Gene Symbol: AARS
Description: alanyl-tRNA synthetase
Alias: CMT2N, EIEE29, alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic, alaRS, alanine tRNA ligase 1, cytoplasmic, alanyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic, renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-42
Species: human
Products:     AARS

Top Publications

  1. Mukai T, Reynolds N, Crnkovic A, Soll D. Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals Archaeal tRNATyr and tRNATrp Identities in Bacteria. Life (Basel). 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..HIGH-motif and KMSKS-motif as well as many ?-helices that are characteristic of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) homologs...
  2. Ji Q, Fang Z, Ye Q, Chi C, Wang E. Self-protective responses to norvaline-induced stress in a leucyl-tRNA synthetase editing-deficient yeast strain. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7367-7381 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study highlights the significance of the editing function of LeuRS and provides clues for understanding the intracellular stress protective mechanisms that are triggered in aaRS editing-deficient organisms.
  3. Bonnefond L, Arai T, Sakaguchi Y, Suzuki T, Ishitani R, Nureki O. Structural basis for nonribosomal peptide synthesis by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase paralog. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3912-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings suggest that all CDPS enzymes share a common aaRS-like architecture and a catalytic mechanism involving the formation of an enzyme-bound intermediate.
  4. Shi Y, Wei N, Yang X. Studying nuclear functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. Methods. 2017;113:105-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of these methods would expand our understanding of AARS functions and reveal critical insights on the coordination of gene transcription and translation.
  5. Mykuliak V, Dragan A, Kornelyuk A. Structural states of the flexible catalytic loop of M. tuberculosis tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in different enzyme-substrate complexes. Eur Biophys J. 2014;43:613-22 pubmed publisher
    ..rapid diffusion of the catalytic loop outside the active site. The flexibility and rapid dynamics of the wild-type aaRS catalytic loop structure are crucial for formation of protein-substrate interactions and subsequently for overall ..
  6. Amiram M, Haimovich A, Fan C, Wang Y, Aerni H, Ntai I, et al. Evolution of translation machinery in recoded bacteria enables multi-site incorporation of nonstandard amino acids. Nat Biotechnol. 2015;33:1272-1279 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach to aaRS evolution should accelerate and expand our ability to produce functionalized proteins and sequence-defined polymers ..
  7. Sissler M, González Serrano L, Westhof E. Recent Advances in Mitochondrial Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases and Disease. Trends Mol Med. 2017;23:693-708 pubmed publisher
    ..With newer information available, we propose that the pleiotropy and tissue-specificity of mt-aaRS-associated diseases result from the molecular integration of mitochondrial translation events within the cell; ..
  8. Li R, MacNamara L, Leuchter J, Alexander R, Cho S. MD Simulations of tRNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases: Dynamics, Folding, Binding, and Allostery. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:15872-902 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight the recent successes and discuss how important questions can be addressed using current MD simulations techniques. We also outline several natural next steps for computational studies of AARS:tRNA complexes.
  9. Roberts L, Nossek C, Greenberg L, Ramesar R. Stargardt macular dystrophy: common ABCA4 mutations in South Africa--establishment of a rapid genetic test and relating risk to patients. Mol Vis. 2012;18:280-9 pubmed
    ..a mechanism for identifying common disease-causing mutations in subjects with ABCA4-associated retinopathies (AARs)...

More Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bora K. Distribution of multiple myeloma in India: Heterogeneity in incidence across age, sex and geography. Cancer Epidemiol. 2019;59:215-220 pubmed publisher
    ..Crude (CR) and age-specific (ASR) rates of MM incidence were determined. Age-adjusted rates (AARs) were estimated by standardizing the CR values using age-specific weights recommended for LMIC countries (including ..
  2. Barimani B, Fairag R, Abduljabbar F, Aoude A, Santaguida C, Ouellet J, et al. A missed traumatic atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation in an adult patient: case report. Open Access Emerg Med. 2019;11:39-42 pubmed publisher
    Traumatic atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation (AARS) in an adult is a rare condition, which if left untreated can be fatal...
  3. Nautiyal M, De Graef S, Pang L, Gadakh B, Strelkov S, Weeks S, et al. Comparative analysis of pyrimidine substituted aminoacyl-sulfamoyl nucleosides as potential inhibitors targeting class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Eur J Med Chem. 2019;173:154-166 pubmed publisher
    ..5'-O-(N-aminoacyl)-sulfamoyl adenosine (aaSA) is a non-hydrolysable analogue of the aaRS reaction intermediate that has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of this enzyme family but is prone to chemical ..
