Gene Symbol: y
Description: yellow
Alias: CG3757, Dmel\CG3757, EG:125H10.2, yellow, CG3757-PA, y-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     y

Top Publications

  1. Biessmann H. Molecular analysis of the yellow gene (y) region of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:7369-73 pubmed
    The yellow gene (y) is involved in pattern-specific melanin pigmentation of the cuticle of the adult fly and of larval mouth parts of Drosophila melanogaster. I have isolated some 70 kilobases (kb) of contiguous DNA from the y region...
  2. Drapeau M, Cyran S, Viering M, Geyer P, Long A. A cis-regulatory sequence within the yellow locus of Drosophila melanogaster required for normal male mating success. Genetics. 2006;172:1009-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The yellow (y) gene is required for normal male courtship behavior and subsequent mating success...
  3. Muller M, Hagstrom K, Gyurkovics H, Pirrotta V, Schedl P. The mcp element from the Drosophila melanogaster bithorax complex mediates long-distance regulatory interactions. Genetics. 1999;153:1333-56 pubmed
    ..Finally, this pairing element can also mediate long-distance interactions between enhancers and promoters, activating mini-white expression. ..
  4. Liu J, Li C, Yu Z, Huang P, Wu H, Wei C, et al. Efficient and specific modifications of the Drosophila genome by means of an easy TALEN strategy. J Genet Genomics. 2012;39:209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..developed "unit assembly" strategy to assemble two pairs of specific TALENs designed to modify the yellow gene (on the sex chromosome) and a novel autosomal gene...
  5. Moshkovich N, Lei E. HP1 recruitment in the absence of argonaute proteins in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000880 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that heterochromatin forms independently of endo-siRNA and piRNA pathways. ..
  6. Bibikova M, Golic M, Golic K, Carroll D. Targeted chromosomal cleavage and mutagenesis in Drosophila using zinc-finger nucleases. Genetics. 2002;161:1169-75 pubmed
    ..We have tested this idea by designing a pair of ZFNs that recognize a unique site in the yellow (y) gene of Drosophila...
  7. Belozerov V, Majumder P, Shen P, Cai H. A novel boundary element may facilitate independent gene regulation in the Antennapedia complex of Drosophila. EMBO J. 2003;22:3113-21 pubmed
  8. Georgiev P, Kozycina M. Interaction between mutations in the suppressor of Hairy wing and modifier of mdg4 genes of Drosophila melanogaster affecting the phenotype of gypsy-induced mutations. Genetics. 1996;142:425-36 pubmed
    ..An example of the second effect of mod(mdg4)1u1 is a complete inactivation of yellow expression in combination with the y2 allele...
  9. Georgiev P. Identification of mutations in three genes that interact with zeste in the control of white gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;138:733-9 pubmed
    Three previously described genes, enhancer of yellow, 1, 2 and 3, are shown to cooperate with the zeste gene in the control of white gene expression...

More Information


  1. Nassif N, Penney J, Pal S, Engels W, Gloor G. Efficient copying of nonhomologous sequences from ectopic sites via P-element-induced gap repair. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:1613-25 pubmed
    ..These single strands then pair, and synthesis is completed by each using the other as a template. This synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model as a possible general mechanism in complex organisms is discussed. ..
  2. Bibikova M, Beumer K, Trautman J, Carroll D. Enhancing gene targeting with designed zinc finger nucleases. Science. 2003;300:764 pubmed
  3. Nash W, Yarkin R. Genetic regulation and pattern formation: a study of the yellow locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1974;24:19-26 pubmed
  4. Gerasimova T, Gdula D, Gerasimov D, Simonova O, Corces V. A Drosophila protein that imparts directionality on a chromatin insulator is an enhancer of position-effect variegation. Cell. 1995;82:587-97 pubmed
  5. Pai C, Lei E, Ghosh D, Corces V. The centrosomal protein CP190 is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2004;16:737-48 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that endogenous gypsy insulators contain binding sites for CP190, which is essential for insulator function, and may or may not contain binding sites for Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4)2.2. ..
