Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: zen
Alias: BG:DS00276.9, CG1046, Dmel\CG1046, ZEN, ZEN VRE, Zen, dm-zen, l(3)84Ad, zen1, zerknullt, CG1046-PA, zen-PA, zerknuellt, zerknullt 1, zerknult
Species: fruit fly
- Ratnaparkhi G, Jia S, Courey A. Uncoupling dorsal-mediated activation from dorsal-mediated repression in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2006;133:4409-14 pubmed..This indicates that dorsoventral patterning is not dependent upon Dorsal-mediated repression, reflecting the existence of redundant mechanisms to block Decapentaplegic signaling. ..
- Rushlow C, Levine M. Role of the zerknüllt gene in dorsal-ventral pattern formation in Drosophila. Adv Genet. 1990;27:277-307 pubmed
- Affolter M, Marty T, Vigano M, Jazwinska A. Nuclear interpretation of Dpp signaling in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2001;20:3298-305 pubmed..It remains to be seen whether similar molecular mechanisms operate in the nucleus in vertebrate systems. ..
- Zuo P, Stanojevic D, Colgan J, Han K, Levine M, Manley J. Activation and repression of transcription by the gap proteins hunchback and Krüppel in cultured Drosophila cells. Genes Dev. 1991;5:254-64 pubmed..We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying these activities, as well as the potential significance of these results with respect to segmentation in Drosophila. ..
- de Renzis S, Elemento O, Tavazoie S, Wieschaus E. Unmasking activation of the zygotic genome using chromosomal deletions in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e117 pubmed..We propose that this regulatory mode links morphogen gradients with temporal regulation during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. ..
- Astigarraga S, Grossman R, Diaz Delfin J, Caelles C, Paroush Z, Jiménez G. A MAPK docking site is critical for downregulation of Capicua by Torso and EGFR RTK signaling. EMBO J. 2007;26:668-77 pubmed..Finally, we describe differences in the modes of Capicua downregulation by Torso and EGFR signaling, raising the possibility that such differences contribute to the tissue specificity of both signals. ..
- Hasson P, Muller B, Basler K, Paroush Z. Brinker requires two corepressors for maximal and versatile repression in Dpp signalling. EMBO J. 2001;20:5725-36 pubmed..Our results show that Brk utilizes multiple means to repress its endogenous target genes, allowing repression of a multitude of complex Dpp target promoters. ..
- Copley R, Totrov M, Linnell J, Field S, Ragoussis J, Udalova I. Functional conservation of Rel binding sites in drosophilid genomes. Genome Res. 2007;17:1327-35 pubmed..We discuss how two types of conservation may contribute to the stabilization and optimization of a functional gene regulatory code in evolution. ..
- Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
- Jiang J, Rushlow C, Zhou Q, Small S, Levine M. Individual dorsal morphogen binding sites mediate activation and repression in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1992;11:3147-54 pubmed..to demonstrate that it also functions as a direct transcriptional repressor of a second target gene, zerknüllt (zen)...
- Pan D, Courey A. The same dorsal binding site mediates both activation and repression in a context-dependent manner. EMBO J. 1992;11:1837-42 pubmed..Thus, the default mode of action of the dorsal protein is transcriptional activation. Additional factors may modify dorsal activity to bring about repression. ..
- Stauber M, Prell A, Schmidt Ott U. A single Hox3 gene with composite bicoid and zerknullt expression characteristics in non-Cyclorrhaphan flies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:274-9 pubmed..Our finding correlates well with a partial reduction of zerknüllt-dependent extraembryonic tissue during Dipteran evolution. ..
- Wakimoto B, Turner F, Kaufman T. Defects in embryogenesis in mutants associated with the antennapedia gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1984;102:147-72 pubmed..results of SEM studies, clonal analyses, and temperature-shift experiments show that the fushi tarazu (ftz) and zerknullt (zen) genes, which map between pb and Scr, are involved in processes initiated during embryogenesis...
- Duboule D. The rise and fall of Hox gene clusters. Development. 2007;134:2549-60 pubmed..By integrating these parameters, general conclusions emerge that can help solve the aforementioned dilemma. ..
- Kirov N, Zhelnin L, Shah J, Rushlow C. Conversion of a silencer into an enhancer: evidence for a co-repressor in dorsal-mediated repression in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1993;12:3193-9 pubmed..levels in ventral nuclei of the embryo where it activates some genes (twist and snail) and represses others [zerknullt (zen), decapentaplegic and tolloid]...
- Rushlow C, Frasch M, Doyle H, Levine M. Maternal regulation of zerknüllt: a homoeobox gene controlling differentiation of dorsal tissues in Drosophila. Nature. 1987;330:583-6 pubmedThe homoeobox gene zerknüllt (zen) plays an important role in the differentiation of dorsal tissues during Drosophila development...
