Gene Symbol: HCVgp2
Description: protein F
Species: Hepatitis C virus genotype 1

Top Publications

  1. Yue M, Deng X, Zhai X, Xu K, Kong J, Zhang J, et al. Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles induced by hepatitis C virus F protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis C patients. Immunol Lett. 2013;152:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that F protein may contribute to the HCV-associated bias in Th1/Th2 responses of chronic hepatitis C patients including the progress of HCC pathogenesis. ..
  2. Samrat S, Vedi S, Singh S, Li W, Kumar R, Agrawal B. Immunization with Recombinant Adenoviral Vectors Expressing HCV Core or F Proteins Leads to T Cells with Reduced Effector Molecules Granzyme B and IFN-γ: A Potential New Strategy for Immune Evasion in HCV Infection. Viral Immunol. 2015;28:309-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies are important in the investigation of prophylactic vaccine and immunotherapy strategies for HCV infection. ..
  3. Kolykhalov A, Agapov E, Blight K, Mihalik K, Feinstone S, Rice C. Transmission of hepatitis C by intrahepatic inoculation with transcribed RNA. Science. 1997;277:570-4 pubmed
    ..This work defines the structure of a functional HCV genome RNA and proves that HCV alone is sufficient to cause disease. ..
  4. Park S, Seronello S, Mayer W, Ojcius D. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158419 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. ..
  5. Kotta Loizou I, Karakasiliotis I, Vassilaki N, Sakellariou P, Bartenschlager R, Mavromara P. Expression of the novel hepatitis C virus core+1/ARF protein in the context of JFH1-based replicons. J Virol. 2015;89:5164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate for the first time expression of core+1/ARF protein in the context of a bicistronic JFH1-based replicon and report the production of two isoforms, core+1/L (long) and core+1/S (short), with different kinetics. ..
  6. Samrat S, Li W, Singh S, Kumar R, Agrawal B. Alternate reading frame protein (F protein) of hepatitis C virus: paradoxical effects of activation and apoptosis on human dendritic cells lead to stimulation of T cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86567 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest important aspects of F protein in modulating DC function and stimulating T cell responses in humans. ..
  7. Huang Y, Cheng J, Zhang S, Wang L, Guo J, Liu Y, et al. Screening of hepatocyte proteins binding to F protein of hepatitis C virus by yeast two-hybrid system. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:5659-65 pubmed
    ..The yeast two-hybrid system is an effective method for identifying hepatocyte proteins interacting with F protein of hepatitis C virus. F protein may bind to different proteins...
  8. Iwai A, Hasumura Y, Nojima T, Takegami T. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS3 binds to Sm-D1, a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein associated with autoimmune disease. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47:601-11 pubmed
    ..The localization of NS3 could change following interaction with Sm-D1 and affect the function of Sm-D1...
  9. Yuksek K, Chen W, Chien D, Ou J. Ubiquitin-independent degradation of hepatitis C virus F protein. J Virol. 2009;83:612-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of the F protein to bind to alpha3 raises the possibility that the HCV F protein may regulate protein degradation in cells...

