Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: vnd
Description: ventral nervous system defective
Alias: CG6172, Dm vnd, Dm-NK2, Dmel\CG6172, EC6, EG:118B3.1, HDC16822, NK-2, NK2, Nkx2, VND, Vnd, dNK-2, l(1)1Bf, l(1)EA142, l(1)EC6, l(1)GA100, l(1)GA122, l(1)RC24, l(1)VA208, l(1)VE769, lab, nk-2, vnd/NK-2, ventral nervous system defective, CG6172-PA, CG6172-PB, HDC16822, ventral nerve cord defective, ventral nervous system condensation defective, ventral neuroblasts defective, ventral neurons defective, vnd-PA, vnd-PB
Species: fruit fly
- Mellerick D, Nirenberg M. Dorsal-ventral patterning genes restrict NK-2 homeobox gene expression to the ventral half of the central nervous system of Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 1995;171:306-16 pubmed
- Uhler J, Garbern J, Yang L, Kamholz J, Mellerick D. Nk6, a novel Drosophila homeobox gene regulated by vnd. Mech Dev. 2002;116:105-16 pubmed..We show genetically that Nk6 is positively regulated, directly or indirectly, by vnd in brain precursors...
- Zinzen R, Senger K, Levine M, Papatsenko D. Computational models for neurogenic gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1358-65 pubmed publisher..We propose that binding site occupancy is the key rate-limiting step for establishing localized patterns of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo...
- Wang L, Chmelik R, Nirenberg M. Sequence-specific DNA binding by the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12721-6 pubmedThe ventral nervous system defective (vnd)/NK-2 homeodomain and some flanking amino acid residues were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and the protein was covalently coupled to Sepharose...
- Mizutani C, Meyer N, Roelink H, Bier E. Threshold-dependent BMP-mediated repression: a model for a conserved mechanism that patterns the neuroectoderm. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e313 pubmed..We propose that BMPs played an ancestral role in patterning the metazoan neuroectoderm by threshold-dependent repression of neural identity genes. ..
- Kim Y, Nirenberg M. Drosophila NK-homeobox genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7716-20 pubmed
- Skeath J, Panganiban G, Carroll S. The ventral nervous system defective gene controls proneural gene expression at two distinct steps during neuroblast formation in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1517-24 pubmed..the achaete-scute complex (AS-C): achaete (ac), scute (sc) and lethal of scute (l'sc), and the gene ventral nervous system defective (vnd)...
- Harvey R. NK-2 homeobox genes and heart development. Dev Biol. 1996;178:203-16 pubmed..tinman homologues have now been isolated from vertebrate genomes and at least one of them, Nkx2-5, is expressed in heart progenitor cells and is essential for myogenic and morphogenetic differentiation of the ..
- Chu H, Parras C, White K, Jimenez F. Formation and specification of ventral neuroblasts is controlled by vnd in Drosophila neurogenesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3613-24 pubmed..Here, we analyze the role of Vnd, a NK-2 homeodomain protein, expressed initially in the ventral neuroectoderm adjacent to the ventral midline, in ..
- Von Ohlen T, Doe C. Convergence of dorsal, dpp, and egfr signaling pathways subdivides the drosophila neuroectoderm into three dorsal-ventral columns. Dev Biol. 2000;224:362-72 pubmed..earliest sign of neural DV patterning is the expression of three homeobox genes in the neuroectoderm-ventral nervous system defective (vnd), intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind), and muscle segment homeobox (msh)-which are ..
- Cowden J, Levine M. Ventral dominance governs sequential patterns of gene expression across the dorsal-ventral axis of the neuroectoderm in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2003;262:335-49 pubmed..Here we investigate the subdivision of the neuroectoderm by three conserved homeobox genes, ventral nervous system defective (vnd), intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind), and muscle segment homeobox (msh)...
- Crocker J, Erives A. A Schnurri/Mad/Medea complex attenuates the dorsal-twist gradient readout at vnd. Dev Biol. 2013;378:64-72 pubmed publisher..Here, we identify such a case with the Drosophila vnd locus, which is a target of the dorsal (dl) nuclear concentration gradient that patterns the dorsal/ventral (D/V) ..