- Senger K, Armstrong G, Rowell W, Kwan J, Markstein M, Levine M. Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;13:19-32 pubmed..Aspects of this "regulatory code" are essential for the immune response. These results suggest that immunity regulatory DNAs contain constrained organizational features, which may be a general property of eukaryotic enhancers. ..
- Markstein M, Zinzen R, Markstein P, Yee K, Erives A, Stathopoulos A, et al. A regulatory code for neurogenic gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2004;131:2387-94 pubmed..We discuss the prospects for deciphering regulatory codes that link primary DNA sequence information with predicted patterns of gene expression. ..
- Negre B, Casillas S, Suzanne M, Sánchez Herrero E, Akam M, Nefedov M, et al. Conservation of regulatory sequences and gene expression patterns in the disintegrating Drosophila Hox gene complex. Genome Res. 2005;15:692-700 pubmed..Rather, the organization of Hox genes is modular, and their clustering seems the result of phylogenetic inertia more than functional necessity. ..
- Ip Y, Kraut R, Levine M, Rushlow C. The dorsal morphogen is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that interacts with a long-range repression element in Drosophila. Cell. 1991;64:439-46 pubmed..Here we show that dl is a DNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with distal sequences of the zerknüllt (zen) promoter, one of the genetic targets of the morphogen...
- Huang J, Dubnicoff T, Liaw G, Bai Y, Valentine S, Shirokawa J, et al. Binding sites for transcription factor NTF-1/Elf-1 contribute to the ventral repression of decapentaplegic. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3177-89 pubmed..This protein also binds to an apparently essential region in a VRR associated with the zerknüllt (zen) gene...
- Akam M, Averof M, Castelli Gair J, Dawes R, Falciani F, Ferrier D. The evolving role of Hox genes in arthropods. Dev Suppl. 1994;:209-15 pubmed..The Drosophila Hox cluster contains several homeobox genes that are not homeotic genes--bicoid, fushi-tarazu and zen. the role of these genes during early development has been studied in some detail...
- Barker M, Demuth J, Wade M. Maternal expression relaxes constraint on innovation of the anterior determinant, bicoid. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:e57 pubmed publisher..simulans for polymorphism in the tandem gene duplicates bcd, which is maternally expressed, and zerknüllt (zen), which is zygotically expressed...
- Cai H, Arnosti D, Levine M. Long-range repression in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9309-14 pubmed
- Rushlow C, Colosimo P, Lin M, Xu M, Kirov N. Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila gene zen by competing Smad and Brinker inputs. Genes Dev. 2001;15:340-51 pubmed..Here we analyze the regulation of the Drosophila gene zen, which is a target of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling pathway during cellular blastoderm formation...
- Berleth T, Burri M, Thoma G, Bopp D, Richstein S, Frigerio G, et al. The role of localization of bicoid RNA in organizing the anterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1988;7:1749-56 pubmed..The localization of the transcript requires the function of the maternal effect genes exuperantia and swallow while transcript stability is reduced by functions depending on posterior group genes. ..
- Courey A, Jia S. Transcriptional repression: the long and the short of it. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2786-96 pubmed
- Jimenez G, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Casanova J. Relief of gene repression by torso RTK signaling: role of capicua in Drosophila terminal and dorsoventral patterning. Genes Dev. 2000;14:224-31 pubmed..cic has been evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that Cic-like proteins may act as repressors regulated by RTK signaling in other organisms. ..
- Doyle H, Kraut R, Levine M. Spatial regulation of zerknüllt: a dorsal-ventral patterning gene in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1518-33 pubmedzerknüllt (zen) is one of approximately 10 zygotically active genes that control the differentiation of the dorsal-ventral (D/V) pattern during early embryogenesis in Drosophila...
- Falciani F, Hausdorf B, Schr der R, Akam M, Tautz D, Denell R, et al. Class 3 Hox genes in insects and the origin of zen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:8479-84 pubmed..Outside the homeobox they share sequence motifs with the Drosophila zerknüllt (zen) and z2 genes, and like zen, are expressed only in extraembryonic membranes...
- Budd P, Jackson I. What do the regulators regulate? First glimpse downstream. Trends Genet. 1991;7:74-6 pubmed
- Hoey T, Levine M. Divergent homeo box proteins recognize similar DNA sequences in Drosophila. Nature. 1988;332:858-61 pubmed
- Wilkins A. Drosophila: flying high in Zürich. Bioessays. 2000;22:305-7 pubmed
- Chen G, Handel K, Roth S. The maternal NF-kappaB/dorsal gradient of Tribolium castaneum: dynamics of early dorsoventral patterning in a short-germ beetle. Development. 2000;127:5145-56 pubmed..However, Dorsal is up-regulated and transiently forms a nuclear gradient in the serosa, a protective extraembryonic cell layer ultimately covering the whole embryo...