  6. Golovnin A, Melnick E, Mazur A, Georgiev P. Drosophila Su(Hw) insulator can stimulate transcription of a weakened yellow promoter over a distance. Genetics. 2005;170:1133-42 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that the Su(Hw) insulator activates a weakened yellow promoter at a distance...
  7. Werner T, Koshikawa S, Williams T, Carroll S. Generation of a novel wing colour pattern by the Wingless morphogen. Nature. 2010;464:1143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This example of a complex design developing and evolving by the layering of new patterns on pre-patterns is likely to be a general theme in other animals. ..
  8. Kravchenko E, Savitskaya E, Kravchuk O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Savitsky M. Pairing between gypsy insulators facilitates the enhancer action in trans throughout the Drosophila genome. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9283-91 pubmed
    ..the role of pairing between the gypsy insulators located on homologous chromosomes in trans interaction between yellow enhancers and a promoter...
  9. Walter M, Zeineh L, Black B, McIvor W, Wright T, Biessmann H. Catecholamine metabolism and in vitro induction of premature cuticle melanization in wild type and pigmentation mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1996;31:219-33 pubmed
  10. Carroll S. Evolution at two levels: on genes and form. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e245 pubmed
  11. Capelson M, Corces V. SUMO conjugation attenuates the activity of the gypsy chromatin insulator. EMBO J. 2006;25:1906-14 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that long-range interactions of insulator proteins are inhibited by sumoylation and that the establishment of chromatin domains can be regulated by SUMO conjugation. ..
  12. Parnell T, Geyer P. Differences in insulator properties revealed by enhancer blocking assays on episomes. EMBO J. 2000;19:5864-74 pubmed
    ..Instead, the gypsy insulator may disrupt enhancer-activated transcription by direct interference with transmission of the enhancer signal to the promoter. ..
  13. Brower Toland B, Riddle N, Jiang H, Huisinga K, Elgin S. Multiple SET methyltransferases are required to maintain normal heterochromatin domains in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;181:1303-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the genetic interactions between dSETDB1 and Su(var)3-9 mutations emphasize the importance of maintaining the activities of these histone methyltransferases in balance for normal genome function. ..
  14. Akbari O, Oliver D, Eyer K, Pai C. An Entry/Gateway cloning system for general expression of genes with molecular tags in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, live imaging of the movements of these fluorescent-tagged proteins suggests that the assembly and disassembly of insulator bodies are normal activities in living cells and may be directed for regulating transcription. ..
  15. Yan C, Dobie K, Le H, Konev A, Karpen G. Efficient recovery of centric heterochromatin P-element insertions in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;161:217-29 pubmed
    ..To facilitate molecular and cytological analysis of heterochromatin we introduced a yellow(+) (y(+))-marked P element into centric heterochromatin by screening for variegated phenotypes, that is, mosaic ..
  16. Soldatov A, Nabirochkina E, Georgieva S, Belenkaja T, Georgiev P. TAFII40 protein is encoded by the e(y)1 gene: biological consequences of mutations. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3769-78 pubmed
    The enhancer of yellow 1 gene, e(y)1, of Drosophila melanogaster has been cloned and demonstrated to encode the TAFII40 protein...
  17. Gerasimova T, Corces V. Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Cell. 1998;92:511-21 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a model in which PcG and TrxG proteins regulate insulator function by establishing higher order domains of chromatin organization required for the assembly of functional insulators at the nuclear matrix. ..
  18. Kahn T, Savitsky M, Georgiev P. Attachment of HeT-A sequences to chromosomal termini in Drosophila melanogaster may occur by different mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7634-42 pubmed
    ..To monitor the behavior of HeT-A elements, we used the yellow gene with terminal deficiencies consisting of breaks in the yellow promoter region that result in the y-null ..
  19. Morris J, Petrov D, Lee A, Wu C. Enhancer choice in cis and in trans in Drosophila melanogaster: role of the promoter. Genetics. 2004;167:1739-47 pubmed
    ..choice between two promoters, one located in cis to the enhancer and the other in trans to the enhancer, at the yellow gene of Drosophila melanogaster...
