Gene Symbol: S
Description: long surface protein; PreS1; L protein; LHBs; large S protein; pre-S1/pre-S2/S regions; L glycoprotein; L-HBsAG; LHBs
Alias: long surface protein, PreS1, L protein, LHBs, large S protein, pre-S1/pre-S2/S regions, L glycoprotein, L-HBsAG, LHBs, large envelope protein, middle envelope protein, small envelope protein
Species: Hepatitis B virus
Products:     S

Top Publications

  1. Frider B, Alessio A, Pozzati M, Cuestas M, Mathet V, Oubiña J. Successful interferon treatment in a patient chronically infected with hepatitis B virus carrying unusual S- (and P-) mutants in the presence of anti-HBs antibodies. Liver Int. 2007;27:727-30 pubmed
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immune escape mutants with point mutations within the S gene may arise during the natural course of HBV infection, due to a positive selection pressure exerted by the host immune response...
  2. Veazjalali M, Norder H, Magnius L, Jazayeri S, Alavian S, Mokhtari Azad T. A new core promoter mutation and premature stop codon in the S gene in HBV strains from Iranian patients with cirrhosis. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleotide sequences obtained from 91 patients and encompassing the precore, basal core promoter (BCP) and surface (S) regions, were compared...
  3. Simonetti J, Bulkow L, McMahon B, Homan C, Snowball M, Negus S, et al. Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a cohort chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. Hepatology. 2010;51:1531-7 pubmed publisher
    ..6 years after clearance. HCC can occur in persons with chronic hepatitis B who have lost HBsAg, even in the absence of cirrhosis. These persons should still be followed with periodic liver ultrasound to detect HCC early. ..
  4. Kim J, Jung Y, Joo M, Kim J, Yim H, Park J, et al. Hepatitis B viral surface mutations in patients with adefovir resistant chronic hepatitis B with A181T/V polymerase mutations. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A start codon mutation in the Pre-S2 gene was found in five patients (Group P=3, Group C=2). An S gene mutation, sA184V, was found in nine patients, all of whom were in group P...
  5. Lentz T, Loeb D. Roles of the envelope proteins in the amplification of covalently closed circular DNA and completion of synthesis of the plus-strand DNA in hepatitis B virus. J Virol. 2011;85:11916-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the expression of L protein alone or in combination with M and/or S proteins led to a decrease in cccDNA levels, indicating that L ..
  6. Wang M, Ding J, Liu Y. [A study in the Guizhou area on pre-S region mutations of hepatitis B virus]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2007;15:98-102 pubmed
    To study the relationships between hepatitis B virus (HBV ) pre-S region mutations and their genotypes and the stages of liver disease of the patients...
  7. Gao Z, Li T, Wang J, Du J, Li Y, Li J, et al. Mutations in preS genes of genotype C hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:761-8 pubmed
    ..001) groups. The HBeAg-positive rate and HBV DNA levels were comparable between patients with the preS mutation and those without. PreS deletion mutations of genotype C HBV might play a role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  8. Hong M, Huang W, Min F, Xu J, Lin Z, Fang K, et al. Enhanced HBsAg synthesis correlates with increased severity of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e87344 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, adjusted serum HBsAg has an accurate prediction capability. ..
  9. Sohn W, Paik Y, Kim J, Kwon C, Joh J, Cho J, et al. HBV DNA and HBsAg levels as risk predictors of early and late recurrence after curative resection of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21:2429-35 pubmed publisher
    ..80; p = 0.023) and age at resection ? 50 years (HR 3.22; p = 0.032). The HBV DNA levels were associated with early recurrence, whereas HBsAg levels were associated with late recurrence after curative resection in HBV-related HCC. ..

More Information


  1. Harris B, Holzmayer V, Qureshi H, Khan M, Khan S, Salamat N, et al. Hepatitis B genotypes and surface antigen mutants present in Pakistani blood donors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178988 pubmed publisher
  2. Qu L, Kuai X, Liu T, Chen T, Ni Z, Shen X. Pre-S deletion and complex mutations of hepatitis B virus related to young age hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59583 pubmed publisher
    ..00 log(10) copies/mL, pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764 double mutations, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations were associated with risk of young age HCC...
