzymes ACC1 and ACC2, mediates the conversion from acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, and thus plays a key role for the regulation of ..
  86. Kobayashi M, Watada H, Kawamori R, Maeda S. Overexpression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta increases proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:315-24 pubmed publisher
    We have identified the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene (ACACB) as a strong susceptibility gene to diabetic nephropathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes...
  87. Højlund K, Mustard K, Staehr P, Hardie D, Beck Nielsen H, Richter E, et al. AMPK activity and isoform protein expression are similar in muscle of obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E239-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that impaired insulin action on glycogen synthesis and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetic subjects is unlikely to involve changes in AMPK expression and activity. ..