  4. Rogers S. Evolution of the genetic code based on conservative changes of codons, amino acids, and aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. J Theor Biol. 2019;466:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..consistent in terms of conservative changes in codon nucleotides, the model also is consistent with respect to aaRS classes, aaRS attachment to the tRNA, amino acid stereochemistry, and to a large extent with amino acid ..
  5. Carter C, Li L, Weinreb V, Collier M, Gonzalez Rivera K, Jimenez Rodriguez M, et al. The Rodin-Ohno hypothesis that two enzyme superfamilies descended from one ancestral gene: an unlikely scenario for the origins of translation that will not be dismissed. Biol Direct. 2014;9:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Two unrelated classes (I and II) of contemporary aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) now translate the code...
  6. Ling J, Peterson K, Simonovic I, Soll D, Simonovic M. The mechanism of pre-transfer editing in yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas post-transfer editing, which requires either a specialized domain in aaRS or a trans-protein factor, is well described, the mechanism of pre-transfer editing is less understood...
  7. Opron K, Burton Z. Ribosome Structure, Function, and Early Evolution. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;20: pubmed publisher
    ..The ribosome, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) enzymes, transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA), and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) form the core of information ..
  8. Stum M, McLaughlin H, Kleinbrink E, Miers K, Ackerman S, Seburn K, et al. An assessment of mechanisms underlying peripheral axonal degeneration caused by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutations. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:432-43 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in glycyl-, tyrosyl-, and alanyl-tRNA synthetases (GARS, YARS and AARS respectively) cause autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and mutations in Gars cause a similar peripheral neuropathy in mice...
  9. Tatsumi Y, Matsumoto N, Iibe N, Watanabe N, Torii T, Sango K, et al. CMT type 2N disease-associated AARS mutant inhibits neurite growth that can be reversed by valproic acid. Neurosci Res. 2019;139:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..CMT2 N is an autosomal dominant disease and its responsible gene encodes alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS), which is a family of cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases...
  10. Fu R, Fan Y, Fan Y, Zhao H. Expression of arginyl-tRNA synthetase in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014;34:172-175 pubmed publisher
    Aminoacyl-tRNA syntheses (AARS) can catalyze the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent acylation of their cognate tRNA(s) with a specific amino acid...
  11. Moen S, Edwards T, Dranow D, Clifton M, Sankaran B, Van Voorhis W, et al. Ligand co-crystallization of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from infectious disease organisms. Sci Rep. 2017;7:223 pubmed publisher
    ..function, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have been the focus of anti-infective drug development efforts and two aaRS inhibitors have been approved as drugs...
  12. Gile G, Moog D, Slamovits C, Maier U, Archibald J. Dual Organellar Targeting of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Diatoms and Cryptophytes. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;7:1728-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana for aaRS genes and found an insufficient number of genes to provide each compartment with a complete set of aaRSs...
  13. Datt M, Sharma A. Evolutionary and structural annotation of disease-associated mutations in human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:1063 pubmed publisher
    ..This pipeline enabled us to super-annotate human aaRS mutations and analyze their linkage to health disorders...
  14. Little C, Mcstay C, Oeth J, Koehler A, Bookman K. Using Rapid Improvement Events for Disaster After-Action Reviews: Experience in a Hospital Information Technology Outage and Response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33:98-100 pubmed publisher
    The use of after-action reviews (AARs) following major emergency events, such as a disaster, is common and mandated for hospitals and similar organizations...
  15. Serfling R, Seidel L, Böttke T, Coin I. Optimizing the Genetic Incorporation of Chemical Probes into GPCRs for Photo-crosslinking Mapping and Bioorthogonal Chemistry in Live Mammalian Cells. J Vis Exp. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Each ncAA is incorporated by a dedicated orthogonal suppressor-tRNA/amino-acyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS) pair that is imported into the host organism...
  16. Fournier G, Alm E. Ancestral Reconstruction of a Pre-LUCA Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Ancestor Supports the Late Addition of Trp to the Genetic Code. J Mol Evol. 2015;80:171-85 pubmed publisher
    ..that at least some amino acids were added to the code by the ancient divergence of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) families...