  3. Blanchet M, Sureau C. Infectivity determinants of the hepatitis B virus pre-S domain are confined to the N-terminal 75 amino acid residues. J Virol. 2007;81:5841-9 pubmed publisher
    The N-terminal pre-S domain of the large hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope protein plays a pivotal role at the initial step of the viral entry pathway...
  4. Ramezani F, Norouzi M, Sarizade G, Poortahmasebi V, Kalantar E, Magnius L, et al. Mutation hot spots in hepatitis B surface antigen in chronic carriers from Khoozestan province, southern of Iran. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;12:269-75 pubmed
  5. Zhao Z, Jin Y, Gan Y, Zhu Y, Chen T, Wang J, et al. Novel approach to identifying the hepatitis B virus pre-S deletions associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:13573-81 pubmed publisher
    To develop a novel non-sequencing method for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S deletion mutants in HBV carriers. The entire region of HBV pre-S1 and pre-S2 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  6. Chi S, Kim D, Lee S, Chang I, Han K. Pre-structured motifs in the natively unstructured preS1 surface antigen of hepatitis B virus. Protein Sci. 2007;16:2108-17 pubmed publisher
    The preS1 surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is known to play an important role in the initial attachment of HBV to hepatocytes...
  7. Yeung P, Wong D, Lai C, Fung J, Seto W, Yuen M. Association of hepatitis B virus pre-S deletions with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:646-54 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to determine whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S deletion was an independent factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ..
  8. Kim B, Choi S, Ahn S, Chung A, Park Y, Han K, et al. Pre-S mutations of hepatitis B virus affect genome replication and expression of surface antigens. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;29:843-50 pubmed
    ..We aimed to determine whether pre-S mutations have any effect on circulating qHBsAg...
  9. Tong W, He J, Sun L. [Analysis on mutation of S gene and P gene of hepatitis B virus in two counties of Sichuan Province]. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi. 2009;15:45-8 pubmed
    To analyze HBV S gene/P gene mutation in 2 counties (districts) of Sichuan province. HBV DNA were extracted from sera positive both for HBsAg and HBeAg...
  10. Le Duff Y, Blanchet M, Sureau C. The pre-S1 and antigenic loop infectivity determinants of the hepatitis B virus envelope proteins are functionally independent. J Virol. 2009;83:12443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins bear two determinants of viral entry: a receptor-binding site (RBS) in the pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein and a conformation-dependent determinant, of unknown function, in the antigenic loop (AGL) of the small, ..
  11. Zhao C, Zhang W, Tian X, Fang C, Lu H, Yuan Z, et al. Proteomic analysis of cell lines expressing small hepatitis B surface antigen revealed decreased glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa expression in association with higher susceptibility to apoptosis. J Med Virol. 2010;82:14-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that HBsAg plays a pro-apoptotic role through down-regulation of GRP78...
  12. Gwak G, Lee D, Moon T, Choi M, Lee J, Koh K, et al. The correlation of hepatitis B virus pre-S mutation with mitochondrial D-loop mutations and common deletions in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology. 2011;58:522-8 pubmed
    We investigated the correlation of HBV pre-S mutation with the sites and frequencies of mtDNA mutations in HCC patients. Twenty-seven HBV-related HCC patients and 8 control patients were included...
  13. Ye P, Zhang S, Zhao L, Dong J, Jie S, Pang R, et al. Tea polyphenols exerts anti-hepatitis B virus effects in a stably HBV-transfected cell line. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..01). The IC50 of TP in inhibiting HBV DNA was 2.54 microg/mL. It concluded that TP possessed potential anti-HBV effects and may be used as a treatment alternative for HBV infection. ..
  14. Okamoto H, Imai M, Shimozaki M, Hoshi Y, Iizuka H, Gotanda T, et al. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned hepatitis B virus genome, subtype ayr: comparison with genomes of the other three subtypes. J Gen Virol. 1986;67 ( Pt 11):2305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Amino acid sequences coded for by the S, C, P and X genes, as well as by the pre-S region, closely resembled those of subtype adr, indicating that the ..
