Gene Symbol: Yp2
Description: Yolk protein 2
Alias: CG2979, Dmel\CG2979, VG2, VIT2Dm, YP-2, YP2, YPII, YP[[2]], fs(1)A59, fs(1)K313, fs(1)M35, fs(1)m35, yp2, yolk protein 2, CG2979-PA, CG2979-PB, Yp2-PA, Yp2-PB, vitellogenin, yolk protein
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Bownes M. The regulation of the yolk protein genes, a family of sex differentiation genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioessays. 1994;16:745-52 pubmed
    ..pathway and the downstream sex differentiation genes, namely the regulation of the female-specific yolk protein genes...
  2. Hediger M, Burghardt G, Siegenthaler C, Buser N, Hilfiker Kleiner D, Dübendorfer A, et al. Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica converges at the level of the terminal regulator doublesex. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:29-42 pubmed
    ..MdDSX(F) expression can activate the vitellogenin genes in Drosophila and Musca males, and MdDSX(M) expression in Drosophila females can cause male-like ..
  3. Bownes M, Nothiger R. Sex determining genes and vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;182:222-8 pubmed
    This study investigates the relationship between sexual phenotype and ability to synthesize vitellogenin (yolk proteins, YPs) in Drosophila...
  4. Richard D, Rybczynski R, Wilson T, Wang Y, Wayne M, Zhou Y, et al. Insulin signaling is necessary for vitellogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster independent of the roles of juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids: female sterility of the chico1 insulin signaling mutation is autonomous to the ovary. J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:455-64 pubmed
    ..The ovary transplant experiments corroborate the endocrine results and demonstrate that insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) is necessary for vitellogenesis even when sufficient levels of JH, ecdysteroids or other factors are present. ..
  5. Sommer B, Oprins A, Rabouille C, Munro S. The exocyst component Sec5 is present on endocytic vesicles in the oocyte of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:953-63 pubmed
    ..In oocytes, the major substrate for clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the vitellogenin receptor Yolkless...
  6. Flatt T, Tu M, Tatar M. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history. Bioessays. 2005;27:999-1010 pubmed
    ..In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs. ..
  7. Vanzo N, Oprins A, Xanthakis D, Ephrussi A, Rabouille C. Stimulation of endocytosis and actin dynamics by Oskar polarizes the Drosophila oocyte. Dev Cell. 2007;12:543-55 pubmed
    ..We propose that Oskar maintains its localization at the posterior pole through dual functions in regulating endocytosis and F-actin dynamics. ..
  8. Bownes M. Hormonal and genetic regulation of vitellogenesis in Drosophila. Q Rev Biol. 1982;57:247-74 pubmed
  9. Sanchez L, Guerrero I. The development of the Drosophila genital disc. Bioessays. 2001;23:698-707 pubmed
    ..This input acts by modulating the response to Hedgehog, Wingless, and Decapentaplegic morphogenetic signals. ..

More Information


  1. Christiansen A, Keisman E, Ahmad S, Baker B. Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern. Trends Genet. 2002;18:510-6 pubmed
  2. Giorgi F, Lucchesi P, Morelli A, Bownes M. Ultrastructural analysis of Drosophila ovarian follicles differing in yolk polypeptide (yps) composition. Development. 1993;117:319-28 pubmed
  3. Sharma A, Singh P. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5763 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that adult acquired transcriptomic alteration in soma is spermatogenically inherited across generations has potential implications in human health and evolution. ..
  4. Minoo P, Postlethwait J. Processing and secretion of a mutant yolk polypeptide in Drosophila. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:913-32 pubmed
  5. Mitsis P, Wensink P. Identification of yolk protein factor 1, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein from Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:5188-94 pubmed
    Transcription of the three yolk protein genes of Drosophila melanogaster is under strict developmental regulation...
  6. Hovemann B, Galler R. Vitellogenin in Drosophila melanogaster: a comparison of the YPI and YPII genes and their transcription products. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:2261-74 pubmed
    Clones of genes coding for two of the yolk protein precursors from Drosophila melanogaster, YPI and YPII have been isolated. A single small intron was located in the YPII coding region at about the same position as it is found in YPI (6)...