  20. Drapeau M. A novel hypothesis on the biochemical role of the Drosophila Yellow protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;311:1-3 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the protein product of the yellow gene is necessary for normal pigmentation and male sexual behavior...
  21. Bassett A, Tibbit C, Ponting C, Liu J. Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis of Drosophila with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Cell Rep. 2013;4:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also describe a simple and highly sensitive method of detecting mutations in the target gene by high-resolution melt analysis and discuss how the new technology enables the study of gene function. ..
  22. Drapeau M, Radovic A, Wittkopp P, Long A. A gene necessary for normal male courtship, yellow, acts downstream of fruitless in the Drosophila melanogaster larval brain. J Neurobiol. 2003;55:53-72 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the yellow (y) gene is genetically downstream of fru in the 3(rd)-instar larval brain...
  23. Fritsch C, Brown J, Kassis J, Muller J. The DNA-binding polycomb group protein pleiohomeotic mediates silencing of a Drosophila homeotic gene. Development. 1999;126:3905-13 pubmed
    ..Hence, DNA-bound Pleiohomeotic protein may function in the recruitment of other non-DNA-binding PcG proteins to homeotic gene silencers. ..
  24. Groth A, Fish M, Nusse R, Calos M. Construction of transgenic Drosophila by using the site-specific integrase from phage phiC31. Genetics. 2004;166:1775-82 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate the potential for precise genetic engineering of the Drosophila genome with the phiC31 integrase system and will likely benefit research in Drosophila and other insects. ..
  25. Kuhn E, Hart C, Geyer P. Studies of the role of the Drosophila scs and scs' insulators in defining boundaries of a chromosome puff. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1470-80 pubmed
    ..This model was tested using transposons that carried a yellow gene to assess enhancer blocking and an hsp70-lacZ gene to examine the structure of a heat shock puff in the ..
  26. Chen J, Huisinga K, Viering M, Ou S, Wu C, Geyer P. Enhancer action in trans is permitted throughout the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3723-8 pubmed
    ..Transvection involving the yellow cuticle pigmentation gene can occur by at least two mechanisms, one involving the trans-action of enhancers on a ..
  27. Golovnin A, Melnikova L, Volkov I, Kostuchenko M, Galkin A, Georgiev P. 'Insulator bodies' are aggregates of proteins but not of insulators. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it is not the functional genomic insulators but rather aggregated proteins that make the so-called 'insulator bodies'. ..
  28. Shaffer C, Cenci G, Thompson B, Stephens G, Slawson E, Adu Wusu K, et al. The large isoform of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin protein 2 plays a critical role in gene silencing and chromosome structure. Genetics. 2006;174:1189-204 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that Su(var)2-HP2 exhibits a dosage-dependent modification of variegation of a yellow reporter transgene, indicating a structural role in heterochromatin formation...
  29. Bateman J, Lee A, Wu C. Site-specific transformation of Drosophila via phiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange. Genetics. 2006;173:769-77 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate the feasibility of this system using two donor cassettes, one carrying the yellow gene and the other carrying GFP...
  30. Biessmann H, Prasad S, Semeshin V, Andreyeva E, Nguyen Q, Walter M, et al. Two distinct domains in Drosophila melanogaster telomeres. Genetics. 2005;171:1767-77 pubmed
    ..These data, in combination with cytological studies, provide evidence that the subtelomeric TAS region exhibits features resembling heterochromatin, while the terminal retrotransposon array exhibits euchromatic characteristics. ..
  31. Capelson M, Corces V. The ubiquitin ligase dTopors directs the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2005;20:105-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, dTopors appears to be involved in the establishment of chromatin organization through its ability to mediate the association of insulator complexes with a fixed nuclear substrate. ..
  32. Jeong S, Rokas A, Carroll S. Regulation of body pigmentation by the Abdominal-B Hox protein and its gain and loss in Drosophila evolution. Cell. 2006;125:1387-99 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the Abdominal-B (ABD-B) Hox protein directly activates expression of the yellow pigmentation gene in posterior segments...