More Information


  1. Khan K, Abbas W, Varin A, Kumar A, Di Martino V, Dichamp I, et al. HIV-1 Nef interacts with HCV Core, recruits TRAF2, TRAF5 and TRAF6, and stimulates HIV-1 replication in macrophages. J Innate Immun. 2013;5:639-56 pubmed publisher
  2. Kim J, Paek K, Ha S, Cho S, Choi K, Kim C, et al. A cellular RNA-binding protein enhances internal ribosomal entry site-dependent translation through an interaction downstream of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein initiation codon. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7878-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of translational enhancement that acts through the interaction of an RNA-binding protein with a protein coding sequence...
  3. Vassilaki N, Boleti H, Mavromara P. Expression studies of the HCV-1a core+1 open reading frame in mammalian cells. Virus Res. 2008;133:123-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, translation of core+1 ORF is not significantly affected by the presence of the HCV IRES element. The core+1/S-GFP protein is cytoplasmic and exhibits an ER distribution similar to that of the core+1/F-GFP protein...
  4. Ma H, Lin T, Li H, Iguchi Ariga S, Ariga H, Chuang Y, et al. Hepatitis C virus ARFP/F protein interacts with cellular MM-1 protein and enhances the gene trans-activation activity of c-Myc. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of the ARFP/F protein to enhance the activity of c-Myc raises the possibility that ARFP/F protein might play a role in hepatocellular transformation in HCV patients...
  5. Choi J, Xu Z, Ou J. Triple decoding of hepatitis C virus RNA by programmed translational frameshifting. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1489-97 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, a model is proposed to explain the triple decoding activities of the HCV ribosomal frameshift signal...
  6. Jiang C, Diao Z, Cui G, Qian W, Deng X, Xu K, et al. [Expression and preliminary study of HCV F protein gene]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;23:134-7 pubmed
    ..82 of 120 HCV RNA positive's sera had anti-F antibody by ELISA. It is possible to efficiently express the HCV F protein in E.coli. The positive rate of anti-F antibody in HCV RNA positive patients was 68%...
  7. Fan Z, Yang Q, Twu J, Sherker A. Specific in vitro association between the hepatitis C viral genome and core protein. J Med Virol. 1999;59:131-4 pubmed
    ..This interaction may be important for the specific encapsidation of the viral genome during HCV replication. ..
  8. Kassela K, Karakasiliotis I, Charpantidis S, Koskinas J, Mylopoulou T, Mimidis K, et al. High prevalence of antibodies to core+1/ARF protein in HCV-infected patients with advanced cirrhosis. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1713-1719 pubmed publisher
  9. Hashempour T, Bamdad T, Bergamini A, Lavergne J, Haj Sheykholeslami A, Brakier Gingras L, et al. F protein increases CD4+CD25+ T cell population in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Pathog Dis. 2015;73: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the potential involvement of F and core antigens in increasing the frequency of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cell-like population and IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ T cells which may be associated with HCV-persistent infection. ..
  10. Kotta Loizou I, Vassilaki N, Pissas G, Kakkanas A, Bakiri L, Bartenschlager R, et al. Hepatitis C virus core+1/ARF protein decreases hepcidin transcription through an AP1 binding site. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1528-34 pubmed publisher
  11. Xu X, Yue M, Jiang L, Deng X, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, et al. Genetic variants in human leukocyte antigen-DP influence both hepatitis C virus persistence and hepatitis C virus F protein generation in the Chinese Han population. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:9826-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that genetic variants in HLA-DP gene are associated with chronic HCV infection and anti-F antibody generation. ..
  12. Baril M, Brakier Gingras L. Translation of the F protein of hepatitis C virus is initiated at a non-AUG codon in a +1 reading frame relative to the polyprotein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1474-86 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with a Met-tRNA(i)-dependent initiation of translation at a non-AUG codon for the synthesis of the F protein. ..
  13. Hu W, Li H, Lee S, Ma H, Yang C, Chen H, et al. Both core and F proteins of hepatitis C virus could enhance cell proliferation in transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no tumor formation was observed in these mice. In conclusion, HCV core and myc-F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice possibly through ?-catenin signaling pathway...
  14. Wu W, Shao S, Zhao L, Luan J, Cao J, Gao J, et al. Hepatitis C virus F protein up-regulates c-myc and down-regulates p53 in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Intervirology. 2007;50:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..HCV F protein is of regulatory properties in cellular oncogene c-myc and anti-oncogene p53, which may be implicated in the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  15. Carrère Kremer S, Montpellier Pala C, Cocquerel L, Wychowski C, Penin F, Dubuisson J. Subcellular localization and topology of the p7 polypeptide of hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 2002;76:3720-30 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data indicate that p7 is a polytopic membrane protein that could have a functional role in several compartments of the secretory pathway. ..
  16. Dalagiorgou G, Vassilaki N, Foka P, Boumlic A, Kakkanas A, Kochlios E, et al. High levels of HCV core+1 antibodies in HCV patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the high occurrence of anti-core+1 antibodies in the serum of HCC patients suggests a role for the ARFP/F/core+1 protein in the pathogenesis of HCC. ..
  17. Boumlic A, Nomin Y, Charbonnier S, Dalagiorgou G, Vassilaki N, Kieffer B, et al. Prevalence of intrinsic disorder in the hepatitis C virus ARFP/Core+1/S protein. FEBS J. 2010;277:774-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first reported structural characterization of an HCV ARFP/Core+1 protein, and provides evidence that ARFP/Core+1/S is highly disordered under native conditions, with a tendency for self-association...