Gene Symbol: w
Description: white
Alias: BACN33B1.1, CG2759, DMWHITE, Dmel\CG2759, EG:BACN33B1.1, Hid, c23, w(AT)[[13]], white, CG2759-PA, enhancer of garnet, mini-white, modifier of garnet, w-PA, white[+]
Species: fruit fly
Products:     w

Top Publications

  1. Fanti L, Perrini B, Piacentini L, Berloco M, Marchetti E, Palumbo G, et al. The trithorax group and Pc group proteins are differentially involved in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. Chromosoma. 2008;117:25-39 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that trx-G proteins, along with some Pc-G proteins, play an active role in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. ..
  2. Rodin S, Kyrchanova O, Pomerantseva E, Parshikov A, Georgiev P. New properties of Drosophila fab-7 insulator. Genetics. 2007;177:113-21 pubmed
    ..Here, it has been shown that a single copy of the 860-bp Fab-7 insulator effectively blocks the yellow and white enhancers...
  3. Gohl D, Aoki T, Blanton J, Shanower G, Kappes G, Schedl P. Mechanism of chromosomal boundary action: roadblock, sink, or loop?. Genetics. 2011;187:731-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In the studies reported here, we have designed assays that test these predictions. The results of our assays are inconsistent with the expectations of the roadblock and sink models. Instead, they support the topological loop model. ..
  4. Kuhn Parnell E, Helou C, Marion D, Gilmore B, Parnell T, Wold M, et al. Investigation of the properties of non-gypsy suppressor of hairy-wing-binding sites. Genetics. 2008;179:1263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies extend our understanding of the properties of Su(Hw) and the endogenous genomic regions to which this protein localizes. ..
  5. Hanyu Nakamura K, Sonobe Nojima H, Tanigawa A, Lasko P, Nakamura A. Drosophila Pgc protein inhibits P-TEFb recruitment to chromatin in primordial germ cells. Nature. 2008;451:730-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inhibition of P-TEFb is probably a common mechanism during germ cell specification in the disparate organisms C. elegans and Drosophila. ..
  6. Kyrchanova O, Toshchakov S, Podstreshnaya Y, Parshikov A, Georgiev P. Functional interaction between the Fab-7 and Fab-8 boundaries and the upstream promoter region in the Drosophila Abd-B gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking into account the inability of the yeast GAL4 activator to stimulate the white promoter when its binding sites are separated by a 5-kb yellow gene, we have tested the functional interactions ..
  7. Ni J, Liu L, Binari R, Hardy R, Shim H, Cavallaro A, et al. A Drosophila resource of transgenic RNAi lines for neurogenetics. Genetics. 2009;182:1089-100 pubmed publisher
  8. Wei D, Rong Y. A genetic screen for DNA double-strand break repair mutations in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;177:63-77 pubmed
  9. Fujii S, Toyama A, Amrein H. A male-specific fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, SXE1, is necessary for efficient male mating in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;180:179-90 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Marques J, Kim K, Wu P, Alleyne T, Jafari N, Carthew R. Loqs and R2D2 act sequentially in the siRNA pathway in Drosophila. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Loqs is primarily required for dsRNA processing, whereas R2D2 is essential for the subsequent loading of siRNAs into effector Ago-RISC complexes. ..
  2. Pulver S, Pashkovski S, Hornstein N, Garrity P, Griffith L. Temporal dynamics of neuronal activation by Channelrhodopsin-2 and TRPA1 determine behavioral output in Drosophila larvae. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:3075-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this work suggests that understanding the cellular effects of these genetic tools and their temporal dynamics is important for the design and interpretation of behavioral experiments. ..
  3. Berry B, Deddouche S, Kirschner D, Imler J, Antoniewski C. Viral suppressors of RNA silencing hinder exogenous and endogenous small RNA pathways in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5866 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify VSRs as tools to unravel small RNA pathways in insects and suggest a cosuppression of antiviral RNAi and endo-siRNA silencing by viruses during fly infections. ..
  4. Kind J, Akhtar A. Cotranscriptional recruitment of the dosage compensation complex to X-linked target genes. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2030-40 pubmed
    ..We propose a model of dynamic MSL complex binding to active genes based on exposed DNA target elements. ..