  15. Abdelnabi Z, Saleh N, Baraghithi S, Glebe D, Azzeh M. Subgenotypes and mutations in the s and polymerase genes of hepatitis B virus carriers in the West Bank, palestine. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113821 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we performed genetic analysis of the overlapping S and polymerase genes of HBV, isolated from 40 Palestinian patients' sera...
  16. Ren F, Tsubota A, Hirokawa T, Kumada H, Yang Z, Tanaka H. A unique amino acid substitution, T126I, in human genotype C of hepatitis B virus S gene and its possible influence on antigenic structural change. Gene. 2006;383:43-51 pubmed publisher
    Amino acid substitutions in the S gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV), especially in the 'a' determinant region, have been suggested to affect the antigenicity of the virus and the clinical outcome of the infected patient...
  17. Tan A, Sodsai P, Chia A, Moreau E, Chng M, Tham C, et al. Immunoprevalence and immunodominance of HLA-Cw*0801-restricted T cell response targeting the hepatitis B virus envelope transmembrane region. J Virol. 2014;88:1332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HLA-C restricted T cells might play an important role in various viral infections. ..
  18. Velay A, Jeulin H, Eschlimann M, Malvé B, Goehringer F, Bensenane M, et al. Characterization of hepatitis B virus surface antigen variability and impact on HBs antigen clearance under nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy. J Viral Hepat. 2016;23:387-98 pubmed publisher
    ..PreS/S amino acid (aa) sequences were analysed with bioinformatics to predict HBV envelope antigenicity and aa covariance...
  19. Heo N, Lee H, Park Y, Park J, Lim Y, Kim K, et al. Lack of association between hepatitis B virus pre-S mutations and recurrence after surgical resection in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Med Virol. 2013;85:589-96 pubmed publisher
    Pre-S mutation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is known to be a risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis. A previous study suggested that pre-S mutation(s) may associate with increased recurrence after surgical resection...
  20. Siegler V, Bruss V. Role of transmembrane domains of hepatitis B virus small surface proteins in subviral-particle biogenesis. J Virol. 2013;87:1491-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterologous expression of the small HBV envelope protein S produces secreted spherical SVP 20 nm in diameter, with approximately 100 S molecules per particle...
  21. Lu H, Zhu H, Zhou J. S gene mutations of HBV in children with HBV-associated glomerulonephritis. Virol J. 2012;9:59 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to determine whether mutation of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene is associated with glomerulonephritis in Chinese children. ..
  22. N ez E, Y lamos B, Delgado C, G mez Guti rrez J, Peterson D, Gavilanes F. Interaction of preS domains of hepatitis B virus with phospholipid vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore all these results suggest that, besides their participation in the recognition of a cellular receptor, the preS domains could be involved in the fusion mechanism of HBV with the plasma membrane of target cells...
  23. Liao H, Liu Y, Chen J, Ding W, Li X, Xu Z, et al. Characterization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS/S gene mutations in blood donors with occult HBV infection in the Baoji area of North China. Transfusion. 2017;57:857-866 pubmed publisher
    ..and HBV DNA-positive OBI samples were amplified for sequence analysis of OBI-related mutations in the HBV preS/S region. HBV genomes from 108 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B from North China were used as controls...
  24. Zhao K, Wu C, Yao Y, Cao L, Zhang Z, Yuan Y, et al. Ceruloplasmin inhibits the production of extracellular hepatitis B virions by targeting its middle surface protein. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1410-1421 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that CP may be an important host factor that targets MHBs during the envelopment and/or release of virions. ..
  25. Li G, Harrison T, Yang J, Chen Q, Wang X, Fang Z. Combined core promoter mutations and pre-S deletion of HBV may not increase the risk of HCC: a geographical epidemiological study in Guangxi, China. Liver Int. 2013;33:936-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether the findings that HBV basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T, G1764A double mutations, pre-S deletions and a combination of both are risk factors of HCC are supported by geographical epidemiology...
  26. Kim M, Kang S, Lee W. Occult HBV among Anti-HBc Alone: Mutation Analysis of an HBV Surface Gene and Pre-S Gene. Yonsei Med J. 2017;58:557-563 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-four patients with 'anti-HBc alone' and 20 control patients diagnosed with HBV were analyzed regarding S and pre-S gene mutations. All specimens were analyzed for HBs Ag, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs...
