Gene Symbol: Yp3
Description: Yolk protein 3
Alias: CG11129, DIM 30, Dmel\CG11129, RH08557p, VG3, VIT3Dm, YP-3, YP3, YP[[3]], fs(1)1526, fs(1)A1526, yp3, yolk protein 3, CG11129-PA, CG11129-PB, Yp3-PA, Yp3-PB, vitellogenin, yolk protein
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Bownes M. The regulation of the yolk protein genes, a family of sex differentiation genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioessays. 1994;16:745-52 pubmed
    ..pathway and the downstream sex differentiation genes, namely the regulation of the female-specific yolk protein genes...
  2. Vanzo N, Oprins A, Xanthakis D, Ephrussi A, Rabouille C. Stimulation of endocytosis and actin dynamics by Oskar polarizes the Drosophila oocyte. Dev Cell. 2007;12:543-55 pubmed
    ..We propose that Oskar maintains its localization at the posterior pole through dual functions in regulating endocytosis and F-actin dynamics. ..
  3. Richard D, Rybczynski R, Wilson T, Wang Y, Wayne M, Zhou Y, et al. Insulin signaling is necessary for vitellogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster independent of the roles of juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids: female sterility of the chico1 insulin signaling mutation is autonomous to the ovary. J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:455-64 pubmed
    ..The ovary transplant experiments corroborate the endocrine results and demonstrate that insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) is necessary for vitellogenesis even when sufficient levels of JH, ecdysteroids or other factors are present. ..
  4. Flatt T, Tu M, Tatar M. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history. Bioessays. 2005;27:999-1010 pubmed
    ..In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs. ..
  5. Sommer B, Oprins A, Rabouille C, Munro S. The exocyst component Sec5 is present on endocytic vesicles in the oocyte of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:953-63 pubmed
    ..In oocytes, the major substrate for clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the vitellogenin receptor Yolkless...
  6. Bownes M. Hormonal and genetic regulation of vitellogenesis in Drosophila. Q Rev Biol. 1982;57:247-74 pubmed
  7. Williams J, Bownes M. Reduced stability of RNA coding for yolk polypeptide 3 in Drosophila melanogaster ovary. Eur J Biochem. 1986;161:95-101 pubmed
    ..level of YP3 RNA is significantly reduced in the ovary in comparison with the fat body, and that none of the yolk protein genes is amplified either in the fat body or the follicle cells...
  8. Sanchez L, Guerrero I. The development of the Drosophila genital disc. Bioessays. 2001;23:698-707 pubmed
    ..This input acts by modulating the response to Hedgehog, Wingless, and Decapentaplegic morphogenetic signals. ..
  9. Garabedian M, Shepherd B, Wensink P. A tissue-specific transcription enhancer from the Drosophila yolk protein 1 gene. Cell. 1986;45:859-67 pubmed
    The yolk protein 1 gene (yp1) of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed only in the ovarian follicle cells and the fat bodies of adult females...

More Information


  1. Theofel I, Bartkuhn M, Hundertmark T, Boettger T, Gärtner S, Leser K, et al. tBRD-1 selectively controls gene activity in the Drosophila testis and interacts with two new members of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108267 pubmed publisher
  2. Shepherd B, Garabedian M, Hung M, Wensink P. Developmental control of Drosophila yolk protein 1 gene by cis-acting DNA elements. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1985;50:521-6 pubmed
    ..This small fragment has at least one of the characteristics of enhancer sequences because it can direct a heterologous Drosophila promoter to be transcribed with the yp1 fat body expression pattern. ..
  3. Trougakos I, Papassideri I, Waring G, Margaritis L. Differential sorting of constitutively co-secreted proteins in the ovarian follicle cells of Drosophila. Eur J Cell Biol. 2001;80:271-84 pubmed
    ..These findings illuminate new details concerning the follicle cells secretory and oocyte endocytic pathways and provide for the first time evidence for condensation-mediated sorting of constitutively secreted proteins in Drosophila...
