Gene Symbol: zld
Description: zelda
Alias: CG12701, Dmel\CG12701, EP1344, VFL, Vfl, ZLD, Zelda, Zld, l(1)G0225, l(1)G0353, l(1)G0427, vfl, zelda, CG12701-PA, CG12701-PB, CG12701-PD, CG12701-PF, CG12701-PG, EP1344, ZELDA, lethal (1) G0225, lethal (1) G0353, lethal (1) G0427, vielfaltig, vielfaltig/Zelda, zinc-finger early drosophila activator, zld-PA, zld-PB, zld-PD, zld-PF, zld-PG
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Harrison M, Botchan M, Cline T. Grainyhead and Zelda compete for binding to the promoters of the earliest-expressed Drosophila genes. Dev Biol. 2010;345:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that Grh and the previously characterized transcriptional activator Zelda (Zld) bind to different TAGteam sequences with varying affinities, and that Grh competes with Zld for TAGteam ..
  2. Tsurumi A, Xia F, Li J, Larson K, Lafrance R, Li W. STAT is an essential activator of the zygotic genome in the early Drosophila embryo. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002086 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila STAT (STAT92E) functions as a general transcription factor that, together with the transcription factor Zelda, induces transcription of a large number of early-transcribed zygotic genes during the MZT...
  3. Kanodia J, Liang H, Kim Y, Lim B, Zhan M, Lu H, et al. Pattern formation by graded and uniform signals in the early Drosophila embryo. Biophys J. 2012;102:427-33 pubmed publisher
    ..that pattern formation by these graded signals depends on uniformly expressed transcriptional activators, such as Zelda. Removal of Zelda influences both the timing and the spatial expression domains for most of the genes controlled ..
  4. Staudt N, Fellert S, Chung H, Jackle H, Vorbrüggen G. Mutations of the Drosophila zinc finger-encoding gene vielfältig impair mitotic cell divisions and cause improper chromosome segregation. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2356-65 pubmed
    We describe the molecular characterization and function of vielfältig (vfl), a X-chromosomal gene that encodes a nuclear protein with six Krüppel-like C2H2 zinc finger motifs...
  5. Harrison M, Li X, Kaplan T, Botchan M, Eisen M. Zelda binding in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo marks regions subsequently activated at the maternal-to-zygotic transition. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002266 pubmed publisher
    ..that initiate sex determination, patterning, and other early developmental processes; and the zinc-finger protein Zelda (ZLD) plays a key role in their transcriptional activation...
  6. Nien C, Liang H, Butcher S, Sun Y, Fu S, Gocha T, et al. Temporal coordination of gene networks by Zelda in the early Drosophila embryo. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002339 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently the discovery of the transcriptional activator Zelda (Zld), which binds to CAGGTAG and related sequences present in the enhancers of many early-activated genes in ..
  7. Ozdemir A, Ma L, White K, Stathopoulos A. Su(H)-mediated repression positions gene boundaries along the dorsal-ventral axis of Drosophila embryos. Dev Cell. 2014;31:100-13 pubmed publisher
    ..binding sites support repression and act to counterbalance activation through Dl and the ubiquitous activator Zelda. Our study highlights a role for broadly expressed repressors, like Su(H), and organization of transcription ..
  8. Macnamara S. Multiscale modeling of dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;35:82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple thermodynamic model of equilibrium binding explains how a spatially uniform transcription factor, Zelda, can act in combination with a graded factor, Dorsal, to cooperatively regulate gene expression borders...
  9. Martinez C, Rest J, Kim A, Ludwig M, Kreitman M, White K, et al. Ancestral resurrection of the Drosophila S2E enhancer reveals accessible evolutionary paths through compensatory change. Mol Biol Evol. 2014;31:903-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A multiplicity of mechanisms for binding site turnover exemplified by Bicoid, Giant, and Krüppel sites, explains how rapid sequence change may occur while maintaining the function of the cis-regulatory element...

More Information


  1. Paris M, Kaplan T, Li X, Villalta J, Lott S, Eisen M. Extensive divergence of transcription factor binding in Drosophila embryos with highly conserved gene expression. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003748 pubmed publisher
  2. Giannios P, Tsitilou S. The embryonic transcription factor Zelda of Drosophila melanogaster is also expressed in larvae and may regulate developmentally important genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;438:329-33 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor Zelda plays a pivotal role in promoting the maternal to zygotic transition during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known about its role later in development...