  17. Terasaka N, Iwane Y, Geiermann A, Goto Y, Suga H. Recent developments of engineered translational machineries for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into polypeptides. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:6513-31 pubmed publisher
    ..a wide range of ncAAs, several methodologies have been developed, such as orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS)-tRNA pairs, aminoacylation ribozymes, frame-shift suppression of quadruplet codons, and engineered ribosomes...
  18. Kugimiya A, Fukada R. Chemiluminescence Detection of Serine, Proline, Glycine, Asparagine, Leucine, and Histidine by Using Corresponding Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases as Recognition Elements. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015;176:1195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..here, serine, proline, glycine, asparagine, leucine, and histidine), the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) was employed, and multiple enzymatic reactions were combined with a luminol chemiluminescence reaction...
  19. Schiefner A, Nästle L, Landgraf M, Reichert A, Skerra A. Structural Basis for the Specific Cotranslational Incorporation of p-Boronophenylalanine into Biosynthetic Proteins. Biochemistry. 2018;57:2597-2600 pubmed publisher
    ..into the recombinant polypeptide chain at the ribosome by means of an artificial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) in combination with a compatible suppressor tRNA...
  20. Chemla Y, Ozer E, Schlesinger O, Noireaux V, Alfonta L. Genetically expanded cell-free protein synthesis using endogenous pyrrolysyl orthogonal translation system. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2015;112:1663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of an orthogonal translation system (OTS), comprising an orthogonal tRNA, and orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS), to the cell-free reaction mixture...
  21. Fournier G, Andam C, Gogarten J. Ancient horizontal gene transfer and the last common ancestors. BMC Evol Biol. 2015;15:70 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolutionary histories of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) are especially informative in detecting this signal, as they perform primordial biological functions, have ..
  22. Tanaka N, Mashima T, Mizutani A, Sato A, Aoyama A, Gong B, et al. APC Mutations as a Potential Biomarker for Sensitivity to Tankyrase Inhibitors in Colorectal Cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2017;16:752-762 pubmed publisher
    ..resistant cells and possessed "short" truncated APCs lacking all seven ?-catenin-binding 20-amino acid repeats (20-AARs). In contrast, the drug-resistant cells possessed "long" APC retaining two or more 20-AARs...
  23. Pedró Rosa L, Buckner F, Ranade R, Eberhart C, Madoux F, Gillespie J, et al. Identification of potent inhibitors of the Trypanosoma brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase via high-throughput orthogonal screening. J Biomol Screen. 2015;20:122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We targeted T. brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS), an aminoacyl-tRNA synthase (aaRS), which is considered an important drug target due to its role in protein synthesis, cell survival, and its ..
  24. Cvetesic N, Gruic Sovulj I. Synthetic and editing reactions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases using cognate and non-cognate amino acid substrates. Methods. 2017;113:13-26 pubmed publisher
    The covalent coupling of cognate amino acid-tRNA pairs by corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) defines the genetic code and provides aminoacylated tRNAs for ribosomal protein synthesis...
  25. Abrahão J, Silva L, Silva L, Khalil J, Rodrigues R, Arantes T, et al. Tailed giant Tupanvirus possesses the most complete translational apparatus of the known virosphere. Nat Commun. 2018;9:749 pubmed publisher
    ..these giant viruses present the largest translational apparatus within the known virosphere, with up to 70 tRNA, 20 aaRS, 11 factors for all translation steps, and factors related to tRNA/mRNA maturation and ribosome protein ..
  26. Arranz Gibert P, Vanderschuren K, Isaacs F. Next-generation genetic code expansion. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2018;46:203-211 pubmed publisher
    ..Conventional approaches have focused on porting tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) from archaea into bacterial and eukaryotic systems where they have been engineered to site-specifically encode ..
  27. Park S, An B, Park S. Reconfiguration of the plastid genome in Lamprocapnos spectabilis: IR boundary shifting, inversion, and intraspecific variation. Sci Rep. 2018;8:13568 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a variable number of AARs in Lamprocapnos accD and ycf1 genes within individuals, and the repeats were associated with coiled-coil regions...
  28. Chang C, Chang C, Lee Y, Lin Y, Wang C. Divergent Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase Genes of Vanderwaltozyma polyspora Descended from a Common Ancestor through Whole-Genome Duplication Followed by Asymmetric Evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:2242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in most known yeasts, only the mitochondrial-origin alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) gene is retained and plays a dual-functional role...