  27. Hu W, Wei J, Xia H, Yang X, Li F, Li G, et al. Identification of the immunogenic domains in HBsAg preS1 region using overlapping preS1 fragment fusion proteins. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:2088-94 pubmed
    The incorporation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 region into epitope-based vaccines against HBV has been accepted widely, but the incorporate site and size of preS1 sequence is controversial...
  28. Elghanam M, Attia A, Shoeb H, Hashem A. Expression and purification of hepatitis B surface antigen S from Escherichia coli; a new simple method. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:125 pubmed publisher
    ..To achieve this goal, the gene encoding the HBsAg(S) protein was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein with a GST tag in Escherichia coli...
  29. Liu P, Zhang H, Liang X, Ma H, Luan F, Wang B, et al. HBV preS2 promotes the expression of TAZ via miRNA-338-3p to enhance the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2015;6:29048-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of TAZ dampened preS2-promoted HCC proliferation and migration. Thus, preS2 upregulates TAZ expression by repressing miRNA-338-3p. TAZ is necessary for preS2-promoted HCC proliferation and migration. ..
  30. Zhu H, Lu H, Zhou J, Wu H, Fang F. [Mutation of hepatitis B virus S gene in children with hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2008;46:378-81 pubmed
    ..The present study was conducted to identify HBV S gene mutation in children with HBV-GN...
  31. Yindom L, Mendy M, Bodimeade C, Chambion C, Aka P, Whittle H, et al. KIR content genotypes associate with carriage of hepatitis B surface antigen, e antigen and HBV viral load in Gambians. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188307 pubmed publisher
    ..KIR status could potentially inform antiviral therapy and identify those at increased risk of complications for enhanced surveillance. ..
  32. Galibert F, Mandart E, Fitoussi F, Tiollais P, Charnay P. Nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis B virus genome (subtype ayw) cloned in E. coli. Nature. 1979;281:646-50 pubmed
    ..of the nonsense codons shows that the coding capacity of the L chain is larger than the coding capacity of the S chain. Eight open regions, able to code for polypeptide chains larger than 100 amino acids, have been located...
  33. Ghosh S, Banerjee P, Roychoudhury A, Sarkar S, Ghosh A, Santra A, et al. Unique hepatitis B virus subgenotype in a primitive tribal community in eastern India. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4063-71 pubmed publisher
  34. Zhang X, Lin S, Chen T, Liu M, Ye F, Chen Y, et al. Asialoglycoprotein receptor interacts with the preS1 domain of hepatitis B virus in vivo and in vitro. Arch Virol. 2011;156:637-45 pubmed publisher
    The preS1 domain of the large envelope protein has been identified as an essential viral structure involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) attachment. However, the cellular receptor(s) for HBV has not yet been identified...
  35. Kao J, Liu C, Jow G, Chen P, Chen D, Chen B. Fine mapping of hepatitis B virus pre-S deletion and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2012;32:1373-81 pubmed publisher
    Naturally occurring pre-S deletion mutants have been identified in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ..
  36. Awe K, Lambert C, Prange R. Mammalian BiP controls posttranslational ER translocation of the hepatitis B virus large envelope protein. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3179-84 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis B virus L protein forms a dual topology in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a process involving cotranslational membrane integration and subsequent posttranslational translocation of its preS subdomain...
  37. Hsu J, Chuang W, Su I, Gui W, Chang Y, Lee Y, et al. Zinc-dependent interaction between JAB1 and pre-S2 mutant large surface antigen of hepatitis B virus and its implications for viral hepatocarcinogenesis. J Virol. 2013;87:12675-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The pre-S2 mutant large HBV surface protein (Δ2 LHBS), which contains an in-frame deletion of approximately 17 amino acids in LHBS, is highly associated with risks and ..
  38. Araujo N, Vianna C, Soares C, Gomes S. A unique amino acid substitution, L215Q, in the hepatitis B virus small envelope protein of a genotype F isolate that inhibits secretion of hepatitis B virus subviral particles. Intervirology. 2008;51:81-6 pubmed publisher
    The small (S) envelope protein is the major component of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)...