  4. De Loof A, Geysen J, Cardoen J, Verachtert B. Comparative developmental physiology and molecular cytology of the polytrophic ovarian follicles of the blowfly Sarcophaga bullata and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1990;96:309-21 pubmed
    ..6. Most of the vitellogenin is synthesized by the fat body but some follicle cells also synthesize small amounts. 7...
  5. Li H, Baker B. hermaphrodite and doublesex function both dependently and independently to control various aspects of sexual differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:2641-51 pubmed
    ..of her's zygotic function suggests that one set of female-specific terminal differentiation genes, the yolk protein (yp) genes, is transcriptionally activated by two separate pathways...
  6. Kubli E. Sex-peptides: seminal peptides of the Drosophila male. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:1689-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Sps bind to sperm. Together with sperm they are responsible for the persistence of the two post-mating responses. But Sps are the molecular basis of the sperm effect; sperm is merely the carrier...
  7. Leung H, Tseng Crank J, Kim E, Mahapatra C, Shino S, Zhou Y, et al. DAG lipase activity is necessary for TRP channel regulation in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 2008;58:884-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of norpA inaE double mutants and severe inaE mutants show that normal DAGL activity is required for the generation of physiologically meaningful photoreceptor responses. ..
  8. Papassideri I, Trougakos I, Leonard K, Margaritis L. Crystalline yolk spheroids in Drosophila melanogaster oocyte: freeze fracture and two-dimensional reconstruction analysis. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:370-6 pubmed
  9. Bownes M, Ronaldson E, Mauchline D. 20-Hydroxyecdysone, but not juvenile hormone, regulation of yolk protein gene expression can be mapped to cis-acting DNA sequences. Dev Biol. 1996;173:475-89 pubmed
    The three yolk protein genes (yps) of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed in the ovary and fat body of the adult female. Their levels of expression in the fat body depend upon both juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)...
  10. Sun S, Cline T. Effects of Wolbachia infection and ovarian tumor mutations on Sex-lethal germline functioning in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;181:1291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Yolk protein gene transcript levels were most affected, being reduced by infection, but no genes showed significantly more ..
  11. Yan Y, Kunert C, Postlethwait J. Sequence homologies among the three yolk polypeptide (Yp) genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:67-85 pubmed
    ..of three coordinately regulated yolk polypeptide genes (Yp) in Drosophila melanogaster, we have mapped the Yp3 transcript, sequenced a 4278 bp DNA fragment containing the Yp3 gene, compared Yp3 region sequences to ..
  12. Sury M, Chen J, Selbach M. The SILAC fly allows for accurate protein quantification in vivo. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:2173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach is simple, fast, and cost-effective, making SILAC flies an attractive model system for the emerging field of in vivo quantitative proteomics. ..
  13. Persson B, Jornvall H, Olivecrona T, Bengtsson Olivecrona G. Lipoprotein lipases and vitellogenins in relation to the known three-dimensional structure of pancreatic lipase. FEBS Lett. 1991;288:33-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, due to structural differences the flap could prevent entry of soluble substrate molecules into the active site of pancreatic lipase. ..
  14. Ronaldson E, Bownes M. Two independent cis-acting elements regulate the sex- and tissue-specific expression of yp3 in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1995;66:9-17 pubmed
    ..We report here an analysis of the yolk protein 3 (yp3) gene and its flanking sequences by means of P-element mediated germ-line transformation and demonstrate ..
  15. Aprison B, Osterbur D, Bonner J. Use of promoter fusions in Drosophila genetics: characterization of a YP1-ADH fusion gene. Dev Genet. 1989;10:24-32 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster the yolk protein (YP) genes are normally expressed only in the fat body and follicular epithelium of adult females--never in males or in larvae...
  16. Hung M, Wensink P. The sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster gene for yolk protein 1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:6407-19 pubmed
    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the hormonally regulated yolk protein 1 (YP1) gene of Drosophila melanogaster...