  29. Carapito C, Kuhn L, Karim L, Rompais M, Rabilloud T, Schwenzer H, et al. Two proteomic methodologies for defining N-termini of mature human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Methods. 2017;113:111-119 pubmed publisher
    ..full comprehension becomes essential because a growing number of mutations are found in genes coding for mt-aaRS. In the present study, we take advantage of proteomic methodological developments and identified, in mitochondria, ..
  30. Yang X, Li G, Tian Y, Song Y, Liang W, Zhang D. A Rice Glutamyl-tRNA Synthetase Modulates Early Anther Cell Division and Patterning. Plant Physiol. 2018;177:728-744 pubmed publisher
    ..conserved biochemical function of OsERS1 in ligating glutamate to tRNAGlu is enhanced by its cofactor aaRS OsARC...
  31. Gadakh B, Smaers S, Rozenski J, Froeyen M, Van Aerschot A. 5'-(N-aminoacyl)-sulfonamido-5'-deoxyadenosine: attempts for a stable alternative for aminoacyl-sulfamoyl adenosines as aaRS inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2015;93:227-36 pubmed publisher
    Synthesis of aminoacyl-sulfamoyl adenosines (aaSAs) and their peptidyl conjugates as aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS) inhibitors remains problematic due to the low yield of the aminoacylation and the subsequent conjugation reaction ..
  32. Perli E, Fiorillo A, Giordano C, Pisano A, Montanari A, Grazioli P, et al. Short peptides from leucyl-tRNA synthetase rescue disease-causing mitochondrial tRNA point mutations. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:903-15 pubmed publisher
    ..8344A>G mutation in mt-tRNA(Lys), aminoacylated by a Class II aaRS. Importantly, we demonstrate that the same rescuing ability is retained by two Cterm-derived short peptides, β..
  33. Dulic M, Perona J, Gruic Sovulj I. Determinants for tRNA-dependent pretransfer editing in the synthetic site of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 2014;53:6189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of genetic information relies on the fidelity of amino acid-tRNA coupling by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS)...
  34. Sharma A, Sharma A. Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria import tRNAs along with an active phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. Biochem J. 2015;465:459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The aaRS ensemble catalyses transfer of amino acids to cognate tRNAs, thus providing charged tRNAs for ribosomal consumption...
  35. Willis J, Chin J. Mutually orthogonal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs. Nat Chem. 2018;10:831-837 pubmed publisher
    ..amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins synthesized in cells requires mutually orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)/tRNA pairs...
  36. Di Micco P, Fazzi D Orsi M, Morea V, Frontali L, Francisci S, Montanari A. The yeast model suggests the use of short peptides derived from mt LeuRS for the therapy of diseases due to mutations in several mt tRNAs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:3065-74 pubmed publisher
    ..be relieved by overexpression of both cognate and non-cognate nuclearly encoded mt aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) LeuRS, IleRS and ValRS...
  37. Lu J, Bergert M, Walther A, Suter B. Double-sieving-defective aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase causes protein mistranslation and affects cellular physiology and development. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5650 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, aaRS mutations have been linked to various human diseases; however, how these mutations lead to diseases has remained ..
  38. Park B, Jo H, Jung J. Expression profile of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in dorsal root ganglion neurons after peripheral nerve injury. J Mol Histol. 2015;46:115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, to explore the cellular changes in sensory neurons after nerve injury, we evaluated AARS mRNA expression in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using AminoARS-specific primers...
  39. Reichert A, Poxleitner G, Dauner M, Skerra A. Optimisation of a system for the co-translational incorporation of a keto amino acid and its application to a tumour-specific Anticalin. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2015;28:553-65 pubmed publisher
    ..e. the modified aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS), the cognate amber suppressor tRNA and the enhanced green fluorescent protein equipped with an amber stop codon ..
  40. Schmidt M, Summerer D. Directed Evolution of Orthogonal Pyrrolysyl-tRNA Synthetases in Escherichia coli for the Genetic Encoding of Noncanonical Amino Acids. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1728:97-111 pubmed publisher
    The directed evolution of orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) for the genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids (ncAA) has paved the way for the site-specific incorporation of >170 functionally diverse ncAAs into proteins ..