  39. Ghosh S, Mondal R, Banerjee P, Nandi M, Sarkar S, Das K, et al. Tracking the naturally occurring mutations across the full-length genome of hepatitis B virus of genotype D in different phases of chronic e-antigen-negative infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:E412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of CHB was associated with a significant increase in viral variants characterized by mutations in enhancer II, preS1 promoter, T-cell epitope of core and B-cell epitope region of PreS1...
  40. Besharat S, Katoonizadeh A, Moossavi S, Darvishi Z, Roshandel G, Poustchi H, et al. The possible impact of sortilin in reducing HBsAg expression in chronic hepatitis B. J Med Virol. 2016;88:647-52 pubmed publisher
    ..6, P = 0.001). Inverse association between hepatic SORT1 gene expression and hepatic HBsAg expression indicates the possible role of sortilin in HBsAg particle formation. ..
  41. Ozaslan M, Ozaslan E, Barsgan A, Koruk M. Mutations in the S gene region of hepatitis B virus genotype D in Turkish patients. J Genet. 2007;86:195-201 pubmed
    The S gene region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for the expression of surface antigens and includes the 'a'-determinant region...
  42. Colledge D, Soppe S, Yuen L, Selleck L, Walsh R, Locarnini S, et al. Stop codons in the hepatitis B surface proteins are enriched during antiviral therapy and are associated with host cell apoptosis. Virology. 2017;501:70-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The most cytopathic variant was rtM204I/sW196*. Replication of HBV encoding surface stop codons was toxic to the cell and promoted apoptosis, exacerbating disease progression. ..
  43. Hurlburt K, McMahon B, Simonetti J, Livingston S, Bulkow L, Snowball M, et al. Hepatitis B-associated vasculitis in Alaska Natives: viral genotype, clinical and serologic outcome. Liver Int. 2007;27:627-32 pubmed
    ..cases and 644 hepatitis B-positive controls without vasculitis using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the S gene. Occurrence of HBV vasculitis from 1974 to 2004 was calculated...
  44. Huang S, Chen Y, Lee W, Chang I, Chiu Y, Chang Y, et al. Identification of transforming hepatitis B virus S gene nonsense mutations derived from freely replicative viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89753 pubmed publisher
    ..But the roles of viral factor remain uncertain. Only HBV X gene and nonsense mutations of S gene (C-terminal truncation of HBV surface protein) have been demonstrated to have transforming activity...
  45. Haga Y, Kanda T, Nakamoto S, Nakamura M, Sasaki R, Wu S, et al. Interferon induces interleukin 8 and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 expression, inhibiting the production of hepatitis B virus surface antigen from human hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;486:858-863 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfection of poly(I-C) enhanced IL8 and BST2 mRNA expression and inhibited HBsAg secretion from PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, IL8 might play an important role in the enhancement of BST2 and be involved in HBsAg eradication. ..
  46. Yu W, Goddard C, Clearfield E, Mills C, Xiao T, Guo H, et al. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of triazolo-pyrimidine derivatives as novel inhibitors of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion. J Med Chem. 2011;54:5660-70 pubmed publisher
    ..4 ± 0.4 ?M, SI ? 36. The lead candidates, both 1a (PBHBV-001) and 3c (PBHBV-2-15), were well-tolerated in both normal and HBV-transgenic mice and exhibited acceptable pharmacokinetics and bioavailability in Sprague-Dawley rats. ..
  47. Kim H, Kim B. Association of preS/S Mutations with Occult Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in South Korea: Transmission Potential of Distinct Occult HBV Variants. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:13595-609 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported the characteristic molecular features of mutations in the preS/S regions among Korean individuals with occult infections caused by HBV genotype C2; the variants of preS and S ..
  48. Mascagni P, Romano L, Scanziani R, Toffoletto F. [Characterisation of an HBsAg mutant of hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from a dialysed patient involved in an occupational accident]. Med Lav. 2005;96:231-7 pubmed
    ..Such mutation could have significantly changed the antigenic profile of the HBsAg compared to that of the wild type. ..