  33. Horard B, Tatout C, Poux S, Pirrotta V. Structure of a polycomb response element and in vitro binding of polycomb group complexes containing GAGA factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3187-97 pubmed
    ..Other fragments lack GAGA binding sites but can still bind PcG complexes in vitro. We show that the GAGA factor is a component of at least some types of PcG complexes and may participate in the assembly of PcG complexes at PREs. ..
  34. Silicheva M, Golovnin A, Pomerantseva E, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Maksimenko O. Drosophila mini-white model system: new insights into positive position effects and the role of transcriptional terminators and gypsy insulator in transgene shielding. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:39-47 pubmed publisher
  35. Nurminsky D, Nurminskaya M, De Aguiar D, Hartl D. Selective sweep of a newly evolved sperm-specific gene in Drosophila. Nature. 1998;396:572-5 pubmed
    ..The discovery of this gene supports other results that point to the rapid molecular evolution of male reproductive functions. ..
  36. Erokhin M, Davydova A, Kyrchanova O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Chetverina D. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The 1A2 and Wari insulators are located immediately downstream of the Drosophila yellow and white genes, respectively...
  37. Kuhn E, Viering M, Rhodes K, Geyer P. A test of insulator interactions in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2003;22:2463-71 pubmed
    ..Our studies imply that formation of loop domains may represent one of many mechanisms used by insulators to impart regulatory isolation. ..
  38. Xu T, Rubin G. Analysis of genetic mosaics in developing and adult Drosophila tissues. Development. 1993;117:1223-37 pubmed
  39. Quiñones Coello A, Petrella L, Ayers K, Melillo A, Mazzalupo S, Hudson A, et al. Exploring strategies for protein trapping in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;175:1089-104 pubmed
    ..We report a total of 335 genes associated with protein or enhancer traps and a web-accessible database for viewing molecular information and expression data for these genes. ..
  40. Rong Y, Golic K. Gene targeting by homologous recombination in Drosophila. Science. 2000;288:2013-8 pubmed
    ..A method is described that enables analogous manipulations of the Drosophila genome. This technique may also be applicable to other organisms for which gene-targeting procedures do not yet exist. ..
  41. Ferguson L, Green J, Surridge A, Jiggins C. Evolution of the insect yellow gene family. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:257-72 pubmed publisher
    The yellow gene family is intriguing for a number of reasons. To date, yellow-like genes have only been identified in insect species and a number of bacteria...
  42. Gong W, Golic K. Ends-out, or replacement, gene targeting in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2556-61 pubmed
    ..targeting could be used in Drosophila, we applied two strategies for ends-out gene replacement at the endogenous yellow (y) locus in Drosophila...
  43. Roseman R, Swan J, Geyer P. A Drosophila insulator protein facilitates dosage compensation of the X chromosome min-white gene located at autosomal insertion sites. Development. 1995;121:3573-82 pubmed
    ..This may result from protection of the mini-white gene from a negative autosomal chromatin environment. ..
  44. Gruzdeva N, Kyrchanova O, Parshikov A, Kullyev A, Georgiev P. The Mcp element from the bithorax complex contains an insulator that is capable of pairwise interactions and can facilitate enhancer-promoter communication. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3682-9 pubmed
    ..This insulator blocks the enhancers of the yellow and white genes and protects them from PRE-mediated repression...
  45. Muravyova E, Golovnin A, Gracheva E, Parshikov A, Belenkaya T, Pirrotta V, et al. Loss of insulator activity by paired Su(Hw) chromatin insulators. Science. 2001;291:495-8 pubmed
    ..This paradoxical phenomenon could be explained by interactions between protein complexes bound at the insulators...
  46. Wittkopp P, Carroll S, Kopp A. Evolution in black and white: genetic control of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:495-504 pubmed publisher
  47. Beumer K, Bhattacharyya G, Bibikova M, Trautman J, Carroll D. Efficient gene targeting in Drosophila with zinc-finger nucleases. Genetics. 2006;172:2391-403 pubmed
    This report describes high-frequency germline gene targeting at two genomic loci in Drosophila melanogaster, y and ry...