  41. Vo M, Terrey M, Lee J, Roy B, Moresco J, Sun L, et al. ANKRD16 prevents neuron loss caused by an editing-defective tRNA synthetase. Nature. 2018;557:510-515 pubmed publisher
    ..A mutation in the editing domain of alanyl tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) in Aars sti mutant mice results in an increase in the production of serine-mischarged tRNAAla
  42. Yin X, Tang B, Mao X, Peng J, Zeng S, Wang Y, et al. The genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of PARS2-related infantile-onset encephalopathy. J Hum Genet. 2018;63:971-980 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in mt-aaRSs are associated with various diseases. As a member of the mt-aaRS family, PARS2 encoding prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2 was recently shown to be associated with Alpers syndrome and ..
  43. Fuchs S, Schene I, Kok G, Jansen J, Nikkels P, van Gassen K, et al. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiencies in search of common themes. Genet Med. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..In literature, we identified 107 patients with AARS, DARS, GARS, HARS, IARS, KARS, LARS, MARS, RARS, SARS, VARS, YARS, and QARS deficiencies...
  44. Debard S, Bader G, De Craene J, Enkler L, Bär S, Laporte D, et al. Nonconventional localizations of cytosolic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in yeast and human cells. Methods. 2017;113:91-104 pubmed publisher
    ..other translationally-active compartments like mitochondria and plastids can simultaneously contain the cytosolic aaRS and its corresponding organellar ortholog suggesting that both forms do not share the same organellar function...
  45. Farazi P, Watanabe Galloway S, Westman L, Rettig B, Hunt P, Cammack R, et al. Temporal and geospatial trends of pediatric cancer incidence in Nebraska over a 24-year period. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018;52:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..SEER AARs were also calculated as a proxy for pediatric cancer incidence in the United States (1990-2013) and compared to the ..
  46. Ren W, Truong T, Ai H. Study of the Binding Energies between Unnatural Amino Acids and Engineered Orthogonal Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetases. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12632 pubmed publisher
    ..and ROSETTA were able to distinguish binding energy differences for individual pairs of favorable and unfavorable aaRS-amino acid complexes, but were unable to cluster together all experimentally verified favorable complexes from ..
  47. Mirando A, Fang P, Williams T, Baldor L, Howe A, Ebert A, et al. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dependent angiogenesis revealed by a bioengineered macrolide inhibitor. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13160 pubmed publisher
    ..These include angiogenesis, and human threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS) represents a potent pro-angiogenic AARS. Angiogenesis stimulation can be blocked by the macrolide antibiotic borrelidin (BN), which exhibits a broad ..
  48. Randall C, Rasina D, Jirgensons A, O Neill A. Targeting Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases Overcomes the Resistance Liabilities Associated with Antibacterial Inhibitors Acting on a Single Such Enzyme. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:6359-61 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) represent promising antibacterial drug targets. Unfortunately, the aaRS inhibitors that have to date reached clinical trials are subject to rapid resistance development through mutation, a ..
  49. Escolar Pujolar A, Córdoba Doña J, Goicolea Julían I, Rodríguez G, Santos Sánchez V, Mayoral Sánchez E, et al. The effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in diabetes mortality in Andalusia. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr. 2018;65:21-29 pubmed publisher
    ..DM deaths between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed by educational level and marital status. Age-adjusted rates (AARs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression models, controlling for several social ..
  50. Stephen P, Lin S, Giege R. Interplay between Catalysts and Substrates for Activity of Class Ib Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases and Implications for Pharmacology. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16:616-33 pubmed
    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase:transfer RNA (aaRS:tRNA) systems became recently essential targets in molecular medicine, because perturbed recognition of cognate tRNAs by aaRSs and poor precision in tRNA aminoacylation do not guarantee ..
  51. Kinon M, Nasser R, Nakhla J, Desai R, Moreno J, Yassari R, et al. Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation: A Review for the Pediatric Emergency Physician. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016;32:710-716 pubmed
    Pediatric emergency physicians must have a high clinical suspicion for atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS), particularly when a child presents with neck pain and an abnormal head posture without the ability to return to a neutral ..
  52. Zhang B, De Graef S, Nautiyal M, Pang L, Gadakh B, Froeyen M, et al. Family-wide analysis of aminoacyl-sulfamoyl-3-deazaadenosine analogues as inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Eur J Med Chem. 2018;148:384-396 pubmed publisher
    ..Aminoacyl-sulfamoyl adenosines (aaSAs) are potent orthologue specific aaRS inhibitors that demonstrate nanomolar affinities in vitro but have limited uptake...
  53. Hu J, Tian J, Li F, Xue B, Hu J, Cheng X, et al. Clone and functional analysis of Seryl-tRNA synthetase and Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from silkworm, Bombyx mori. Sci Rep. 2017;7:41563 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, the genes of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) have been cloned...
