Gene Symbol: Zw10
Description: Zeste-white 10
Alias: CG9900, Dmel\CG9900, Dsl1, EG:BACR7C10.3, Mit(1)15, ZW-10, ZW10, abe, dZW10, l(1)3Af, l(1)6-99, l(1)zw10, mit(1)15, mit(l)15, zw-10, zw10, Zeste-white 10, CG9900-PB, Zw10-PB, abnormal-eye, mitotic 15
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Williams B, Karr T, Montgomery J, Goldberg M. The Drosophila l(1)zw10 gene product, required for accurate mitotic chromosome segregation, is redistributed at anaphase onset. J Cell Biol. 1992;118:759-73 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene l(1)zw10 disrupt the accuracy of chromosome segregation in a variety of cell types during the course of Drosophila development...
  2. Basto R, Gomes R, Karess R. Rough deal and Zw10 are required for the metaphase checkpoint in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:939-43 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Drosophila kinetochore components Rough deal (Rod) and Zeste-White 10 (Zw10) are required for the proper functioning of the metaphase checkpoint in flies...
  3. Basto R, Scaërou F, Mische S, Wojcik E, Lefebvre C, Gomes R, et al. In vivo dynamics of the rough deal checkpoint protein during Drosophila mitosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:56-61 pubmed
    Rough Deal (Rod) and Zw10 are components of a complex required for the metazoan metaphase checkpoint and for recruitment of dynein/dynactin to the kinetochore...
  4. Starr D, Williams B, Li Z, Etemad Moghadam B, Dawe R, Goldberg M. Conservation of the centromere/kinetochore protein ZW10. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:1289-301 pubmed
    Mutations in the essential Drosophila melanogaster gene zw10 disrupt chromosome segregation, producing chromosomes that lag at the metaphase plate during anaphase of mitosis and both meiotic divisions...
  5. Starr D, Williams B, Hays T, Goldberg M. ZW10 helps recruit dynactin and dynein to the kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:763-74 pubmed
    Mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster zw10 gene, which encodes a conserved, essential kinetochore component, abolish the ability of dynein to localize to kinetochores...
  6. Basu J, Logarinho E, Herrmann S, Bousbaa H, Li Z, Chan G, et al. Localization of the Drosophila checkpoint control protein Bub3 to the kinetochore requires Bub1 but not Zw10 or Rod. Chromosoma. 1998;107:376-85 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we demonstrate that the kinetochore constituents Zw10 and Rod are not needed for the binding of Bub3 to the kinetochore...
  7. Karess R. Rod-Zw10-Zwilch: a key player in the spindle checkpoint. Trends Cell Biol. 2005;15:386-92 pubmed
    ..But three proteins with no yeast homologs--Rod, Zw10 and Zwilch--also play a crucial, but poorly understood, role in the metazoan spindle checkpoint...
  8. Smith D, Baker B, Gatti M. Mutations in genes encoding essential mitotic functions in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1985;110:647-70 pubmed
    ..mus-101) previously identified by mutagen-sensitive mutants and a second mutant is an allele of the lethal locus zw 10.--The 15 mutants were also examined cytologically for their effects on chromosomes in larval neuroblasts...
  9. Logarinho E, Sunkel C. The Drosophila POLO kinase localises to multiple compartments of the mitotic apparatus and is required for the phosphorylation of MPM2 reactive epitopes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 19):2897-909 pubmed

More Information


  1. Buffin E, Lefebvre C, Huang J, Gagou M, Karess R. Recruitment of Mad2 to the kinetochore requires the Rod/Zw10 complex. Curr Biol. 2005;15:856-61 pubmed
    ..Among these are Rod, Zw10, and Zwilch, components of a 700 Kdal complex (Rod/Zw10) that is required for recruitment of dynein/dynactin to ..
  2. Scaerou F, Starr D, Piano F, Papoulas O, Karess R, Goldberg M. The ZW10 and Rough Deal checkpoint proteins function together in a large, evolutionarily conserved complex targeted to the kinetochore. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3103-14 pubmed
    The zeste-white 10 (zw10) and rough deal (rod) genes of Drosophila both encode kinetochore components, and mutations in either gene greatly increase the missegregation of sister chromatids during mitosis...