  48. Katsuyama T, Akmammedov A, Seimiya M, Hess S, Sievers C, Paro R. An efficient strategy for TALEN-mediated genome engineering in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:e163 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our strategy with easyT and TALEN-plasmid microinjection simplifies mutant generation and enables isolation of desired mutant fly lines in the F1 generation. ..
  49. Mallin D, Myung J, Patton J, Geyer P. Polycomb group repression is blocked by the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing [su(Hw)] insulator. Genetics. 1998;148:331-9 pubmed
    ..A transposon carrying two reporter genes, the yellow and white genes, was used so that repression and insulation could be assayed simultaneously...
  50. Modolell J, Campuzano S. The achaete-scute complex as an integrating device. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:275-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, the AS-C integrates the positional information embodied in the relatively broad distributions of prepattern factors and creates a sharper and topographically more precise pattern. ..
  51. Udvardy A. Dividing the empire: boundary chromatin elements delimit the territory of enhancers. EMBO J. 1999;18:1-8 pubmed
  52. Zhou J, Ashe H, Burks C, Levine M. Characterization of the transvection mediating region of the abdominal-B locus in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:3057-65 pubmed
    ..We discuss the significance of these findings with regard to Abd-B transvection and long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in mammalian globin loci...
  53. Venken K, Schulze K, Haelterman N, Pan H, He Y, Evans Holm M, et al. MiMIC: a highly versatile transposon insertion resource for engineering Drosophila melanogaster genes. Nat Methods. 2011;8:737-43 pubmed
    ..MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ?C31 integrase attP sites...
  54. Kalay G, Wittkopp P. Nomadic enhancers: tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements of yellow have divergent genomic positions among Drosophila species. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001222 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence, function, and genomic location of enhancers controlling tissue- and cell-type specific expression of the yellow gene in six Drosophila species...
  55. Lei E, Corces V. RNA interference machinery influences the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Nat Genet. 2006;38:936-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the RNAi machinery acts as a modulator of nuclear architecture capable of effecting global changes in gene expression. ..
  56. Konev A, Yan C, Acevedo D, Kennedy C, Ward E, Lim A, et al. Genetics of P-element transposition into Drosophila melanogaster centric heterochromatin. Genetics. 2003;165:2039-53 pubmed
    ..in nine different genetic screens that relied on mosaic silencing (position-effect variegation, or PEV) of the yellow gene present in the transposon...
  57. Roseman R, Johnson E, Rodesch C, Bjerke M, Nagoshi R, Geyer P. A P element containing suppressor of hairy-wing binding regions has novel properties for mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;141:1061-74 pubmed
  58. Chetverina D, Savitskaya E, Maksimenko O, Melnikova L, Zaytseva O, Parshikov A, et al. Red flag on the white reporter: a versatile insulator abuts the white gene in Drosophila and is omnipresent in mini-white constructs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:929-37 pubmed
  59. Mongelard F, Labrador M, Baxter E, Gerasimova T, Corces V. Trans-splicing as a novel mechanism to explain interallelic complementation in Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;160:1481-7 pubmed
    ..A conclusion from this observation is that the trans-splicing reaction that takes place between transcripts produced on two different mutant chromosomes ensures wild-type levels of functional protein. ..
  60. Golovnin A, Mazur A, Kopantseva M, Kurshakova M, Gulak P, Gilmore B, et al. Integrity of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain is critical to insulator function in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:963-74 pubmed
    ..2 BTB domain with the GAF BTB domain produced a nonfunctional protein. Taken together, these data suggest that the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain confers novel activities to gypsy insulator function. ..
  61. Harrison D, Gdula D, Coyne R, Corces V. A leucine zipper domain of the suppressor of Hairy-wing protein mediates its repressive effect on enhancer function. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1966-78 pubmed
  62. Parnell T, Viering M, Skjesol A, Helou C, Kuhn E, Geyer P. An endogenous suppressor of hairy-wing insulator separates regulatory domains in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13436-41 pubmed
    ..on gene expression within a single genomic domain, targeted gene replacement was used to exchange the endogenous yellow gene, located at cytological location 1A, with a set of gypsy-modified yellow genes...