  5. Spierer A, Begeot F, Spierer P, Delattre M. SU(VAR)3-7 links heterochromatin and dosage compensation in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000066 pubmed publisher
    ..SU(VAR)3-7 is also involved in the dosage compensated expression of the X-linked white gene...
  6. Prestel M, Feller C, Straub T, Mitlöhner H, Becker P. The activation potential of MOF is constrained for dosage compensation. Mol Cell. 2010;38:815-26 pubmed publisher
  7. Chetverina D, Savitskaya E, Maksimenko O, Melnikova L, Zaytseva O, Parshikov A, et al. Red flag on the white reporter: a versatile insulator abuts the white gene in Drosophila and is omnipresent in mini-white constructs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:929-37 pubmed
    Much of the research on insulators in Drosophila has been done with transgenic constructs using the white gene (mini-white) as reporter...
  8. Alekseyenko O, Lee C, Kravitz E. Targeted manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission affects the escalation of aggression in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10806 pubmed publisher
    ..By separately manipulating 5HT- and DA- neuron systems, we collected evidence demonstrating a direct role for 5HT in the escalation of aggression in Drosophila. ..
  9. Frydrychova R, Mason J, Archer T. HP1 is distributed within distinct chromatin domains at Drosophila telomeres. Genetics. 2008;180:121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..directly affect HeT-A activity along the HTT array, although they have little or no effect on transcription of a white reporter gene in the HTT...
  10. Wang C, Cai W, Li Y, Deng H, Bao X, Girton J, et al. The epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark is required for counteracting heterochromatic spreading and gene silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:4309-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that the epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark itself is necessary for preventing the observed heterochromatic spreading independently of any structural contributions from the JIL-1 protein. ..
  11. Diao F, Waro G, Tsunoda S. Fast inactivation of Shal (K(v)4) K+ channels is regulated by the novel interactor SKIP3 in Drosophila neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:33-44 pubmed publisher
    ..As a scaffold-like protein, SKIP3 is likely to lead to the identification of a novel regulatory complex that modulates Shal channel inactivation. ..
  12. Zhou C, Rao Y, Rao Y. A subset of octopaminergic neurons are important for Drosophila aggression. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1059-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We carried out genetic rescue experiments that revealed the functional importance of neuronal octopamine and identified a small subset of octopaminergic neurons in the suboesophageal ganglion as being important for aggression. ..
  13. Schoenfelder S, Smits G, Fraser P, Reik W, Paro R. Non-coding transcripts in the H19 imprinting control region mediate gene silencing in transgenic Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:1068-73 pubmed
  14. Ghildiyal M, Seitz H, Horwich M, Li C, Du T, Lee S, et al. Endogenous siRNAs derived from transposons and mRNAs in Drosophila somatic cells. Science. 2008;320:1077-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that endo-siRNAs generated by the fly RNAi pathway silence selfish genetic elements in the soma, much as Piwi-interacting RNAs do in the germ line. ..
  15. Jeffress J, Page S, Royer S, Belden E, Blumenstiel J, Anderson L, et al. The formation of the central element of the synaptonemal complex may occur by multiple mechanisms: the roles of the N- and C-terminal domains of the Drosophila C(3)G protein in mediating synapsis and recombination. Genetics. 2007;177:2445-56 pubmed
  16. Zhong L, Belote J. The testis-specific proteasome subunit Prosalpha6T of D. melanogaster is required for individualization and nuclear maturation during spermatogenesis. Development. 2007;134:3517-25 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate a functional role of testis-specific proteasomes during Drosophila spermatogenesis. ..
  17. Katsuyama T, Akmammedov A, Seimiya M, Hess S, Sievers C, Paro R. An efficient strategy for TALEN-mediated genome engineering in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:e163 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our strategy with easyT and TALEN-plasmid microinjection simplifies mutant generation and enables isolation of desired mutant fly lines in the F1 generation. ..
  18. Sun X, Birchler J. Studies on the short range spreading of the male specific lethal (MSL) complex on the X chromosome in Drosophila. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;124:158-69 pubmed publisher
    A series of autosomal insertions of chromosomal fragments derived from around the X linked white eye color locus have been examined for male specific lethal (MSL) complex binding using both immunostaining and fluorescence in situ ..