  49. Berkower I, Spadaccini A, Chen H, Al Awadi D, Muller J, Gao Y, et al. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen assembly function persists when entire transmembrane domains 1 and 3 are replaced by a heterologous transmembrane sequence. J Virol. 2011;85:2439-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The membrane-proximal exposed region (MPER) of gp41 is an important target of broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1, and HBsAg-MPER particles may provide a good platform for future vaccine development...
  50. Fang Z, Sabin C, Dong B, Wei S, Chen Q, Fang K, et al. Hepatitis B virus pre-S deletion mutations are a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: a matched nested case-control study. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2882-90 pubmed publisher
    ..study cohort in Long An county, Guangxi, China, to determine whether infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) with pre-S deletions is independently associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), without the ..
  51. Deng Y, Qin H, Luo Y, Liang Z, Zou J.  Blocking the expression of the hepatitis B virus S gene in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines with an anti-gene locked nucleic acid in vitro. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:5445-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhibition of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene by polypurine region locked nucleic acid on viral replication in cells...
  52. Wang L, Huang W, Lai M, Su I. Aberrant cyclin A expression and centrosome overduplication induced by hepatitis B virus pre-S2 mutants and its implication in hepatocarcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:466-72 pubmed publisher
  53. Ruiz Tachiqu n M, Valdez Salazar H, Ju rez Barreto V, Dehesa Violante M, Torres J, Mu oz Hern ndez O, et al. Molecular analysis of hepatitis B virus "a" determinant in asymptomatic and symptomatic Mexican carriers. Virol J. 2007;4:6 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA-containing virus with 4 genes, C, S, X and P...
  54. Zhang W, Xie H, Duan X, Wan Y, Peng C, Shi S, et al. Study of human B7 homolog 1 expression in patients with hepatitis B virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:3681-95 pubmed publisher
    ..diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeled MLR system at a ratio of 1:5 responder cell-stimulator cell (R/S), the CFSE(dim) percentage of T cells decreased from 85.1% to 25.4% and decreased from 30.3% to 12.0% at 1:10 R/S...
  55. Gong X, Zhu Y, Dong J, Chen J, You J, Zheng Q, et al. Small hepatitis B surface antigen interacts with and modulates enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase expression in hepatoma cells. Arch Virol. 2013;158:1065-70 pubmed publisher
    ..12 % in Huh7 cells transiently expressing SHBs, and to 54.97 ± 3.54 % in HepG2 cells stably expressing SHBs. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SHBs interacts with ECHS1 and regulates ECHS1 protein levels in hepatoma cells. ..
  56. Huang X, Qin Y, Zhang P, Tang G, Shi Q, Xu J, et al. PreS deletion mutations of hepatitis B virus in chronically infected patients with simultaneous seropositivity for hepatitis-B surface antigen and anti-HBS antibodies. J Med Virol. 2010;82:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the seven samples showed large deletion mutations in 3' terminus of preS1 and co-existence of the mutant type and the full-length wild type, and the remaining four samples showed deletion ..
  57. Li S, Yang Y, Ding X, Yang M, She S, Peng H, et al. LHBs can elevate the expression of MDR1 through HIF-1α in patients with CHB infection: a comparative proteomic study. Oncotarget. 2017;8:4549-4562 pubmed publisher
    ..was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels in response to overexpression of HBV large surface protein (LHBs)...
  58. Schittl B, Bruss V. Mutational profiling of the variability of individual amino acid positions in the hepatitis B virus matrix domain. Virology. 2014;458-459:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A stretch of 22 amino acids (aa) (matrix domain, MD, R103 - S124) in the large envelope protein L is crucial for virion formation and probably establishes contact to the nucleocapsid...
  59. Lei Y, Liu H, Yang Y, Wang X, Ren N, Li B, et al. Interaction of LHBs with C53 promotes hepatocyte mitotic entry: A novel mechanism for HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:151-9 pubmed publisher
    The pre-S mutant LHBs, especially the pre-S2 type, is believed to be crucial in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma is not fully understood...