  3. Schulz K, Bondra E, Moshe A, Villalta J, Lieb J, Kaplan T, et al. Zelda is differentially required for chromatin accessibility, transcription factor binding, and gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo. Genome Res. 2015;25:1715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, the DNA-binding protein Zelda (also known as Vielfaltig) is required for this transition and for transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome...
  4. Boija A, Mannervik M. Initiation of diverse epigenetic states during nuclear programming of the Drosophila body plan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:8735-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that the maternal pioneer factor, Zelda, is responsible for establishing poised RNA polymerase at Dorsal target genes before Dorsal-mediated zygotic ..
  5. Hartmann H, Guthöhrlein E, Siebert M, Luehr S, Söding J. P-value-based regulatory motif discovery using positional weight matrices. Genome Res. 2013;23:181-94 pubmed publisher
    ..XXmotif's sensitivity, reliability, and usability will help to leverage the quickly accumulating wealth of functional genomics data. ..
  6. Struffi P, Corado M, Kaplan L, Yu D, Rushlow C, Small S. Combinatorial activation and concentration-dependent repression of the Drosophila even skipped stripe 3+7 enhancer. Development. 2011;138:4291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the maternal zinc-finger protein Zelda (Zld) is absolutely required for activation, and present evidence that Zld binds to multiple non-canonical sites...
  7. Sung H, Spangenberg S, Vogt N, Großhans J. Number of nuclear divisions in the Drosophila blastoderm controlled by onset of zygotic transcription. Curr Biol. 2013;23:133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, degradation of maternal RNAs and zygotic gene expression are involved. The zinc finger Vielfältig (Vfl) controls expression of many early zygotic genes, including the mitotic inhibitor frühstart...
  8. Yáñez Cuna J, Dinh H, Kvon E, Shlyueva D, Stark A. Uncovering cis-regulatory sequence requirements for context-specific transcription factor binding. Genome Res. 2012;22:2018-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We predict that TF binding in the early Drosophila embryo depends on motifs for the early zygotic TFs Vielfaltig (also known as Zelda) and Tramtrack...
  9. Reichardt I, Bonnay F, Steinmann V, Loedige I, Burkard T, Meister G, et al. The tumor suppressor Brat controls neuronal stem cell lineages by inhibiting Deadpan and Zelda. EMBO Rep. 2018;19:102-117 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the known target Deadpan (Dpn), our experiments identify the transcription factor Zelda (Zld) as a critical target of Brat...
  10. Shin D, Hong J. Midline enhancer activity of the short gastrulation shadow enhancer is characterized by three unusual features for cis-regulatory DNA. BMB Rep. 2015;48:589-94 pubmed
    ..Finally, two linked Dorsal (Dl)- and Zelda (Zld)-binding sites, critical for the neurogenic ectoderm enhancer activity, are also required for the midline ..
  11. Hamm D, Bondra E, Harrison M. Transcriptional activation is a conserved feature of the early embryonic factor Zelda that requires a cluster of four zinc fingers for DNA binding and a low-complexity activation domain. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:3508-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the mechanisms driving this genome activation are currently unknown, the transcriptional activator Zelda (ZLD) has been shown to be instrumental in driving this process in Drosophila melanogaster...
  12. Sun Y, Nien C, Chen K, Liu H, Johnston J, Zeitlinger J, et al. Zelda overcomes the high intrinsic nucleosome barrier at enhancers during Drosophila zygotic genome activation. Genome Res. 2015;25:1703-14 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila genome activator Vielfaltig (Vfl), also known as Zelda (Zld), is thought to prime enhancers for activation by patterning transcription factors (TFs)...
  13. Xu Z, Chen H, Ling J, Yu D, Struffi P, Small S. Impacts of the ubiquitous factor Zelda on Bicoid-dependent DNA binding and transcription in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2014;28:608-21 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of Bcd binding in vivo and were enriched in predicted binding sites for the ubiquitous maternal protein Zelda (Zld). Here we tested the role of Zld in Bcd-mediated binding and transcription...
  14. Fu S, Nien C, Liang H, Rushlow C. Co-activation of microRNAs by Zelda is essential for early Drosophila development. Development. 2014;141:2108-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional activator Zelda is required for their proper activation and regulation, and Zelda binding observed in genome-wide binding profiles ..
  15. Blythe S, Wieschaus E. Zygotic genome activation triggers the DNA replication checkpoint at the midblastula transition. Cell. 2015;160:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing Pol II recruitment in zelda mutants both reduces replication stalling and bypasses the requirement for a functional checkpoint...