  17. Minoo P, Postlethwait J. Processing and secretion of a mutant yolk polypeptide in Drosophila. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:913-32 pubmed
  18. Kuhn H, Sopko R, Coughlin M, Perrimon N, Mitchison T. The Atg1-Tor pathway regulates yolk catabolism in Drosophila embryos. Development. 2015;142:3869-78 pubmed publisher
    ..It is composed mainly of vitellogenin proteins packed into membrane-bound compartments called yolk platelets...
  19. Riddell D, Higgins M, McMillan B, White B. Structural analysis of the three vitellogenin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:1323-38 pubmed
    ..region 9A to 9B, the locus for yolk proteins 1 and 2 (Ypl,2) and two which mapped to 12A6-7 to 12D3, the locus for Yp3. These clones were mapped with restriction enzymes, and the coding regions and regions of homology determined by ..
  20. Giorgi F, Lucchesi P, Morelli A, Bownes M. Ultrastructural analysis of Drosophila ovarian follicles differing in yolk polypeptide (yps) composition. Development. 1993;117:319-28 pubmed
  21. Yamamoto R, Bai H, Dolezal A, Amdam G, Tatar M. Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging. BMC Biol. 2013;11:85 pubmed publisher
    ..yolked eggs, and this may arise because juvenile hormone is required for the post-eclosion development of the vitellogenin-producing adult fat body...
  22. Abrahamsen N, Martinez A, Kjaer T, Søndergaard L, Bownes M. Cis-regulatory sequences leading to female-specific expression of yolk protein genes 1 and 2 in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;237:41-8 pubmed
    The three yolk protein genes (yp) of Drosophila melanogaster are transcribed in a sex- and tissue-limited fashion...
  23. Kraus K, Lee Y, Lis J, Wolfner M. Sex-specific control of Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein 1 gene expression is limited to transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:4756-64 pubmed
    ..For one of the best-characterized target genes, that encoding female-specific yolk protein 1 (YP1), sex-specific transcriptional controls have been clearly demonstrated...
  24. Jha A, Watkins S, Traub L. The apoptotic engulfment protein Ced-6 participates in clathrin-mediated yolk uptake in Drosophila egg chambers. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1742-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical ..
  25. Butterworth F, Bownes M, Burde V. Genetically modified yolk proteins precipitate in the adult Drosophila fat body. J Cell Biol. 1991;112:727-37 pubmed
    ..and genetic studies were carried out on the fat body of a female sterile mutant fs(1)1163 to ascertain why yolk protein 1 (YP1) is not secreted from this tissue...
  26. Sappington T, Raikhel A. Molecular characteristics of insect vitellogenins and vitellogenin receptors. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1998;28:277-300 pubmed
    The recent cloning and sequencing of several insect vitellogenins (Vg), the major yolk protein precursor of most oviparous animals, and the mosquito Vg receptor (VgR) has brought the study of insect vitellogenesis to a new plane...
  27. Brennan M, Weiner A, Goralski T, Mahowald A. The follicle cells are a major site of vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1982;89:225-36 pubmed
  28. Thomson T, Liu N, Arkov A, Lehmann R, Lasko P. Isolation of new polar granule components in Drosophila reveals P body and ER associated proteins. Mech Dev. 2008;125:865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recovery of ER associated proteins TER94 and ME31B confirms that polar granules are closely linked to the translational machinery and to mRNP assembly. ..
  29. Yang Y, Graze R, Walts B, Lopez C, Baker H, Wayne M, et al. Partitioning transcript variation in Drosophila: abundance, isoforms, and alleles. G3 (Bethesda). 2011;1:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster and in closely related species. The SNP module can be used for allele specific expression and genotyping of D. simulans. ..
  30. Pebusque M, Coulier F, Birnbaum D, Pontarotti P. Ancient large-scale genome duplications: phylogenetic and linkage analyses shed light on chordate genome evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1145-59 pubmed
    ..Linkage of some of these genes can be found in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, suggesting that they were linked in the triploblast Metazoa ancestor. ..