- Ross J, Shimmi O, Vilmos P, Petryk A, Kim H, Gaudenz K, et al. Twisted gastrulation is a conserved extracellular BMP antagonist. Nature. 2001;410:479-83 pubmed..We show that Tsgs from different species are functionally equivalent, and conclude that Tsg is a conserved protein that functions with SOG/chordin to antagonize BMP signalling. ..
- Thisse C, Thisse B. Dorsoventral development of the Drosophila embryo is controlled by a cascade of transcriptional regulators. Dev Suppl. 1992;:173-81 pubmed..In addition, in cultured cells twist has been shown to be a transcriptional activator. Thus, the first events of embryonic development along the D/V axis are controlled at the transcriptional level. ..
- Wang X, Harris R, Bayston L, Ashe H. Type IV collagens regulate BMP signalling in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;455:72-7 pubmed publisher..On the basis of our findings that human type IV collagen binds BMP4, we predict that this role of type IV collagens will be conserved. ..
- Tatei K, Levine M. Specificity of Rel-inhibitor interactions in Drosophila embryos. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3627-34 pubmed..Recent crystallographic studies suggest that the region I sequence and the nuclear localization sequence might form a composite surface which interacts with inhibitor proteins. ..
- Ferguson E, Anderson K. Localized enhancement and repression of the activity of the TGF-beta family member, decapentaplegic, is necessary for dorsal-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1992;114:583-97 pubmed..We propose that the tolloid, shrew and sog genes are required to generate a gradient of dpp activity, which directly specifies the pattern of the dorsal 40% of the embryo. ..
- Holmqvist P, Boija A, Philip P, Crona F, Stenberg P, Mannervik M. Preferential genome targeting of the CBP co-activator by Rel and Smad proteins in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002769 pubmed publisher..We conclude that CBP occupancy in Drosophila embryos preferentially overlaps factors controlling dorso-ventral patterning and that CBP binds silent genes without causing histone hyperacetylation. ..
- Hirose F, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A. Repression of regulatory factor for Drosophila DNA replication-related gene promoters by zerknüllt homeodomain protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:2937-42 pubmed..Drosophila DNA polymerase alpha gene was repressed by cotransfection into Drosophila Kc cells with a zerknüllt (zen)-expressing plasmid as previously observed with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter...
- Biggin M, Tjian R. A purified Drosophila homeodomain protein represses transcription in vitro. Cell. 1989;58:433-40 pubmed..The biochemical demonstration that a Drosophila homeodomain protein can directly regulate RNA synthesis strengthens the view that this class of regulators act as transcription factors to control development. ..
- Bai Y, Casola C, BETRAN E. Quality of regulatory elements in Drosophila retrogenes. Genomics. 2009;93:83-9 pubmed publisher..Future experiments are needed to determine the function and role of the new elements presented here. ..
- Gurdon J, Bourillot P. Morphogen gradient interpretation. Nature. 2001;413:797-803 pubmed
- Tipping M, Kim Y, Kyriakakis P, Tong M, Shvartsman S, Veraksa A. ?-arrestin Kurtz inhibits MAPK and Toll signalling in Drosophila development. EMBO J. 2010;29:3222-35 pubmed publisher..Our findings uncover a new in vivo function of ?-arrestins and present a new mechanism of ERK inhibition by the Drosophila ?-arrestin Krz. ..
- Ip Y. Transcriptional regulation. Converting an activator into a repressor. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1-3 pubmed..Dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila requires the Dorsal morphogen to act as both an activator and a repressor of transcription: an HMG1-like protein may serve to switch Dorsal from one to the other. ..
- Schmid K, Tautz D. A comparison of homologous developmental genes from Drosophila and Tribolium reveals major differences in length and trinucleotide repeat content. J Mol Evol. 1999;49:558-66 pubmed
- Schubert F, Nieselt Struwe K, Gruss P. The Antennapedia-type homeobox genes have evolved from three precursors separated early in metazoan evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:143-7 pubmed..These genes later independently gave rise to the 13 groups of paralogous genes in vertebrates and to the 11 Antennapedia-type genes in the Drosophila complexes. ..
- Saha M, Miles R, Grainger R. Dorsal-ventral patterning during neural induction in Xenopus: assessment of spinal cord regionalization with xHB9, a marker for the motor neuron region. Dev Biol. 1997;187:209-23 pubmed..Our data suggest that, in addition to floor plate signaling, continued interactions with the underlying mesoderm through neural tube stages are essential for proper spatial patterning of the motor neuron region. ..