  3. Blower M, Karpen G. The role of Drosophila CID in kinetochore formation, cell-cycle progression and heterochromatin interactions. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:730-9 pubmed
    ..from proteins involved in sister cohesion (MEI-S332), centric condensation (PROD), kinetochore function (ROD, ZW10 and BUB1) and heterochromatin structure (HP1)...
  4. Schmitt H. Dsl1p/Zw10: common mechanisms behind tethering vesicles and microtubules. Trends Cell Biol. 2010;20:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..COP (coat protein)-I vesicles with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is initiated by specific tethering complexes: the Dsl1 (depends on SLY1-20) complex in yeast and the syntaxin 18 complex in mammalian cells...
  5. Shah J, Cleveland D. Waiting for anaphase: Mad2 and the spindle assembly checkpoint. Cell. 2000;103:997-1000 pubmed
  6. Williams B, Goldberg M. Determinants of Drosophila zw10 protein localization and function. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 4):785-98 pubmed
    We have examined several issues concerning how the Drosophila l(1)zw10 gene product functions to ensure proper chromosome segregation...
  7. Griffis E, Stuurman N, Vale R. Spindly, a novel protein essential for silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint, recruits dynein to the kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1005-15 pubmed
    ..cytoplasmic dynein is involved in silencing the SAC by removing the checkpoint proteins Mad2 and the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch complex (RZZ) from aligned kinetochores (Howell, B.J., B.F. McEwen, J.C. Canman, D.B. Hoffman, E.M...
  8. Williams B, Gatti M, Goldberg M. Bipolar spindle attachments affect redistributions of ZW10, a Drosophila centromere/kinetochore component required for accurate chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:1127-40 pubmed
    Previous efforts have shown that mutations in the Drosophila ZW10 gene cause massive chromosome missegregation during mitotic divisions in several tissues...
  9. Williams B, Murphy T, Goldberg M, Karpen G. Neocentromere activity of structurally acentric mini-chromosomes in Drosophila. Nat Genet. 1998;18:30-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that these acentric mini-chromosomes bind the centromere-specific protein ZW10 and associate with the spindle poles in anaphase...
  10. Défachelles L, Raich N, Terracol R, Baudin X, Williams B, Goldberg M, et al. RZZ and Mad1 dynamics in Drosophila mitosis. Chromosome Res. 2015;23:333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the factors regulating the levels of Mad1 at kinetochores is the Rod, Zw10, and Zwilch (RZZ) complex, which is required for Mad1 recruitment through a mechanism that remains unknown...
  11. Sunkel C, Coelho P. The elusive centromere: sequence divergence and functional conservation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1995;5:756-67 pubmed
  12. Paradi E, Vogel E, Szilagyi E. Effect of storage and dose on MMS-induced deletions. Complementation analysis of X-chromosomal recessive lethals in the zeste-white and maroon-like regions of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1983;111:145-59 pubmed
    ..An interesting aspect for further analysis is the apparent infrequency in the zeste-white region of alkylation-induced chromosomal breakage, as observed by various investigators for MMS, EMS and MNNG. ..
  13. Maresca T, Salmon E. Intrakinetochore stretch is associated with changes in kinetochore phosphorylation and spindle assembly checkpoint activity. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This intrakinetochore stretch is largely independent of a 30-fold variation in centromere stretch. Furthermore, loss of intrakinetochore stretch is associated with enhancement of 3F3/2 phosphorylation and SAC activation. ..
  14. Montgomery E, Huang S, Langley C, Judd B. Chromosome rearrangement by ectopic recombination in Drosophila melanogaster: genome structure and evolution. Genetics. 1991;129:1085-98 pubmed
  15. Goldberg M, Colvin R, Mellin A. The Drosophila zeste locus is nonessential. Genetics. 1989;123:145-55 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the zeste protein normally is either a very weak transcription factor, or that its function can be substituted by that of other regulatory proteins. ..