  16. Langley A, Smith J, Stemple D, Harvey S. New insights into the maternal to zygotic transition. Development. 2014;141:3834-41 pubmed publisher
  17. Li X, Harrison M, Villalta J, Kaplan T, Eisen M. Establishment of regions of genomic activity during the Drosophila maternal to zygotic transition. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..that we have previously shown to be bound in early embryos by the maternally deposited transcription factor Zelda, suggesting that Zelda triggers a cascade of events, including the accumulation of specific histone modifications, ..
  18. Shin D, Hong J. The short gastrulation shadow enhancer employs dual modes of transcriptional synergy. Int J Dev Biol. 2017;61:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses indicated that a minimal enhancer region, systematically mapped in vivo, contains five Dl-, three Zelda (Zld)-, and three Bicoid (Bcd)-binding sites; four of these five Dl-binding sites are closed linked to two Zld- ..
  19. Ribeiro L, Tobias Santos V, Santos D, Antunes F, Feltran G, de Souza Menezes J, et al. Evolution and multiple roles of the Pancrustacea specific transcription factor zelda in insects. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006868 pubmed publisher
    ..The zinc-finger TF zelda (zld) is essential for the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) in Drosophila melanogaster, where it directly ..
  20. Lusk R, Eisen M. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000829 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster enhancers. Thus, this study calls into question the common practice of inferring "cis-regulatory grammars" from the organization and evolutionary dynamics of developmental enhancers. ..
  21. Farrell J, O Farrell P. From egg to gastrula: how the cell cycle is remodeled during the Drosophila mid-blastula transition. Annu Rev Genet. 2014;48:269-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we consider how the elements of this program may be conserved or changed in other organisms. ..
  22. Gavin Smyth J, Wang Y, Butler I, Ferguson E. A genetic network conferring canalization to a bistable patterning system in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2296-2302 pubmed publisher
    ..These data both detail a new mechanism that generates developmental canalization and identify an example of a species with noncanalized axial patterning. ..
  23. Samee A, Sinha S. Evaluating thermodynamic models of enhancer activity on cellular resolution gene expression data. Methods. 2013;62:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model identifies three transcription factors--ZELDA, SLOPPY-PAIRED, and NUBBIN--that have not been previously incorporated in quantitative models of this system, as ..
  24. Darbo E, Herrmann C, Lecuit T, Thieffry D, van Helden J. Transcriptional and epigenetic signatures of zygotic genome activation during early Drosophila embryogenesis. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:226 pubmed publisher
    ..sequences (upstream, introns, UTR), three of which correspond to previously known transcription factors: Zelda, Tramtrack and Trithorax-like (Trl)...
  25. Holmqvist P, Boija A, Philip P, Crona F, Stenberg P, Mannervik M. Preferential genome targeting of the CBP co-activator by Rel and Smad proteins in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002769 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CBP occupancy in Drosophila embryos preferentially overlaps factors controlling dorso-ventral patterning and that CBP binds silent genes without causing histone hyperacetylation. ..
  26. Davie K, Jacobs J, Atkins M, Potier D, Christiaens V, Halder G, et al. Discovery of transcription factors and regulatory regions driving in vivo tumor development by ATAC-seq and FAIRE-seq open chromatin profiling. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004994 pubmed publisher
  27. Foo S, Sun Y, Lim B, Ziukaite R, O BRIEN K, Nien C, et al. Zelda potentiates morphogen activity by increasing chromatin accessibility. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1341-1346 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Zelda (Zld) plays such a role in the Drosophila embryo, where it has been shown to control the action of patterning ..
  28. Wunderlich Z, Bragdon M, DePace A. Comparing mRNA levels using in situ hybridization of a target gene and co-stain. Methods. 2014;68:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated this test set by mutating enhancer sequences to contain different numbers of binding sites for Zelda, a transcriptional activator...
  29. McCarthy G, Drewell R, Dresch J. Global sensitivity analysis of a dynamic model for gene expression in Drosophila embryos. Peerj. 2015;3:e1022 pubmed publisher
  30. Pearson J, WATSON J, Crews S. Drosophila melanogaster Zelda and Single-minded collaborate to regulate an evolutionarily dynamic CNS midline cell enhancer. Dev Biol. 2012;366:420-32 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila Zelda transcription factor plays an important role in regulating transcription at the embryonic maternal-to-zygotic transition...
  31. Satija R, Bradley R. The TAGteam motif facilitates binding of 21 sequence-specific transcription factors in the Drosophila embryo. Genome Res. 2012;22:656-65 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibits a dose-dependent relationship with "TAGteam" sequence motifs bound by the zinc finger protein Vielfaltig, also known as Zelda, a recently discovered activator of the zygotic genome...