  19. Nayak A, Berry B, Tassetto M, Kunitomi M, Acevedo A, Deng C, et al. Cricket paralysis virus antagonizes Argonaute 2 to modulate antiviral defense in Drosophila. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:547-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Sindbis pathogenesis was only modestly increased by expression of DCV- 1A. We conclude that RNAi suppressors function as virulence factors in insects and can target the Drosophila RNAi pathway at different points. ..
  20. Yin H, Lin H. An epigenetic activation role of Piwi and a Piwi-associated piRNA in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2007;450:304-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the expression of both the 3R-TAS1 piRNA and a white reporter gene in 3R-TAS becomes suppressed...
  21. Kostyuchenko M, Savitskaya E, Koryagina E, Melnikova L, Karakozova M, Georgiev P. Zeste can facilitate long-range enhancer-promoter communication and insulator bypass in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 2009;118:665-74 pubmed publisher
    ..re-examined the role of Zeste in supporting long-range interactions between an enhancer and a promoter using the white gene as a model system...
  22. Singh N, Aquadro C, Clark A. Estimation of fine-scale recombination intensity variation in the white-echinus interval of D. melanogaster. J Mol Evol. 2009;69:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results shed light on the relevant physical scale to consider in evolutionary analyses relating to recombination rate and highlight the motivations to increase the resolution of the recombination map in Drosophila. ..
  23. Gorchakov A, Alekseyenko A, Kharchenko P, Park P, Kuroda M. Long-range spreading of dosage compensation in Drosophila captures transcribed autosomal genes inserted on X. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a long-sought specific DNA sequence within X-linked genes is not obligatory for MSL binding. Instead, linkage and transcription play the pivotal roles in MSL targeting irrespective of gene origin and DNA sequence. ..
  24. Silicheva M, Golovnin A, Pomerantseva E, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Maksimenko O. Drosophila mini-white model system: new insights into positive position effects and the role of transcriptional terminators and gypsy insulator in transgene shielding. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:39-47 pubmed publisher
    The white gene, which is responsible for eye pigmentation, is widely used to study position effects in Drosophila...
  25. Liu L, Li Y, Wang R, Yin C, Dong Q, Hing H, et al. Drosophila hygrosensation requires the TRP channels water witch and nanchung. Nature. 2007;450:294-8 pubmed
    ..Construction of the hygrosensing system with opposing receptors may allow an organism to very sensitively detect changes in environmental humidity. ..
  26. Cheng Y, Nash H. Visual mutations reveal opposing effects of illumination on arousal in Drosophila. Genetics. 2008;178:2413-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These dual effects may explain aspects of the fly's daily activity and have potential clinical implications. ..
  27. Borycz J, Borycz J, Kubów A, Lloyd V, Meinertzhagen I. Drosophila ABC transporter mutants white, brown and scarlet have altered contents and distribution of biogenic amines in the brain. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:3454-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of the genes white, an important eye pigmentation marker in fly genetics that encodes an ABC transporter, and its binding partner ..
  28. Gallach M, Arnau V, Aldecoa R, Marín I. A sequence motif enriched in regions bound by the Drosophila dosage compensation complex. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:169 pubmed publisher
  29. Krivega M, Savitskaya E, Krivega I, Karakozova M, Parshikov A, Golovnin A, et al. Interaction between a pair of gypsy insulators or between heterologous gypsy and Wari insulators modulates Flp site-specific recombination in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 2010;119:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of 12 binding sites for the Su(Hw) protein, while the endogenous Wari insulator, located on the 3' side of the white gene, is independent from the Su(Hw) protein...
  30. Demontis F, Perrimon N. FOXO/4E-BP signaling in Drosophila muscles regulates organism-wide proteostasis during aging. Cell. 2010;143:813-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal an organism-wide regulation of proteostasis in response to muscle aging and a key role of FOXO/4E-BP signaling in the coordination of organismal and tissue aging. ..
  31. Jayaram S, Senti K, Tiklová K, Tsarouhas V, Hemphälä J, Samakovlis C. COPI vesicle transport is a common requirement for tube expansion in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1964 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the programmed deposition and growth of distinct luminal molds may provide distending forces during tube expansion in diverse organs. ..