  16. Philip A. Mitotic sister-chromatid separation: what Drosophila mutants can tell us. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:150 pubmed
  17. Klinger C, Klute M, Dacks J. Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76278 pubmed publisher
    ..core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits...
  18. Williams B, Leung G, Maiato H, Wong A, Li Z, Williams E, et al. Mitch a rapidly evolving component of the Ndc80 kinetochore complex required for correct chromosome segregation in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3522-33 pubmed
    ..Despite the crucial role of Mitch in cell division, the mitch gene has evolved very rapidly among species in the genus Drosophila. ..
  19. Cook K, Murphy T, Nguyen T, Karpen G. Identification of trans-acting genes necessary for centromere function in Drosophila melanogaster using centromere-defective minichromosomes. Genetics. 1997;145:737-47 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this study strongly suggest that dominant genetic interactions between mutations and centromere-defective minichromosomes could be used effectively to identify novel genes necessary for centromere function. ..
  20. Wainman A, Giansanti M, Goldberg M, Gatti M. The Drosophila RZZ complex - roles in membrane trafficking and cytokinesis. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4014-25 pubmed publisher
    The Zw10 protein, in the context of the conserved Rod-Zwilch-Zw10 (RZZ) complex, is a kinetochore component required for proper activity of the spindle assembly checkpoint in both Drosophila and mammals...
  21. Savoian M, Goldberg M, Rieder C. The rate of poleward chromosome motion is attenuated in Drosophila zw10 and rod mutants. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:948-52 pubmed
    Here we show that the rate of poleward chromosome motion in zw10-null mutants is greatly attenuated throughout the division process, and that chromosome disjunction at anaphase is highly asynchronous...
  22. Défachelles L, Hainline S, Menant A, Lee L, Karess R. A maternal effect rough deal mutation suggests that multiple pathways regulate Drosophila RZZ kinetochore recruitment. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:1204-16 pubmed publisher
    Proper kinetochore recruitment and regulation of dynein and the Mad1-Mad2 complex requires the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch (RZZ) complex...
  23. Page S, Hawley R. The Drosophila meiotic mutant mei-352 is an allele of klp3A and reveals a role for a kinesin-like protein in crossover distribution. Genetics. 2005;170:1797-807 pubmed
  24. Williams B, Li Z, Liu S, Williams E, Leung G, Yen T, et al. Zwilch, a new component of the ZW10/ROD complex required for kinetochore functions. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1379-91 pubmed
    The Zeste-White 10 (ZW10) and Rough Deal (ROD) proteins are part of a complex necessary for accurate chromosome segregation. This complex recruits cytoplasmic dynein to the kinetochore and participates in the spindle checkpoint...
  25. Williams B, Riedy M, Williams E, Gatti M, Goldberg M. The Drosophila kinesin-like protein KLP3A is a midbody component required for central spindle assembly and initiation of cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:709-23 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results imply that the central spindle is the source of signals that initiate the cleavage furrow in higher cells. ..
  26. Allshire R. Centromeres, checkpoints and chromatid cohesion. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:264-73 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic and localization data combined with their pattern of rapid degradation at anaphase have implicated several yeast and Drosophila proteins in aspects of sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  27. Wainman A, Creque J, Williams B, Williams E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M, et al. Roles of the Drosophila NudE protein in kinetochore function and centrosome migration. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1747-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the absence of NudE, the 'shedding' of proteins off the kinetochore is abrogated and the SAC cannot be turned off, implying that NudE regulates dynein function at the kinetochore. ..
  28. Peng J, Karpen G. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000435 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability. ..
  29. Basu J, Bousbaa H, Logarinho E, Li Z, Williams B, Lopes C, et al. Mutations in the essential spindle checkpoint gene bub1 cause chromosome missegregation and fail to block apoptosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:13-28 pubmed
    ..Bub1's localization to the kinetochore does not depend on the products of the genes zw10, rod, polo, or fizzy, indicating that the kinetochore is constructed from several independent subassemblies.