  7. Pebusque M, Coulier F, Birnbaum D, Pontarotti P. Ancient large-scale genome duplications: phylogenetic and linkage analyses shed light on chordate genome evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1145-59 pubmed
    ..Linkage of some of these genes can be found in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, suggesting that they were linked in the triploblast Metazoa ancestor. ..
  8. Logan S, Wensink P. Ovarian follicle cell enhancers from the Drosophila yolk protein genes: different segments of one enhancer have different cell-type specificities that interact to give normal expression. Genes Dev. 1990;4:613-23 pubmed
    This paper examines ovarian transcription of the divergently oriented yolk protein genes 1 and 2 (yp1 and yp2) of Drosophila melanogaster...
  9. Gelti Douka H, Gingeras T, Kambysellis M. Yolk proteins in Drosophila: identification and site of synthesis. J Exp Zool. 1974;187:167-72 pubmed
  10. Begun D. Population genetics of silent and replacement variation in Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster: X/autosome differences?. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:1405-7 pubmed
  11. Yan Y, Postlethwait J. Vitellogenesis in Drosophila: sequestration of a yolk polypeptide/invertase fusion protein into developing oocytes. Dev Biol. 1990;140:281-90 pubmed
    ..into developing oocytes of Drosophila was investigated by following the fate of a reporter protein fused to a vitellogenin, or yolk polypeptide (YP)...
  12. Rina M, Savakis C. A cluster of vitellogenin genes in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata: sequence and structural conservation in dipteran yolk proteins and their genes. Genetics. 1991;127:769-80 pubmed
    ..The transcribed part is very similar to that of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein genes Yp1, Yp2 and Yp3. The Vg1 genes have two introns at the same positions as those in D...
  13. Riddell D, Higgins M, McMillan B, White B. Structural analysis of the three vitellogenin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:1323-38 pubmed
    ..All 3 genes show homology to each other and have a main coding region of about 1.3 kb, the approximate size for the mRNAs. ..
  14. Scott K, Geyer P. Effects of the su(Hw) insulator protein on the expression of the divergently transcribed Drosophila yolk protein genes. EMBO J. 1995;14:6258-67 pubmed
    ..The effects of the su(Hw) binding region on yolk protein (yp) gene expression were determined...
  15. Barbeau A. [At the frontiers of the brain--the neurologist and his literature]. Union Med Can. 1986;115:884-90 pubmed
  16. Logan S, Garabedian M, Wensink P. DNA regions that regulate the ovarian transcriptional specificity of Drosophila yolk protein genes. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1453-61 pubmed
    b>Yolk protein genes 1 and 2 (yp1 and yp2) of Drosophila melanogaster are divergently transcribed neighboring genes. Both are transcribed in only two tissues, the ovarian follicle cells and the fat bodies of adult females...
  17. Camporeale G, Zempleni J, Eissenberg J. Susceptibility to heat stress and aberrant gene expression patterns in holocarboxylase synthetase-deficient Drosophila melanogaster are caused by decreased biotinylation of histones, not of carboxylases. J Nutr. 2007;137:885-9 pubmed
    ..the abundance of mRNA coding for defective chorion 1, chitin-binding peritrophin-A, dopamine receptor 2, and yolk protein 2. MCC mutants exhibited increased resistance to heat stress compared with wild-type flies...
  18. Cohen J. Phosphorylation polymorphism in the yolk protein 2 of Drosophila hawaiiensis. J Insect Physiol. 1998;44:175-187 pubmed
    ..hawaiiensis was established and characterized. The polymorphism includes yolk protein migration patterns of two, three, or four bands by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
  19. Martinez A, Bownes M. The specificity of yolk protein uptake in cyclorrhaphan diptera is conserved through evolution. J Mol Evol. 1992;35:444-53 pubmed
  20. Tarone A, McIntyre L, Harshman L, Nuzhdin S. Genetic variation in the Yolk protein expression network of Drosophila melanogaster: sex-biased negative correlations with longevity. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;109:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The sex determination pathway is a well-established molecular network, with the Yolk protein 1-3 (Yp) genes as the most downstream target...