  60. Iser D, Warner N, Revill P, Solomon A, Wightman F, Saleh S, et al. Coinfection of hepatic cell lines with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus leads to an increase in intracellular hepatitis B surface antigen. J Virol. 2010;84:5860-7 pubmed publisher
  61. Rojas M, Peterson D, Barboza L, Terán Ángel G, Labastida Moreno C, Berrueta L, et al. Programmed hepatocytes cell death associated with FLIP downregulation in response to extracellular preS1/2. J Med Virol. 2014;86:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (HBsAg) is secreted in large amounts as soluble particles containing preS proteins, the role of soluble preS1/2 in hepatocyte (HepG2) death modulation is an important issue to be explored...
  62. Hsieh Y, Chang Y, Su I, Yen C, Liu Y, Liu R, et al. Hepatitis B virus pre-S2 mutant large surface protein inhibits DNA double-strand break repair and leads to genome instability in hepatocarcinogenesis. J Pathol. 2015;236:337-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) harbouring the HBV pre-S2 mutant large surface protein (LHBS) have been recognized as a morphologically distinct hallmark of HCC in the advanced stages of chronic HBV infection...
  63. Liu Z, Dai X, Wang T, Zhang C, Zhang W, Zhang W, et al. Hepatitis B virus PreS1 facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma development by promoting appearance and self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells. Cancer Lett. 2017;400:149-160 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed studies revealed that PreS1 protein of HBV is required for HBV-mediated CSCs generation...
  64. Glebe D, Urban S, Knoop E, Cag N, Krass P, Gr n S, et al. Mapping of the hepatitis B virus attachment site by use of infection-inhibiting preS1 lipopeptides and tupaia hepatocytes. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:234-45 pubmed
    ..of tupaia hepatocytes as susceptible target cells and studied the inhibitory effect of amino-terminally acylated preS1-derived lipopeptides on infection interference. ..
  65. Qiu J, Qin B, Rayner S, Wu C, Pei R, Xu S, et al. Novel evidence suggests Hepatitis B virus surface proteins participate in regulation of HBV genome replication. Virol Sin. 2011;26:131-8 pubmed publisher
  66. Real C, Lu M, Liu J, Huang X, Trippler M, Hossbach M, et al. Hepatitis B virus genome replication triggers toll-like receptor 3-dependent interferon responses in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24865 pubmed publisher
    ..Eradication of HBsAg as a therapeutic goal might facilitate the induction of endogenous antiviral immune responses in patients chronically infected with HBV. ..
  67. Cheng S, Zhang B, Du J, Jin Y, Lang H, Zeng L. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Promotes the Invasion of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Upregulation of Toll-Like Receptor 2. Viral Immunol. 2017;30:232-239 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway may be involved in this procession by upregulation of cytokine production. The interaction between TLR2 and HBsAg may contribute to the poor prognosis of HBV-related HCC. ..
  68. Li H, Qiang F, Yang Z, Spencer S, Cui X, Wu X, et al. Hepatitis B virus with pre-S2 deletion is more prevalent in hepatocellular carcinoma than in chronic active hepatitis and asymptomatic carriers. Acta Virol. 2011;55:183-5 pubmed
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    ..Serum HBsAg levels rather than HBV DNA is the most important predictor of spontaneous HBV DNA undetectability. Serum HBsAg levels should be monitored in the management of patients with HBeAg-seronegative chronic hepatitis B. ..
  70. Li J, Liu Y, Wang Z, Liu K, Wang Y, Liu J, et al. Subversion of cellular autophagy machinery by hepatitis B virus for viral envelopment. J Virol. 2011;85:6319-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, SHBs partially colocalized and interacted with autophagy protein LC3. Taken together, these results suggest that the host's autophagy machinery is activated during HBV infection to enhance HBV replication.
  71. Short J, Chen S, Roseman A, Butler P, Crowther R. Structure of hepatitis B surface antigen from subviral tubes determined by electron cryomicroscopy. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the common C-terminal S region; the M protein contains an additional preS2 sequence N-terminal to S, and the L protein a further preS1 sequence N-terminal to M...
  72. Schulze A, Schieck A, Ni Y, Mier W, Urban S. Fine mapping of pre-S sequence requirements for hepatitis B virus large envelope protein-mediated receptor interaction. J Virol. 2010;84:1989-2000 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies showed that the N-terminal 75 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) L protein are essential for HBV and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infectivity...