  63. Dorsett D. Distant liaisons: long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:505-14 pubmed
  64. Lee T, Luo L. Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis. Neuron. 1999;22:451-61 pubmed
    ..As an example, we show that the short stop gene is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension and guidance of their axons. ..
  65. Morris J, Chen J, Filandrinos S, Dunn R, Fisk R, Geyer P, et al. An analysis of transvection at the yellow locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1999;151:633-51 pubmed
    ..Transvection is seen at the yellow gene of Drosophila, where it mediates numerous cases of intragenic complementation...
  66. Wittkopp P, Vaccaro K, Carroll S. Evolution of yellow gene regulation and pigmentation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1547-56 pubmed
    ..Here, we compare the regulation of the yellow gene, which is required for melanization, among distantly related Drosophila species with different pigment ..
  67. Geyer P, Corces V. Separate regulatory elements are responsible for the complex pattern of tissue-specific and developmental transcription of the yellow locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1987;1:996-1004 pubmed
    DNA sequences involved in the control of the developmental and spatial expression of the yellow locus of Drosophila were identified by phenotypic analysis of germline transformants carrying various in vitro modified yellow genes...
  68. Wittkopp P, True J, Carroll S. Reciprocal functions of the Drosophila yellow and ebony proteins in the development and evolution of pigment patterns. Development. 2002;129:1849-58 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the regulation and function of the yellow and ebony genes in Drosophila melanogaster play crucial roles in this process...
  69. Yu Z, Ren M, Wang Z, Zhang B, Rong Y, Jiao R, et al. Highly efficient genome modifications mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in Drosophila. Genetics. 2013;195:289-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes in both heterochromatin and euchromatin can be modified efficiently. Thus the Cas9/gRNA system is an attractive tool for rapid disruption of essentially any gene in Drosophila. ..
  70. Sigrist C, Pirrotta V. Chromatin insulator elements block the silencing of a target gene by the Drosophila polycomb response element (PRE) but allow trans interactions between PREs on different chromosomes. Genetics. 1997;147:209-21 pubmed
    ..The similarity between the behavior of PREs and enhancers suggests a model for their long-distance action. ..
  71. Soshnev A, Li X, Wehling M, Geyer P. Context differences reveal insulator and activator functions of a Su(Hw) binding region. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000159 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that 1A-2 separates the yellow (y) gene from a previously unannotated, non-coding RNA gene, named yar for y-achaete (ac) intergenic RNA...
  72. Golovnin A, Biryukova I, Birukova I, Romanova O, Silicheva M, Parshikov A, et al. An endogenous Su(Hw) insulator separates the yellow gene from the Achaete-scute gene complex in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:3249-58 pubmed
    ..Here we show that two Suppressor of Hairy wing binding sites in the intergenic region between the yellow gene and the Achaete-scute gene complex form a functional insulator...
  73. Beumer K, Trautman J, Bozas A, Liu J, Rutter J, Gall J, et al. Efficient gene targeting in Drosophila by direct embryo injection with zinc-finger nucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The injection procedure is much more rapid than earlier approaches and makes possible the generation and recovery of targeted gene alterations at essentially any locus within 2 fly generations. ..
  74. Siegal M, Hartl D. Transgene Coplacement and high efficiency site-specific recombination with the Cre/loxP system in Drosophila. Genetics. 1996;144:715-26 pubmed
    ..The excision reactions of Cre/loxP and the related FLP/FRT system are used to create Drosophila lines in which transgenes are at exactly allelic sites in homologous chromosomes...
  75. Gompel N, Prud homme B, Wittkopp P, Kassner V, Carroll S. Chance caught on the wing: cis-regulatory evolution and the origin of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Nature. 2005;433:481-7 pubmed
    ..We show that the evolution of this spot involved modifications of an ancestral cis-regulatory element of the yellow pigmentation gene...