  31. Warren T, Mahowald A. Isolation and partial chemical characterization of the three major yolk polypeptides from Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1979;68:130-9 pubmed
  32. Terashima J, Bownes M. Translating available food into the number of eggs laid by Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1711-9 pubmed
    ..We have shown that BR-C is a control gene during oogenesis and that the differential expression of BR-C isoforms plays a key role in controlling whether the fate of the egg chamber is to develop or undergo apoptosis. ..
  33. Baeuerle P, Huttner W. Tyrosine sulfation of yolk proteins 1, 2, and 3 in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:6434-9 pubmed
    ..2, 0.9, and 1.2 mol of tyrosine sulfate per mol of yolk protein 1, 2, and 3, respectively...
  34. Majewska M, Suszczynska A, Kotwica Rolinska J, Czerwik T, Paterczyk B, Polanska M, et al. Yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster: spatial and temporal patterns of expression. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;47:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we describe for the first time the expression of yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of D. melanogaster under physiological conditions, and show that somatic cells of the testes are the source of these proteins. ..
  35. Andersen D, Horne Badovinac S. Influence of ovarian muscle contraction and oocyte growth on egg chamber elongation in Drosophila. Development. 2016;143:1375-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight how physical contributions from several cell types are integrated to shape an organ. ..
  36. Warren T, Brennan M, Mahowald A. Two processing steps in maturation of vitellogenin polypeptides in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:2848-52 pubmed
    Synthesis of the three vitellogenin polypeptides (molecular weights of 44,000, 45,000, and 46,000) of Drosophila melanogaster has been analyzed in vivo and in a cell-free system...
  37. Baeuerle P, Lottspeich F, Huttner W. Purification of yolk protein 2 of Drosophila melanogaster and identification of its site of tyrosine sulfation. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:14925-9 pubmed
    ..were purified from [35S]sulfate-labeled flies, and yolk protein 2 was separated from yolk protein 1 and yolk protein 3 by preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
  38. Garabedian M, Hung M, Wensink P. Independent control elements that determine yolk protein gene expression in alternative Drosophila tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:1396-400 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the expression of a yp gene in different tissues is determined by different cis-acting elements. ..
  39. Hovemann B, Galler R, Walldorf U, Kupper H, Bautz E. Vitellogenin in Drosophila melanogaster: sequence of the yolk protein I gene and its flanking regions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:4721-34 pubmed
    ..1) led us to conclude that we had isolated the genes coding for two of the three known yolk protein precursors (vitellogenins), YP I and YP II. The sequence of the YP I gene was determined...
  40. Segalat L, Berger G, Lepesant J. Dissection of the Drosophila pourquoi-pas? promoter: complex ovarian expression is driven by distinct follicle cell- and germ line-specific enhancers. Mech Dev. 1994;47:241-51 pubmed
    ..The -80/+30 region is germ line-specific. The promoter limits, deduced from the deletion experiments presented here, are in accordance with the molecular analysis of pqp mutants. ..
  41. Rina M, Savakis C. A cluster of vitellogenin genes in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata: sequence and structural conservation in dipteran yolk proteins and their genes. Genetics. 1991;127:769-80 pubmed
    ..The transcribed part is very similar to that of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein genes Yp1, Yp2 and Yp3. The Vg1 genes have two introns at the same positions as those in D...
  42. Kpebe A, Rabinow L. Dissection of darkener of apricot kinase isoform functions in Drosophila. Genetics. 2008;179:1973-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal effects in which the survival of heteroallelic adults depends upon the direction of the cross are consistent with a role for a 105-kDa cytoplasmic kinase in oogenesis or early larval development. ..
  43. Bownes M, Blair M, Kozma R, Dempster M. 20-hydroxyecdysone stimulates tissue-specific yolk-protein gene transcription in both male and female Drosophila. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1983;78:249-68 pubmed
    ..There is an increase in yolk-polypeptide synthesis during the period of increased YP-transcript accumulation in females. We conclude that the response of the YP-genes to 20-hydroxyecdysone is tissue-, but not sex-specific. ..
  44. Carney G, Bender M. The Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene is required maternally for normal oogenesis. Genetics. 2000;154:1203-11 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a requirement for EcR during female reproduction and suggest that EcR is required for normal oogenesis. ..