  32. Majumder P, Roy S, Belozerov V, Bosu D, Puppali M, Cai H. Diverse transcription influences can be insulated by the Drosophila SF1 chromatin boundary. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Such diverse insulating capabilities are consistent with the proposed roles of SF1 to functionally separate fushi tarazu (ftz), a non-Hox gene, from the enhancers and the organized chromatin of the neighboring Hox genes. ..
  33. Chinchore Y, Mitra A, Dolph P. Accumulation of rhodopsin in late endosomes triggers photoreceptor cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000377 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data implicate buildup of rhodopsin in the late endosomal system as a novel trigger of death of photoreceptor neurons. ..
  34. Chan Y, Naujoks D, Huen D, Russell S. Insect population control by homing endonuclease-based gene drive: an evaluation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2011;188:33-44 pubmed publisher
  35. Kyrchanova O, Chetverina D, Maksimenko O, Kullyev A, Georgiev P. Orientation-dependent interaction between Drosophila insulators is a property of this class of regulatory elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:7019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..of well-studied insulators such as scs-scs, scs'-scs', 1A2-1A2 and Wari-Wari support distant activation of the white promoter by the yeast GAL4 activator in an orientation-dependent manner...
  36. Deddouche S, Matt N, Budd A, Mueller S, Kemp C, Galiana Arnoux D, et al. The DExD/H-box helicase Dicer-2 mediates the induction of antiviral activity in drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this family represents an evolutionary conserved set of sensors that detect viral nucleic acids and direct antiviral responses. ..
  37. Ni J, Zhou R, Czech B, Liu L, Holderbaum L, Yang Zhou D, et al. A genome-scale shRNA resource for transgenic RNAi in Drosophila. Nat Methods. 2011;8:405-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that shRNAs, modeled on an endogenous microRNA, are extremely effective at silencing gene expression during oogenesis. We also describe our progress toward building a genome-wide shRNA resource. ..
  38. DeVido S, Kwon D, Brown J, Kassis J. The role of Polycomb-group response elements in regulation of engrailed transcription in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..4 kb to -395 bp upstream of the Drosophila engrailed promoter contains a multipartite PRE that can mediate mini-white silencing and act as a PRE in an Ubx-reporter construct...
  39. Zhao Y, Tong C, Jiang J. Hedgehog regulates smoothened activity by inducing a conformational switch. Nature. 2007;450:252-8 pubmed
    ..Hence, by employing multiple Arg clusters as inhibitory elements counteracted by differential phosphorylation, SMO acts as a rheostat to translate graded HH signals into distinct responses. ..
  40. Stenberg P, Larsson J. Buffering and the evolution of chromosome-wide gene regulation. Chromosoma. 2011;120:213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the origin and function of buffering and compensation using Drosophila as a model. ..
  41. Erokhin M, Davydova A, Kyrchanova O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Chetverina D. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The 1A2 and Wari insulators are located immediately downstream of the Drosophila yellow and white genes, respectively...
  42. Kondo S, Ueda R. Highly improved gene targeting by germline-specific Cas9 expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 2013;195:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3-23%. Our method is readily scalable to high-throughput gene targeting, thereby accelerating comprehensive functional annotation of the Drosophila genome. ..
  43. Smith S, Wickramasinghe P, Olson A, Loukinov D, Lin L, Deng J, et al. Genome wide ChIP-chip analyses reveal important roles for CTCF in Drosophila genome organization. Dev Biol. 2009;328:518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CTCF plays more active roles in regulating gene activity and it functions differently from other insulator proteins in organizing the Drosophila genome. ..
  44. Lee Y, Pressman S, Andress A, Kim K, White J, Cassidy J, et al. Silencing by small RNAs is linked to endosomal trafficking. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It may provide a means to enhance the dynamics of RNA silencing in the cytoplasm. ..
  45. Osman D, Gobert V, Ponthan F, Heidenreich O, Haenlin M, Waltzer L. A Drosophila model identifies calpains as modulators of the human leukemogenic fusion protein AML1-ETO. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12043-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore Drosophila provides a promising genetically tractable model to investigate the conserved basis of leukemogenesis and to open avenues in AML therapy. ..