- Yamaguchi M, Hirose F, Nishida Y, Matsukage A. Repression of the Drosophila proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene promoter by zerknüllt protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:4909-17 pubmed..Cotransfection with a zerknüllt (zen)-expressing plasmid specifically repressed CAT expression...
- Nibu Y, Zhang H, Bajor E, Barolo S, Small S, Levine M. dCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Krüppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1998;17:7009-20 pubmed..We propose that dCtBP represents a major form of transcriptional repression in development, and that the Groucho and dCtBP co-repressors mediate separate pathways of repression. ..
- Skeath J, Panganiban G, Selegue J, Carroll S. Gene regulation in two dimensions: the proneural achaete and scute genes are controlled by combinations of axis-patterning genes through a common intergenic control region. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2606-19 pubmed
- Hazelrigg T, Kaufman T. Revertants of Dominant Mutations Associated with the Antennapedia Gene Complex of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: Cytology and Genetics. Genetics. 1983;105:581-600 pubmed
- Kidd S. Characterization of the Drosophila cactus locus and analysis of interactions between cactus and dorsal proteins. Cell. 1992;71:623-35 pubmed..In vivo the bulk of the cactus protein associated with dorsal is phosphorylated. This, or the association with dorsal, appears to stabilize the maternal cactus protein. ..
- Lynch J, Desplan C. Evolution of development: beyond bicoid. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R557-9 pubmed..A new study suggests how this may have evolved out of an alternative mechanism based on cooperating Orthodenticle and Hunchback proteins, the two mechanisms intersecting at the level of downstream target genes...
- Schulz R, Miksch J. Dorsal expression of the Drosophila z600 gene during early embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 1989;136:211-21 pubmed
- Chang T, Mazotta J, Dumstrei K, Dumitrescu A, Hartenstein V. Dpp and Hh signaling in the Drosophila embryonic eye field. Development. 2001;128:4691-704 pubmed..The gene zerknuellt (zen), which is expressed in response to peak levels of Dpp in the dorsal midline, secondarily represses so and ..
- Goff D, Nilson L, Morisato D. Establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity of the Drosophila egg requires capicua action in ovarian follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:4553-62 pubmed..Our experiments reveal that cic controls dorsal-ventral patterning by regulating pipe expression in ovarian follicle cells, before its previously described role in interpreting the Dorsal gradient. ..
- Markstein M, Levine M. Decoding cis-regulatory DNAs in the Drosophila genome. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:601-6 pubmed..These methods change the way that cis-DNAs will be analyzed in future studies and offer the promise of unraveling complex gene networks. ..
- Francois V, Solloway M, O Neill J, Emery J, Bier E. Dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo depends on a putative negative growth factor encoded by the short gastrulation gene. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2602-16 pubmed..These putative soluble Sog peptides may then diffuse into the dorsal region to antagonize the activity of Dpp, leading to the subdivision of the dorsal territory into amnioserosa and dorsal ectoderm. ..
- Miles W, Jaffray E, Campbell S, Takeda S, Bayston L, Basu S, et al. Medea SUMOylation restricts the signaling range of the Dpp morphogen in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2578-90 pubmed publisher..Overall, our results identify an unusual strategy for regulating morphogen range that, rather than impacting on the morphogen itself, targets an intracellular transducer...
- Carroll S, Winslow G, Twombly V, Scott M. Genes that control dorsoventral polarity affect gene expression along the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1987;99:327-32 pubmed
- Manseau L, Schupbach T. cappuccino and spire: two unique maternal-effect loci required for both the anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterns of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1437-52 pubmed..On the basis of our current knowledge of the genes involved in this process, we formulated a working model for the early steps in dorsoventral patterning. ..
- Han K, Manley J. Functional domains of the Drosophila Engrailed protein. EMBO J. 1993;12:2723-33 pubmed..Separate regions of En that may in some circumstances function in transcriptional activation were also identified. ..
- Panzer S, Weigel D, Beckendorf S. Organogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: embryonic salivary gland determination is controlled by homeotic and dorsoventral patterning genes. Development. 1992;114:49-57 pubmed
- George H, Terracol R. The vrille gene of Drosophila is a maternal enhancer of decapentaplegic and encodes a new member of the bZIP family of transcription factors. Genetics. 1997;146:1345-63 pubmed
- Denell R. Discovery and genetic definition of the Drosophila Antennapedia complex. Genetics. 1994;138:549-52 pubmed
- Johnson Hamlet M, Perkins L. Analysis of corkscrew signaling in the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway during myogenesis. Genetics. 2001;159:1073-87 pubmed..This work extends previous studies of Csw during Torso and Sevenless RTK signaling to include an in-depth analysis of the role of Csw in the EGFR signaling pathway. ..