  30. Dobie K, Hari K, Maggert K, Karpen G. Centromere proteins and chromosome inheritance: a complex affair. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:206-17 pubmed
    ..A picture is beginning to emerge of the centromere-kinetechore as a complex and dynamic structure with conservation of function at the protein level across diverse species. ..
  31. Shannon M, Kaufman T, Shen M, Judd B. Lethality patterns and morphology of selected lethal and semi-lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;72:615-38 pubmed
    ..These results provide additional evidence that only one function is associated with each chromomere.-The results of the lethality pattern analysis are also compared with previous studies of lethal mutants of Drosophila. ..
  32. Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Dgt6 may also promote elongation of kinetochore-driven k-fibers through its interaction with gamma-tubulin and Msps. ..
  33. Judd B, Shen M, Kaufman T. The anatomy and function of a segment of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;71:139-56 pubmed
    ..The data clearly show one functional group per chromomere. It is postulated that a chromomere is one cistron within which much of the DNA is regulatory in function. ..
  34. Lin H, Wolfner M. Cloning and analysis of fs(1) Ya, a maternal effect gene required for the initiation of Drosophila embryogenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;215:257-65 pubmed
    ..The transcript is not detected in later stages of embryonic development. This expression pattern correlates closely with the genetic and developmental characteristics expected of the fs(1) Ya gene product. ..
  35. Garcia Bellido A, Robbins L. Viability of Female Germ-Line Cells Homozygous for Zygotic Lethals in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1983;103:235-47 pubmed
    ..The abundance of genes whose products are required for oogenesis, whose products are required in the oocyte, and whose activity is required during zygotic development is discussed. ..
  36. Reis R, Feijão T, Gouveia S, Pereira A, Matos I, Sampaio P, et al. Dynein and mast/orbit/CLASP have antagonistic roles in regulating kinetochore-microtubule plus-end dynamics. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that mast and dynein have antagonistic roles in the local regulation of microtubule plus-end dynamics at kinetochores, which are important for the maintenance of spindle bipolarity and normal spindle length. ..
  37. Lim J, Snyder L. Cytogenetic and complementation analyses of recessive lethal mutations induced in the X chromosome of Drosophila by three alkylating agents. Genet Res. 1974;24:1-10 pubmed
  38. Musarò M, Ciapponi L, Fasulo B, Gatti M, Cenci G. Unprotected Drosophila melanogaster telomeres activate the spindle assembly checkpoint. Nat Genet. 2008;40:362-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The SAC was partially overridden by mutations in zw10 (also known as mit(1)15) and bubR1, and also by mutations in mei-41, mus304, rad50, grp and tefu...
  39. Liu C, Lim J. Complementation analysis of methyl methane-sulfonate-induced recessive lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;79:601-11 pubmed
  40. Lopez J, Karpen G, Orr Weaver T. Sister-chromatid cohesion via MEI-S332 and kinetochore assembly are separable functions of the Drosophila centromere. Curr Biol. 2000;10:997-1000 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in higher eukaryotes cohesion is controlled by the functional centromere, and that, in contrast to yeast [5], the requirements for cohesion are separable from those for kinetochore assembly. ..
  41. Endow S. Microtubule motors in spindle and chromosome motility. Eur J Biochem. 1999;262:12-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of microtubule motors that function in chromosome distribution represents a major advance in understanding the forces that underlie chromosome and spindle movements during cell division. ..
  42. Oliveira R, Coelho P, Sunkel C. The condensin I subunit Barren/CAP-H is essential for the structural integrity of centromeric heterochromatin during mitosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8971-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the condensin I complex is required not only to promote sister chromatid resolution but also to maintain the structural integrity of centromeric heterochromatin during mitosis. ..
  43. Clarke L. Centromeres: proteins, protein complexes, and repeated domains at centromeres of simple eukaryotes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:212-8 pubmed
    ..Support is growing in systems from fungi to Drosophila for a model of centromere assembly and activation that is dependent on a particular underlying chromatin structure but not necessarily on a specific DNA sequence. ..