  46. Pinto B, Wilmington S, Hornick E, Wallrath L, Geyer P. Tissue-specific defects are caused by loss of the Drosophila MAN1 LEM domain protein. Genetics. 2008;180:133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The tissue-specific, age-enhanced dMAN1 mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of human laminopathies, suggesting that studies in Drosophila will provide insights into lamina dysfunction associated with disease. ..
  47. Wang C, Cai W, Li Y, Girton J, Johansen J, Johansen K. H3S10 phosphorylation by the JIL-1 kinase regulates H3K9 dimethylation and gene expression at the white locus in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2012;6:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we have explored the relationship between PEV and the relative levels of the H3S10ph and H3K9me2 marks at the white gene in both wild-type and w(m4) backgrounds by ChIP analysis...
  48. Franch Marro X, Wendler F, Guidato S, Griffith J, Baena Lopez A, Itasaki N, et al. Wingless secretion requires endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of Wntless/Evi/Sprinter by the retromer complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Without the retromer-dependent recycling route, Wingless secretion is impaired and, as electron microscopy suggests, Wntless is diverted to a degradative compartment. ..
  49. Simon A, Daniels R, Romero Calderon R, Grygoruk A, Chang H, Najibi R, et al. Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter mutants can adapt to reduced or eliminated vesicular stores of dopamine and serotonin. Genetics. 2009;181:525-41 pubmed publisher
    ..dVMAT mutants define potentially adaptive responses to reduced or eliminated aminergic signaling and will be useful to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. ..
  50. Brough R, Wei D, Leulier S, Lord C, Rong Y, Ashworth A. Functional analysis of Drosophila melanogaster BRCA2 in DNA repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:10-9 pubmed
  51. Maksimenko O, Golovnin A, Georgiev P. Enhancer-promoter communication is regulated by insulator pairing in a Drosophila model bigenic locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The set of transgenic constructs comprised two consecutive genes (yellow and white) with their enhancers and insulator elements differently arranged in between and/or around the gene(s)...
  52. Li C, Vagin V, Lee S, Xu J, Ma S, Xi H, et al. Collapse of germline piRNAs in the absence of Argonaute3 reveals somatic piRNAs in flies. Cell. 2009;137:509-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Transposons targeted by this second pathway often reside in the flamenco locus, which is expressed in somatic ovarian follicle cells, suggesting a role for piRNAs beyond the germline. ..
  53. Li H, Muller M, Bahechar I, Kyrchanova O, Ohno K, Georgiev P, et al. Insulators, not Polycomb response elements, are required for long-range interactions between Polycomb targets in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:616-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that insulator binding proteins rather than PcG complexes are likely to be the major determinants of the long-range higher-order organization of PcG targets in the nucleus. ..
  54. Yarali A, Krischke M, Michels B, Saumweber T, Mueller M, Gerber B. Genetic distortion of the balance between punishment and relief learning in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here, for the fruit fly Drosophila, that upon the loss of white-function, the balance between these two kinds of learning is distorted in favor of punishment learning: white1118 ..
  55. Bonchuk A, Denisov S, Georgiev P, Maksimenko O. Drosophila BTB/POZ domains of "ttk group" can form multimers and selectively interact with each other. J Mol Biol. 2011;412:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, experiments in the Drosophila model system have not supported the role of GAF in organization of long-distance interaction between the yeast GAL4 activator and the white promoter.
  56. Riddle N, Leung W, Haynes K, Granok H, Wuller J, Elgin S. An investigation of heterochromatin domains on the fourth chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;178:1177-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Using P-element reporters carrying a copy of hsp70-white, alternative chromatin packaging domains can be distinguished by the eye color phenotype...
  57. Kain J, Stokes C, de Bivort B. Phototactic personality in fruit flies and its suppression by serotonin and white. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19834-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using genetics and pharmacology, we identified the metabolite transporter White and white-dependent serotonin as suppressors of phototactic personality...
  58. Sitaraman D, Zars M, LaFerriere H, Chen Y, Sable Smith A, Kitamoto T, et al. Serotonin is necessary for place memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, serotonin can be critical for memory formation in an insect, and dopamine is not a universal negatively reinforcing signal. ..