  54. Eghbal K, Derakhshan N, Haghighat A. Ocular Manifestation of a Cervical Spine Injury: An Adult Case of Traumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation Manifesting with Nystagmus. World Neurosurg. 2017;101:817.e1-817.e3 pubmed publisher
    Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS) is a rare type of traumatic cervical spine injury in adults, commonly manifesting with painful torticollis and suboccipital headache. Early diagnosis is mandatory to avoid catastrophic consequences...
  55. Wang Y, Zhou X, Ruan Z, Liu R, Eriani G, Wang E. A Human Disease-causing Point Mutation in Mitochondrial Threonyl-tRNA Synthetase Induces Both Structural and Functional Defects. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:6507-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Some aaRS mutations cause mitochondrial disorders, including human mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase (hmtThrRS) (encoded ..
  56. Fang P, Guo M. Structural characterization of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for translational and nontranslational functions. Methods. 2017;113:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural characterization of aaRS functions in both categories has deepened our understanding and provided insightful platform for further structure-..
  57. Chakraborty S, Mazumder T, Uddin A. Compositional dynamics and codon usage pattern of BRCA1 gene across nine mammalian species. Genomics. 2019;111:167-176 pubmed publisher
    ..31 and plays important role in biological processes. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) are a family of heterogenous enzymes responsible protein synthesis and whose secondary functions include a role in ..
  58. Sapienza P, Li L, Williams T, Lee A, Carter C. An Ancestral Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase Precursor Achieves High Catalytic Rate Enhancement without Ordered Ground-State Tertiary Structures. ACS Chem Biol. 2016;11:1661-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Urzymes-short, active core modules derived from enzyme superfamilies-prepared from the two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) classes contain only the modules shared by all related family members...
  59. Ruhfel B, Bove C, Philbrick C, Davis C. Dispersal largely explains the Gondwanan distribution of the ancient tropical clusioid plant clade. Am J Bot. 2016;103:1117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Ancestral Area Reconstructions (AARs) were then conducted on a distribution of 1000 trees and summarized on a reduced phylogeny...
  60. Chung Y. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions. Accid Anal Prev. 2015;82:79-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors...
  61. Adrion J, White P, Montooth K. The Roles of Compensatory Evolution and Constraint in Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase Evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 2016;33:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAs encoded by the mitochondrial genome (mt-tRNAs) and mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetase proteins (mt-aaRS) encoded by the nuclear genome...
  62. Fang P, Guo M. Evolutionary Limitation and Opportunities for Developing tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors with 5-Binding-Mode Classification. Life (Basel). 2015;5:1703-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Each of the aaRS families plays a pivotal role in protein biosynthesis and is indispensable for cell growth and survival...
  63. Seki E, Yanagisawa T, Yokoyama S. Cell-Free Protein Synthesis for Multiple Site-Specific Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids Using Cell Extracts from RF-1 Deletion E. coli Strains. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1728:49-65 pubmed publisher
    ..A::Z and B-95.∆A, with orthogonal tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) pairs from Methanosarcina mazei, we have developed CFPS methods for the highly productive and efficient multiple ..
  64. He J, MELANCON C. Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids into Proteins of Interest in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1728:155-168 pubmed publisher
    ..unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins in living cells using engineered orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)/tRNA pairs is a powerful tool for studying and manipulating protein structure and function...
  65. Zhang J, Yan B, Späth S, Qun H, Cornelius S, Guan D, et al. Integrated transcriptional profiling and genomic analyses reveal RPN2 and HMGB1 as promising biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Cell Biosci. 2015;5:53 pubmed publisher
    ..This led to the identification of eight candidate genes including RPN2, HMGB1, AARS, IGFBP3, STAT1, HYOU1, NQO1 and PEA15 that were associated with the progressive phenotype...
  66. Cantara W, Olson E, Musier Forsyth K. Analysis of RNA structure using small-angle X-ray scattering. Methods. 2017;113:46-55 pubmed publisher
    In addition to their role in correctly attaching specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) have been found to possess many alternative functions and often bind to and act on other nucleic acids...
  67. Yang X, Xiong Y, Duan H, Gong R. Identification of genes associated with methotrexate resistance in methotrexate-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015;10:136 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 690 up-regulated genes and down-regulated 626 genes were identified. Up-regulated DEGs (including AARS and PARS2) were associated to transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation while down-regulated DEGs (including AURKA, CCNB1, ..