  44. Herrmann S, Amorim I, Sunkel C. The POLO kinase is required at multiple stages during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1998;107:440-51 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining of polo mutant cells with alpha-tubulin shows several abnormalities of the meiotic spindle, including a significantly reduced central spindle. Our results suggest that polo has multiple functions during spermatogenesis. ..
  45. Thierry Mieg D. Paralog, a control mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1982;100:209-37 pubmed
    ..We interpret the data by postulating that the expression of sets of dispersed genes might be controlled by the local topology of the chromosome, itself constrained by pairing of dispersed repeated elements. We call the mutation paralog. ..
  46. Maiato H, Sampaio P, Lemos C, Findlay J, Carmena M, Earnshaw W, et al. MAST/Orbit has a role in microtubule-kinetochore attachment and is essential for chromosome alignment and maintenance of spindle bipolarity. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:749-60 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in these cells, dynein and ZW10 accumulate at kinetochores and fail to transfer to microtubules...
  47. Tomkiel J. Chromosomally-induced meiotic drive in Drosophila males: checkpoint or fallout?. Genetica. 2000;109:95-103 pubmed
    ..We discuss how this hypothesis may account for previously described examples chromosomal causes of meiotic drive and sterility in Drosophila. ..
  48. Feijão T, Afonso O, Maia A, Sunkel C. Stability of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and the role of different KMN network components in Drosophila. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2013;70:661-75 pubmed publisher
  49. Mottier Pavie V, Cenci G, Vernì F, Gatti M, Bonaccorsi S. Phenotypic analysis of misato function reveals roles of noncentrosomal microtubules in Drosophila spindle formation. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that kinetochore-driven MT formation is an essential process for proper spindle assembly in Drosophila somatic cells. ..
  50. Nomura T, Kurokawa N. Comparative study on germ cell mutation induced by urethane (ethyl carbamate) gas and X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88:461-7 pubmed
    ..Urethane-induced mutations were strikingly non-random with two hot spots at zw-1 and zw-2, whereas the distribution of X-ray-induced mutations was more nearly random. ..
  51. Robbins L. Maternal-Zygotic Lethal Interactions in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER : Zeste-White Region Single-Cistron Mutations. Genetics. 1983;103:633-48 pubmed
    ..Lethal interactions were found for one or more alleles at 10 of the 13 loci. The implications of these observations with respect to gene regulation and developmental sequence are considered. ..
  52. Platero J, Ahmad K, Henikoff S. A distal heterochromatic block displays centromeric activity when detached from a natural centromere. Mol Cell. 1999;4:995-1004 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that centromere competence is innate to satellite-containing blocks of heterochromatin, challenging models for centromere identity in which competence is an acquired characteristic...
  53. D Avino P, Archambault V, Przewloka M, Zhang W, Laue E, Glover D. Isolation of protein complexes involved in mitosis and cytokinesis from Drosophila cultured cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;545:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this method has proven very successful in isolating mitotic and cytokinetic complexes, it can also be used to characterise protein complexes involved in many other cellular processes. ..
  54. Blower M, Sullivan B, Karpen G. Conserved organization of centromeric chromatin in flies and humans. Dev Cell. 2002;2:319-30 pubmed
    ..We propose that the unique structural arrangement of CID/CENP-A and H3 nucleosomes presents centromeric chromatin to the poleward face of the condensing mitotic chromosome. ..
  55. Archambault V, D Avino P, Deery M, Lilley K, Glover D. Sequestration of Polo kinase to microtubules by phosphopriming-independent binding to Map205 is relieved by phosphorylation at a CDK site in mitosis. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2707-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Map205-dependent targeting of Polo to microtubules provides a stable reservoir of Polo that can be rapidly mobilized by the activity of Cdk1 at mitotic entry. ..
  56. Vallee R, Varma D, Dujardin D. ZW10 function in mitotic checkpoint control, dynein targeting and membrane trafficking: is dynein the unifying theme?. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:2447-51 pubmed
    b>ZW10 was initially identified as a mitotic checkpoint protein involved in chromosome segregation...