  73. Slijepcevic D, Kaufman C, Wichers C, Gilglioni E, Lempp F, Duijst S, et al. Impaired uptake of conjugated bile acids and hepatitis b virus pres1-binding in na(+) -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide knockout mice. Hepatology. 2015;62:207-19 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse model supports the central role of NTCP in hepatic uptake of conjugated BAs and hepatitis B virus preS1/Myrcludex B binding in vivo; the NTCP-independent hepatic BA uptake machinery maintains a (slower) enterohepatic ..
  74. Sinn D, Choi M, Gwak G, Paik Y, Lee J, Koh K, et al. Pre-s mutation is a significant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma development: a long-term retrospective cohort study. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:751-8 pubmed publisher
    Several cross-sectional studies have shown an association between pre-S mutation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aim to verify whether pre-S mutation represents a risk for HCC development in a longitudinal way. A total of 195 patien..
  75. Li W, Han M, Li Y, Chen D, Luo X, Ning Q. Antiviral resistance mutations potentiate HBV surface antigen-induced transcription of hfgl2 prothrombinase gene. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2011;76:1043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The HBV pol gene overlaps the S gene encoding surface antigen (HBsAg)...
  76. Utama A, Siburian M, Fanany I, Intan M, Dhenni R, Kurniasih T, et al. Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus pre-S deletion mutation in Indonesia. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1717-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was aimed to identify the prevalence of HBV pre-S deletion/insertion mutations, and to assess the association of pre-S deletion mutation with liver disease ..
  77. Lee I, Lee S, Kim H, Won Y, Kim B. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum-derived oxidative stress by an occult infection related S surface antigen variant. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:6872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induction by an occult infection related hepatitis B virus S surface antigen (HBsAg) variant...
  78. Lin Y, Lin J, Xie N, Zhou X, Song Y. [The deletion of La protein binding site in HBV RNA leads to instability of S gene mRNA]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2006;14:517-20 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of deletion of the La protein binding site of HBV RNA, caused by its mutation, on the HBV S-mRNA stability of S gene, to study the role of the site in hepatitis B virus life cycle, and to try to find a new anti-..
  79. Panigrahi R, Biswas A, Banerjee A, Singh S, Panigrahi M, Roque Afonso A, et al. Subgenotype D5, BCP and MHR mutations in hepatic complications among hepatitis B virus infected patients from Orissa, India. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1622-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An increasing trend of major hydrophilic region (MHR) mutations in S gene was also observed from IC (56.0%) to chronic liver disease (CLD) (60.4%) to LC (72.4%) to HCC (95.0%) patients...
  80. Mun H, Lee S, Kim H, Hwang E, Kook Y, Kim B. Novel F141L pre-S2 mutation in hepatitis B virus increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic genotype C infections. J Virol. 2011;85:123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..8% of patients, or 2/52; P = 0.001). By studying stable cell lines, we found that F141L-LHBs could induce cell cycle progression by downregulating the p53 and p21 pathways and upregulating CDK4 and cyclin A...
  81. Hadiji Abbes N, Mihoubi W, Martin M, Karakasyan Dia C, Frikha F, Gergely C, et al. Characterization of C69R variant HBsAg: effect on binding to anti-HBs and the structure of virus-like particles. Arch Virol. 2015;160:2427-33 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with chronic hepatitis B, we identified a variant with a C69R substitution in the cytosolic loop of the S protein, resulting in a change in the hydrophobicity profile compared to the wild-type HBsAg...
  82. Lazarevic I, Cupic M, Delic D, Svirtlih N, Simonovic J, Jovanovic T. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus MHR mutations and their correlation with genotypes and antiviral therapy in chronically infected patients in Serbia. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1160-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that mutations within the S gene, caused by selection or natural variation, can lead to false-negative results in assays for HBsAg, or have ..
  83. Zhang X, Gao L, Liang X, Guo M, Wang R, Pan Y, et al. HBV preS2 transactivates FOXP3 expression in malignant hepatocytes. Liver Int. 2015;35:1087-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data here, for the first time, provided direct evidence to demonstrate that preS2 oncoprotein encoded by HBV transactivated FOXP3 transcription in HCC cells. ..