  68. Holman K, Wu J, Ling J, Simonovic M. The crystal structure of yeast mitochondrial ThrRS in complex with the canonical threonine tRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:1428-39 pubmed publisher
    In mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS), MST1, aminoacylates two isoacceptor tRNAs, tRNA1(Thr) and tRNA2(Thr), that harbor anticodon loops of different size and sequence...
  69. Crnkovic A, Čavužić M, Godinic Mikulcic V, Anderluh G, Weygand Đurašević I, Gruic Sovulj I. An archaeal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex for improved substrate quality control. Biochimie. 2018;147:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Propensity of the ArgRS•SerRS complex to exclude unmodified tRNAs from translation leads to an attractive hypothesis that SerRS•ArgRS complex might act in vivo as a safeguarding switch that improves translation accuracy. ..
  70. Wiener H, Shrestha S, Lu H, Karita E, Kilembe W, Allen S, et al. Immunogenetic factors in early immune control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection: Evaluation of HLA class I amino acid variants in two African populations. Hum Immunol. 2018;79:166-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has uncovered specific amino acid residues (AARs) that seem to dictate the extent of immune control in African Americans, which prompted us to test these emerging ..
  71. Martinez Rodriguez L, Erdogan O, Jimenez Rodriguez M, Gonzalez Rivera K, Williams T, Li L, et al. Functional Class I and II Amino Acid-activating Enzymes Can Be Coded by Opposite Strands of the Same Gene. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:19710-25 pubmed publisher
    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) catalyze both chemical steps that translate the universal genetic code...
  72. Abbott J, Livingston N, Egri S, Guth E, Francklyn C. Characterization of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase stability and substrate interaction by differential scanning fluorimetry. Methods. 2017;113:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the application of DSF to investigate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) stability and interaction with ligands...
  73. Dumas A, Lercher L, Spicer C, Davis B. Designing logical codon reassignment - Expanding the chemistry in biology. Chem Sci. 2015;6:50-69 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins relies on the reassignment or suppression of canonical codons with an amino-acyl tRNA synthetase/tRNA (aaRS/tRNA) pair, selective for the UAA of choice...
  74. Azuma Y, Zschoche R, Hilvert D. The C-terminal peptide of Aquifex aeolicus riboflavin synthase directs encapsulation of native and foreign guests by a cage-forming lumazine synthase. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10321-10327 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS) and found that it also forms cage complexes with the cognate riboflavin synthase (AaRS) when both proteins are co-produced in the cytosol of Escherichia coli A 12-amino acid-long peptide at the C ..
  75. Song Y, Zhou H, Vo M, Shi Y, Nawaz M, Vargas Rodriguez O, et al. Double mimicry evades tRNA synthetase editing by toxic vegetable-sourced non-proteinogenic amino acid. Nat Commun. 2017;8:2281 pubmed publisher
    ..While aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) editing potentially provides a mechanism to reject np AAs, some have pathological associations...
  76. Götz A, Tyynismaa H, Euro L, Ellonen P, Hyötyläinen T, Ojala T, et al. Exome sequencing identifies mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase mutations in infantile mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that mitochondrial disorders extend to prenatal life and are an important cause of early infantile cardiac failure. ..
  77. McLaughlin H, Sakaguchi R, Giblin W, Wilson T, Biesecker L, Lupski J, et al. A recurrent loss-of-function alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) mutation in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2N (CMT2N). Hum Mutat. 2012;33:244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..variant in the alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) gene was found to segregate with dominant axonal CMT type 2N (CMT2N) in two French families; however, the functional consequence of this mutation has not been determined...
  78. Kumar M, Kumar S, Dimkovikj A, Baykal L, Banton M, Outlaw M, et al. Zinc is the molecular "switch" that controls the catalytic cycle of bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase. J Inorg Biochem. 2015;142:59-67 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli (E. coli) leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) enzyme is part of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) family. LeuRS is an essential enzyme that relies on specialized domains to facilitate the aminoacylation reaction...
  79. Englert M, Vargas Rodriguez O, Reynolds N, Wang Y, Soll D, Umehara T. A genomically modified Escherichia coli strain carrying an orthogonal E. coli histidyl-tRNA synthetase•tRNAHis pair. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:3009-3015 pubmed publisher
    Development of new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)•tRNA pairs is central for incorporation of novel non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion (GCE)...