  45. Jowett T, Postlethwait J. The Regulation of yolk polypeptide synthesis in Drosophila ovaries and fat body by 20-hydroxyecdysone and a juvenile hormone analog. Dev Biol. 1980;80:225-34 pubmed
  46. Hutson S, Bownes M. The regulation of yp3 expression in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:1-8 pubmed
    ..In this paper we have analysed the regulation of yolk protein 3, which is separated from the other two genes on the X-chromosome...
  47. Hatzopoulos P, Kambysellis M. Isolation and structural analysis of Drosophila grimshawi vitellogenin genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1987;206:475-84 pubmed
    We isolated recombinant genomic DNA clones containing sequences coding for the female-specific vitellogenin proteins of Drosophila grimshawi...
  48. Nothiger R, Steinmann Zwicky M. Genetics of sex determination: what can we learn from Drosophila?. Development. 1987;101 Suppl:17-24 pubmed
  49. Arbeitman M, New F, Fear J, Howard T, Dalton J, Graze R. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:1799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation. ..
  50. Richard D, Gilbert M, Crum B, Hollinshead D, Schelble S, Scheswohl D. Yolk protein endocytosis by oocytes in Drosophila melanogaster: immunofluorescent localization of clathrin, adaptin and the yolk protein receptor. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:715-723 pubmed
    The process of yolk protein (YP) uptake by developing oocytes in Drosophila melanogaster has been investigated by immunofluorescent localization of the endocytosis proteins, clathrin, alpha-adaptin and the putative yolk protein receptor (..
  51. Postlethwait J, Jowett T. Genetic analysis of the hormonally regulated yolk polypeptide genes in D. melanogaster. Cell. 1980;20:671-8 pubmed
    ..variants are expressed codominantly and they are sex-linked: Yp1 and Yp2 map to region 8E to 9B1 (locus 30) and Yp3 is in 12A6-7 to 12D3 (locus 44)...
  52. Hediger M, Burghardt G, Siegenthaler C, Buser N, Hilfiker Kleiner D, Dübendorfer A, et al. Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica converges at the level of the terminal regulator doublesex. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:29-42 pubmed
    ..MdDSX(F) expression can activate the vitellogenin genes in Drosophila and Musca males, and MdDSX(M) expression in Drosophila females can cause male-like ..
  53. Postlethwait J, Bownes M, Jowett T. Sexual phenotype and vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1980;79:379-87 pubmed
  54. Carlson K, Harshman L. Extended longevity lines of Drosophila melanogaster: abundance of yolk protein gene mRNA in fat body and ovary. Exp Gerontol. 1999;34:173-84 pubmed
    ..b>Yolk protein is one of the most abundant proteins used for female reproduction...
  55. Barnett T, Pachl C, Gergen J, Wensink P. The isolation and characterization of Drosophila yolk protein genes. Cell. 1980;21:729-38 pubmed
    ..each has a different pattern of restriction endonuclease sites and each appears to be homologous to a different yolk protein mRNA. Southern transfer blots demonstrated that there is only one copy of each gene in the Drosophila genome...
  56. Bownes M, Nothiger R. Sex determining genes and vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;182:222-8 pubmed
    This study investigates the relationship between sexual phenotype and ability to synthesize vitellogenin (yolk proteins, YPs) in Drosophila...
  57. Liddell S, Bownes M. Investigation of cis-acting sequences regulating expression of the gene encoding yolk protein 3 in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;230:219-24 pubmed
    ..We have begun to investigate the cis-regulation of the gene encoding yolk protein 3 (yp3)...
  58. Baker B, Gorman M, Mar n I. Dosage compensation in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1994;28:491-521 pubmed publisher
  59. Bownes M, Lineruth K, Mauchline D. Egg production and fertility in Drosophila depend upon the number of yolk-protein gene copies. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;228:324-7 pubmed
    ..furthermore that the probability of an egg hatching into an adult also critically depends upon the number of yolk protein genes present in the mother...