  21. Hovemann B, Galler R, Walldorf U, Kupper H, Bautz E. Vitellogenin in Drosophila melanogaster: sequence of the yolk protein I gene and its flanking regions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:4721-34 pubmed
    ..1) led us to conclude that we had isolated the genes coding for two of the three known yolk protein precursors (vitellogenins), YP I and YP II. The sequence of the YP I gene was determined...
  22. Brookfield J, Sharp P. Neutralism and selectionism face up to DNA data. Trends Genet. 1994;10:109-11 pubmed
  23. Garabedian M, Shirras A, Bownes M, Wensink P. The nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein 3. Gene. 1987;55:1-8 pubmed
    The entire sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein 3 (YP3) gene (yp3), including 1822 nucleotides (nt) of 5'- and 834 nt of 3'-flanking DNA, has been determined...
  24. Ho K, Craddock E, Piano F, Kambysellis M. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA length mutations in a repetitive region of the Hawaiian Drosophila yolk protein gene Yp2. J Mol Evol. 1996;43:116-24 pubmed
    Nucleotide sequence analysis has demonstrated that interspecific size variation in the YP2 yolk protein among Hawaiian Drosophila is due to in-frame insertions and deletions in two repetitive segments of the coding region of the Yp2 gene...
  25. Williams J, Bownes M. Reduced stability of RNA coding for yolk polypeptide 3 in Drosophila melanogaster ovary. Eur J Biochem. 1986;161:95-101 pubmed
    ..level of YP3 RNA is significantly reduced in the ovary in comparison with the fat body, and that none of the yolk protein genes is amplified either in the fat body or the follicle cells...
  26. Aprison B, Osterbur D, Bonner J. Use of promoter fusions in Drosophila genetics: characterization of a YP1-ADH fusion gene. Dev Genet. 1989;10:24-32 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster the yolk protein (YP) genes are normally expressed only in the fat body and follicular epithelium of adult females--never in males or in larvae...
  27. Marx J. Tracing how the sexes develop. Science. 1995;269:1822-4 pubmed
  28. Carney G, Bender M. The Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene is required maternally for normal oogenesis. Genetics. 2000;154:1203-11 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a requirement for EcR during female reproduction and suggest that EcR is required for normal oogenesis. ..
  29. Bownes M, Hames B. Genetic analysis of vitellogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: the identification of a temperature-sensitive mutation affecting one of the yolk proteins. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1978;47:111-20 pubmed
    ..Two new mutants were identified. 6m45 accumulates all three yolk proteins (YP1, YP2 and YP3) in the haemolymph but they are all absent from the ovaries suggesting it is a yolk-protein-uptake mutant...
  30. Hutson S, Bownes M. The regulation of yp3 expression in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:1-8 pubmed
    The regulation of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein genes 1 and 2 have been well characterised. Cis-acting DNA elements and trans-acting factors regulating ovarian fat body and sex-specific expression have been identified...
  31. Baker D, Russell S. Gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster egg development before and after reproductive diapause. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:242 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that our dataset will facilitate further exploration of the developmental and evolutionary characteristics of oogenesis as well as the nature of reproductive arrest in Drosophila. ..
  32. Baeuerle P, Huttner W. Tyrosine sulfation of yolk proteins 1, 2, and 3 in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:6434-9 pubmed
    ..2, 0.9, and 1.2 mol of tyrosine sulfate per mol of yolk protein 1, 2, and 3, respectively...
  33. Baker B, Gorman M, Mar n I. Dosage compensation in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1994;28:491-521 pubmed publisher
  34. De Loof A, Geysen J, Cardoen J, Verachtert B. Comparative developmental physiology and molecular cytology of the polytrophic ovarian follicles of the blowfly Sarcophaga bullata and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1990;96:309-21 pubmed
    ..6. Most of the vitellogenin is synthesized by the fat body but some follicle cells also synthesize small amounts. 7...
  35. Yan Y, Kunert C, Postlethwait J. Sequence homologies among the three yolk polypeptide (Yp) genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:67-85 pubmed
    ..a 4278 bp DNA fragment containing the Yp3 gene, compared Yp3 region sequences to corresponding parts of Yp1 and Yp2, and compared the predicted amino acid sequence of YP3 to YP1 and YP2...