  80. Kubyshkin V, Acevedo Rocha C, Budisa N. On universal coding events in protein biogenesis. Biosystems. 2018;164:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..It starts with amino acid activation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS) followed by matching with the acceptor units of their cognate tRNAs ("operational RNA code") and ribosomal codon-..
  81. Shiba K, Ripmaster T, Suzuki N, Nichols R, Plotz P, Noda T, et al. Human alanyl-tRNA synthetase: conservation in evolution of catalytic core and microhelix recognition. Biochemistry. 1995;34:10340-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the region of close sequence similarity may be a consequence of strong selective pressure to conserve the acceptor helix G3:U70 base pair as an RNA signal for alanine. ..
  82. Sang Lee J, Gyu Park S, Park H, Seol W, Lee S, Kim S. Interaction network of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and subunits of elongation factor 1 complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:158-64 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a systematic interaction network may exist between mammalian ARSs and EF-1 subunits probably to enhance the efficiency of in vivo protein synthesis. ..
  83. Caetano Anolles G, Kim K, Caetano Anolles D. The phylogenomic roots of modern biochemistry: origins of proteins, cofactors and protein biosynthesis. J Mol Evol. 2012;74:1-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Ancient forms of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) catalytic domains and ancient non-ribosomal protein synthetase (NRPS) modules gave rise to primordial protein ..
  84. Zhao Z, Hashiguchi A, Hu J, Sakiyama Y, Okamoto Y, Tokunaga S, et al. Alanyl-tRNA synthetase mutation in a family with dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy. Neurology. 2012;78:1644-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2677G>A (p.D893N) of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS), which was not found in the 4 unaffected members and control subjects...
  85. Liu Y, Satz J, Vo M, Nangle L, Schimmel P, Ackerman S. Deficiencies in tRNA synthetase editing activity cause cardioproteinopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced translational fidelity, caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the editing domain of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), resulted in accumulation of misfolded proteins in specific mouse neurons...
  86. Simons C, Griffin L, Helman G, Golas G, Pizzino A, Bloom M, et al. Loss-of-function alanyl-tRNA synthetase mutations cause an autosomal-recessive early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with persistent myelination defect. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;96:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with an autosomal-dominant inherited form of axonal neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2N (CMT2N)...
  87. Sun L, Gomes A, He W, Zhou H, Wang X, Pan D, et al. Evolutionary Gain of Alanine Mischarging to Noncognate tRNAs with a G4:U69 Base Pair. J Am Chem Soc. 2016;138:12948-12955 pubmed
    ..Yet, deliberate modifications of translational fidelity can be beneficial. Here we found human and not E. coli AlaRS has an intrinsic capacity for mispairing alanine onto nonalanyl-tRNAs including tRNACys...
  88. Sun L, Song Y, Blocquel D, Yang X, Schimmel P. Two crystal structures reveal design for repurposing the C-Ala domain of human AlaRS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:14300-14305 pubmed
    ..b>AlaRS is the single exception, with an appended C-terminal domain (C-Ala) that is conserved from prokaryotes to humans ..
  89. Yakobov N, Debard S, Fischer F, Senger B, Becker H. Cytosolic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: Unanticipated relocations for unexpected functions. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018;1861:387-400 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling pathways that trigger their relocation and the new functions associated with these relocating cytosolic aaRS. Finally, given that these relocating pools of cytosolic aaRSs participate to a wide range of cellular pathways ..
  90. Ripmaster T, Shiba K, Schimmel P. Wide cross-species aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase replacement in vivo: yeast cytoplasmic alanine enzyme replaced by human polymyositis serum antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:4932-6 pubmed
    ..U70 system of recognition is sufficient to yield accurate aminoacylation in vivo across wide species distances. ..
  91. Nichols R, Pai S, Ge Q, Targoff I, Plotz P, Liu P. Localization of two human autoantigen genes by PCR screening and in situ hybridization--glycyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 7p15 and alanyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 16q22. Genomics. 1995;30:131-2 pubmed
  92. Lovato M, Chihade J, Schimmel P. Translocation within the acceptor helix of a major tRNA identity determinant. EMBO J. 2001;20:4846-53 pubmed
    ..translocated G:U and the adjacent G3:C70 are major determinants for recognition by Dm mt alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS). Additionally, G:U at the 3:70 position serves as an anti-determinant for Dm mt AlaRS...