  60. Tarone A, McIntyre L, Harshman L, Nuzhdin S. Genetic variation in the Yolk protein expression network of Drosophila melanogaster: sex-biased negative correlations with longevity. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;109:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The sex determination pathway is a well-established molecular network, with the Yolk protein 1-3 (Yp) genes as the most downstream target...
  61. Jubeaux G, Audouard Combe F, Simon R, Tutundjian R, Salvador A, Geffard O, et al. Vitellogenin-like proteins among invertebrate species diversity: potential of proteomic mass spectrometry for biomarker development. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:6315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the potential of absolute quantification of proteins using mass spectrometry to develop vitellogenin (Vg)-like protein assays for invertebrates...
  62. Yan Y, Postlethwait J. Vitellogenesis in Drosophila: sequestration of a yolk polypeptide/invertase fusion protein into developing oocytes. Dev Biol. 1990;140:281-90 pubmed
    ..into developing oocytes of Drosophila was investigated by following the fate of a reporter protein fused to a vitellogenin, or yolk polypeptide (YP)...
  63. Goriaux C, Théron E, Brasset E, Vaury C. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Front Genet. 2014;5:257 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets. ..
  64. Hung M, Barnett T, Woolford C, Wensink P. Transcript maps of Drosophila yolk protein genes. J Mol Biol. 1982;154:581-602 pubmed
  65. Baker D, Russell S. Gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster egg development before and after reproductive diapause. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:242 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that our dataset will facilitate further exploration of the developmental and evolutionary characteristics of oogenesis as well as the nature of reproductive arrest in Drosophila. ..
  66. Herrig D, Modrick A, Brud E, Llopart A. Introgression in the Drosophila subobscura--D. Madeirensis sister species: evidence of gene flow in nuclear genes despite mitochondrial differentiation. Evolution. 2014;68:705-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to other observations in Drosophila, the mitochondrial genome appears resilient to gene flow in the presence of nuclear exchange...
  67. Garabedian M, Shirras A, Bownes M, Wensink P. The nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein 3. Gene. 1987;55:1-8 pubmed
    The entire sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein 3 (YP3) gene (yp3), including 1822 nucleotides (nt) of 5'- and 834 nt of 3'-flanking DNA, has been determined...
  68. Zeng Q, Smith D, Shippy S. Proteomic analysis of individual fruit fly hemolymph. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015;981-982:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This nano-scale analysis method will facilitate future study of Drosophila and lead to a more complete understanding of the physiology of the fly model system. ..
  69. Gruber J, Long A. Cis-regulatory variation is typically polyallelic in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;181:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..If standing cis-regulatory variation is actually slightly deleterious, the true mutational target size is larger. ..
  70. Whiting J, Pliley M, Farmer J, Jeffery D. In situ hybridization analysis of chromosomal homologies in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. Genetics. 1989;122:99-109 pubmed
    ..The results were consistent with H.J. Muller's proposal that chromosomal elements have been conserved during evolution of this genus. ..
  71. Cohen J. Phosphorylation polymorphism in the yolk protein 2 of Drosophila hawaiiensis. J Insect Physiol. 1998;44:175-187 pubmed
    ..hawaiiensis was established and characterized. The polymorphism includes yolk protein migration patterns of two, three, or four bands by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
  72. Bownes M, Dempster M, Blair M. Expression of the yolk-protein genes in the mutant doublesex dominant (dsxD) of Drosophila melanogaster. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1983;75:241-57 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the dsxD locus regulates the expression of the yolk-protein genes from within the fat body cells and does not operate by modulating ecdysteroid titres in the adults. ..
  73. Liddell S, Bownes M. Characterization, molecular cloning and sequencing of YP3s1, a fertile yolk protein 3 mutant in Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;228:81-8 pubmed
    The three yolk proteins (YP1, YP2 and YP3) of Drosophila melanogaster are synthesized in two tissues of the adult female, the fat body and ovarian follicle cells...
  74. Gelti Douka H, Gingeras T, Kambysellis M. Yolk proteins in Drosophila: identification and site of synthesis. J Exp Zool. 1974;187:167-72 pubmed