  36. Butterworth F, Bownes M, Burde V. Genetically modified yolk proteins precipitate in the adult Drosophila fat body. J Cell Biol. 1991;112:727-37 pubmed
    ..and genetic studies were carried out on the fat body of a female sterile mutant fs(1)1163 to ascertain why yolk protein 1 (YP1) is not secreted from this tissue...
  37. Bownes M, Ronaldson E, Mauchline D. 20-Hydroxyecdysone, but not juvenile hormone, regulation of yolk protein gene expression can be mapped to cis-acting DNA sequences. Dev Biol. 1996;173:475-89 pubmed
    The three yolk protein genes (yps) of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed in the ovary and fat body of the adult female. Their levels of expression in the fat body depend upon both juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)...
  38. Yang Y, Graze R, Walts B, Lopez C, Baker H, Wayne M, et al. Partitioning transcript variation in Drosophila: abundance, isoforms, and alleles. G3 (Bethesda). 2011;1:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster and in closely related species. The SNP module can be used for allele specific expression and genotyping of D. simulans. ..
  39. Papassideri I, Trougakos I, Leonard K, Margaritis L. Crystalline yolk spheroids in Drosophila melanogaster oocyte: freeze fracture and two-dimensional reconstruction analysis. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:370-6 pubmed
  40. Trougakos I, Papassideri I, Waring G, Margaritis L. Differential sorting of constitutively co-secreted proteins in the ovarian follicle cells of Drosophila. Eur J Cell Biol. 2001;80:271-84 pubmed
    ..These findings illuminate new details concerning the follicle cells secretory and oocyte endocytic pathways and provide for the first time evidence for condensation-mediated sorting of constitutively secreted proteins in Drosophila...
  41. Maschat F, Dubertret M, Therond P, Claverie J, Lepesant J. Structure of the ecdysone-inducible P1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster. J Mol Biol. 1990;214:359-72 pubmed
    ..Short stretches of nucleotide sequences similar to sequences located in the 5' regions of other genes expressed in the D. melanogaster fat body were found in the proximal promoter and transcribed region of the P1 gene. ..
  42. Walker V. Yolk polypeptide gene expression in Minute Drosophila females. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:363-78 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the low protein levels are due to the slower maturation of M(3)w, and not to less efficient translation machinery. ..
  43. Terashima J, Bownes M. Translating available food into the number of eggs laid by Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1711-9 pubmed
    ..We have shown that BR-C is a control gene during oogenesis and that the differential expression of BR-C isoforms plays a key role in controlling whether the fate of the egg chamber is to develop or undergo apoptosis. ..
  44. Walker V, Schreiber M, Purvis C, George J, Wyatt G, Bendena W. Yolk polypeptide gene expression in cultured Drosophila cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 1991;27A:121-7 pubmed
    ..melanogaster yolk polypeptide 1 (YP1) and Locusta migratoria vitellogenin B (VgB)...
  45. Hung M, Wensink P. The sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster gene for yolk protein 1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:6407-19 pubmed
    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the hormonally regulated yolk protein 1 (YP1) gene of Drosophila melanogaster...
  46. Sury M, Chen J, Selbach M. The SILAC fly allows for accurate protein quantification in vivo. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:2173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach is simple, fast, and cost-effective, making SILAC flies an attractive model system for the emerging field of in vivo quantitative proteomics. ..
  47. Warren T, Mahowald A. Isolation and partial chemical characterization of the three major yolk polypeptides from Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1979;68:130-9 pubmed
  48. Majewska M, Suszczynska A, Kotwica Rolinska J, Czerwik T, Paterczyk B, Polanska M, et al. Yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster: spatial and temporal patterns of expression. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;47:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we describe for the first time the expression of yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of D. melanogaster under physiological conditions, and show that somatic cells of the testes are the source of these proteins. ..
  49. Liu G, Sanghavi P, Bollinger K, Perry L, Marshall B, Roon P, et al. Efficient Endocytic Uptake and Maturation in Drosophila Oocytes Requires Dynamitin/p50. Genetics. 2015;201:631-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a model whereby endocytic activity recruits Dynein to the oocyte cortex. The motor along with its regulators, Dynactin and Lis1, functions to ensure efficient endocytic uptake and maturation. ..
  50. Jha A, Watkins S, Traub L. The apoptotic engulfment protein Ced-6 participates in clathrin-mediated yolk uptake in Drosophila egg chambers. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1742-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical ..
  51. Wines D, Talbert P, Clark D, Henikoff S. Introduction of a DNA methyltransferase into Drosophila to probe chromatin structure in vivo. Chromosoma. 1996;104:332-40 pubmed
    ..Silencing of lacZ during development differed from silencing of an adjacent white eye pigment reporter gene in the adult, as though chromatin structure can undergo dynamic alterations during development. ..
  52. Duncker B, Davies P, Walker V. Introns boost transgene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;254:291-6 pubmed
    ..protein (AFP) transgenes were arranged in divergent transcriptional orientation from a central Drosophila yolk protein promoter/enhancer region and introduced into the flies by P-element transformation and/or mobilization...
  53. Bownes M, Dempster M, Blair M. Expression of the yolk-protein genes in the mutant doublesex dominant (dsxD) of Drosophila melanogaster. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1983;75:241-57 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the dsxD locus regulates the expression of the yolk-protein genes from within the fat body cells and does not operate by modulating ecdysteroid titres in the adults. ..
  54. Hey J, Kliman R. Population genetics and phylogenetics of DNA sequence variation at multiple loci within the Drosophila melanogaster species complex. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:804-22 pubmed publisher
    Two regions of the genome, a 1-kbp portion of the zeste locus and a 1.1-kbp portion of the yolk protein 2 locus, were sequenced in six individuals from each of four species: Drosophila melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D...
  55. Brennan M, Warren T, Mahowald A. Signal peptides and signal peptidase in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1980;87:516-20 pubmed
    ..when this RNA is translated in the presence of EDTA-stripped microsomal membranes from the dog pancreas, vitellogenin precursors are produced that, upon SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, comigrate with the in vivo forms (..
  56. Arbeitman M, New F, Fear J, Howard T, Dalton J, Graze R. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:1799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation. ..
  57. Friederich E, Baeuerle P, Garoff H, Hovemann B, Huttner W. Expression, tyrosine sulfation, and secretion of yolk protein 2 of Drosophila melanogaster in mouse fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:14930-8 pubmed
    ..Chem. 263, 14925-14929), we have identified the site of tyrosine sulfation in an insect secretory protein, yolk protein 2 (YP2) of Drosophila melanogaster...
  58. Hung M, Barnett T, Woolford C, Wensink P. Transcript maps of Drosophila yolk protein genes. J Mol Biol. 1982;154:581-602 pubmed
  59. Shepherd B, Garabedian M, Hung M, Wensink P. Developmental control of Drosophila yolk protein 1 gene by cis-acting DNA elements. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1985;50:521-6 pubmed
    ..This small fragment has at least one of the characteristics of enhancer sequences because it can direct a heterologous Drosophila promoter to be transcribed with the yp1 fat body expression pattern. ..
  60. Yamamoto R, Bai H, Dolezal A, Amdam G, Tatar M. Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging. BMC Biol. 2013;11:85 pubmed publisher
    ..yolked eggs, and this may arise because juvenile hormone is required for the post-eclosion development of the vitellogenin-producing adult fat body...
  61. Sun S, Cline T. Effects of Wolbachia infection and ovarian tumor mutations on Sex-lethal germline functioning in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;181:1291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Yolk protein gene transcript levels were most affected, being reduced by infection, but no genes showed significantly more ..
  62. Butterworth F, Burde V, Bownes M. Mutant yolk proteins lead to female sterility in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1992;154:182-94 pubmed
    Specific mutations in the yolk protein genes, yp1 and yp2, of Drosophila melanogaster cause the yolk proteins (YPs) they encode to precipitate, ultimately resulting in female sterility...
  63. Carlson K, Harshman L. Extended longevity lines of Drosophila melanogaster: abundance of yolk protein gene mRNA in fat body and ovary. Exp Gerontol. 1999;34:173-84 pubmed
    ..b>Yolk protein is one of the most abundant proteins used for female reproduction...
  64. Postlethwait J, Bownes M, Jowett T. Sexual phenotype and vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1980;79:379-87 pubmed
  65. Richard D, Gilbert M, Crum B, Hollinshead D, Schelble S, Scheswohl D. Yolk protein endocytosis by oocytes in Drosophila melanogaster: immunofluorescent localization of clathrin, adaptin and the yolk protein receptor. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:715-723 pubmed
    The process of yolk protein (YP) uptake by developing oocytes in Drosophila melanogaster has been investigated by immunofluorescent localization of the endocytosis proteins, clathrin, alpha-adaptin and the putative yolk protein receptor (..
  66. Nothiger R, Steinmann Zwicky M. Genetics of sex determination: what can we learn from Drosophila?. Development. 1987;101 Suppl:17-24 pubmed
  67. Burtis K, Coschigano K, Baker B, Wensink P. The doublesex proteins of Drosophila melanogaster bind directly to a sex-specific yolk protein gene enhancer. EMBO J. 1991;10:2577-82 pubmed
    ..DNA sequences located in an enhancer region that regulates female-specific expression of two target genes, the yolk protein genes 1 and 2...
  68. Nakahara K, Kim K, Sciulli C, Dowd S, Minden J, Carthew R. Targets of microRNA regulation in the Drosophila oocyte proteome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12023-8 pubmed
    ..The preponderance of genes that control global protein abundance suggests this process is under tight control by miRNAs at the onset of fertilization. ..
  69. Sirot L, Findlay G, Sitnik J, Frasheri D, Avila F, Wolfner M. Molecular characterization and evolution of a gene family encoding both female- and male-specific reproductive proteins in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2014;31:1554-67 pubmed publisher
    ..After duplication and male co-option of one paralog, the evolution of the interacting proteins could have resulted in differential strengths or effects of each paralog. ..
  70. Tamura T, Kunert C, Postlethwait J. Sex- and cell-specific regulation of yolk polypeptide genes introduced into Drosophila by P-element-mediated gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:7000-4 pubmed
    ..0-kilobase genomic DNA segment containing a 3' truncated Yp1 and a complete Yp2 into five different autosomal locations by P-element-mediated gene transfer...
  71. Ito T, Levenstein M, Fyodorov D, Kutach A, Kobayashi R, Kadonaga J. ACF consists of two subunits, Acf1 and ISWI, that function cooperatively in the ATP-dependent catalysis of chromatin assembly. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1529-39 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that both Acf1 and ISWI participate in the chromatin assembly process and suggest further that the Acf1 subunit confers additional functionality to the general 'motor' activity of ISWI. ..
  72. Liddell S, Bownes M. Investigation of cis-acting sequences regulating expression of the gene encoding yolk protein 3 in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;230:219-24 pubmed
    ..We have begun to investigate the cis-regulation of the gene encoding yolk protein 3 (yp3)...
  73. Kliman R, Rogers B, Noor M. Differences in (G+C) content between species: a commentary on Forsdyke's "chromosomal viewpoint" of speciation. J Theor Biol. 2001;209:131-40 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the genic model is well supported by empirical data, holds up on theoretical grounds, and does not require any assistance from the G+C model. ..
  74. Alvarez M, Ruiz M, Sánchez L. Effect of the gene doublesex of anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5141 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we analysed the effect of Anastrepha DsxF and DsxM proteins on the regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes, which are expressed in the fat body of adult females under the control of dsx...
  75. Hung M, Wensink P. Sequence and structure conservation in yolk proteins and their genes. J Mol Biol. 1983;164:481-92 pubmed
    The yp1 and yp2 genes of Drosophila code for egg yolk proteins. Their transcription is hormone-dependent and co-ordinate...
  76. Noor M, Kliman R. Variability on the dot chromosome in the Drosophila simulans clade. Genetica. 2003;118:51-8 pubmed
    ..Overall, none of the data analyzed were consistent with recent introgression exclusively between D. simulans and D. mauritiana...
  77. Søndergaard L, Mauchline D, Egetoft P, White N, Wulff P, Bownes M. Nutritional response in a Drosophila yolk protein gene promoter. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;248:25-32 pubmed
    The yolk protein genes (yps) of Drosophila melanogaster are only expressed in the ovary and fat body of female flies if they are supplied with proteinaceous food. This nutritional response is specific to the yp genes...