- Bier E. Anti-neural-inhibition: a conserved mechanism for neural induction. Cell. 1997;89:681-4 pubmed
- Markstein M, Zinzen R, Markstein P, Yee K, Erives A, Stathopoulos A, et al. A regulatory code for neurogenic gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2004;131:2387-94 pubmed..We discuss the prospects for deciphering regulatory codes that link primary DNA sequence information with predicted patterns of gene expression. ..
- Tsao D, Gruschus J, Wang L, Nirenberg M, Ferretti J. Elongation of helix III of the NK-2 homeodomain upon binding to DNA: a secondary structure study by NMR. Biochemistry. 1994;33:15053-60 pubmed..In the absence of DNA, the DNA recognition helix is 11 amino acid residues long (residues 42-52), whereas in the presence of DNA, the length of this helix extends to 19 amino acids (residues 42-60).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Cornell R, Ohlen T. Vnd/nkx, ind/gsh, and msh/msx: conserved regulators of dorsoventral neural patterning?. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:63-71 pubmedExpression of vnd in ventral, ind in intermediate, and msh in dorsal columns of fly neurectoderm, and of homologous gene families in corresponding domains of vertebrate neurectoderm, suggests that elements of dorsoventral neural ..
- Yu Z, Syu L, Mellerick D. Contextual interactions determine whether the Drosophila homeodomain protein, Vnd, acts as a repressor or activator. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1-12 pubmedAt the molecular level, members of the NKx2.2 family of transcription factors establish neural compartment boundaries by repressing the expression of homeobox genes specific for adjacent domains [Muhr et al...
- McDonald J, Holbrook S, Isshiki T, Weiss J, Doe C, Mellerick D. Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila central nervous system: the vnd homeobox gene specifies ventral column identity. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3603-12 pubmed..Vertebrate homologs of vnd (Nkx2.1 and 2...
- Urbach R, Technau G. Segment polarity and DV patterning gene expression reveals segmental organization of the Drosophila brain. Development. 2003;130:3607-20 pubmed..distal, mirror) and DV patterning genes (muscle segment homeobox, intermediate neuroblast defective, ventral nervous system defective) in the procephalic neuroectoderm and the neuroblast layer (until stage 11, when all neuroblasts are ..
- D Alessio M, Frasch M. msh may play a conserved role in dorsoventral patterning of the neuroectoderm and mesoderm. Mech Dev. 1996;58:217-31 pubmed..regulators of the achaete-scute (AS-C) genes and may play a role that is analogous to that of the homeobox gene vnd/NK2 in the medial sector of the neuroectoderm...
- Biemar F, Nix D, Piel J, Peterson B, Ronshaugen M, Sementchenko V, et al. Comprehensive identification of Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning genes using a whole-genome tiling array. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12763-8 pubmed..We discuss the potential functions of these recently identified genes and suggest that intronic enhancers are a common feature of the DV gene network. ..
- Wang L, Chmelik R, Tang D, Nirenberg M. Identification and analysis of vnd/NK-2 homeodomain binding sites in genomic DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7097-102 pubmedb>Vnd/NK-2 homeodomain affinity column chromatography was used to purify Drosophila DNA fragments bound by the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain...
- Saunders H, Koizumi K, Odenwald W, Nirenberg M. Neuroblast pattern formation: regulatory DNA that confers the vnd/NK-2 homeobox gene pattern on a reporter gene in transgenic lines of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8316-21 pubmedDNA fragments -0.57, -2.2, -2.9, -5.3, and -8.4 kb in length from the upstream regulatory region of the vnd/NK-2 gene were cloned in the 5'-flanking region of a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter gene in the P-element pCaSpeR-AUG-..
- Jimenez F, Martin Morris L, Velasco L, Chu H, Sierra J, Rosen D, et al. vnd, a gene required for early neurogenesis of Drosophila, encodes a homeodomain protein. EMBO J. 1995;14:3487-95 pubmed..Loss-of-function mutations at the ventral nervous system defective (vnd) locus are known to lead to similar phenotypic defects in early neurogenesis...
- Crocker J, Tamori Y, Erives A. Evolution acts on enhancer organization to fine-tune gradient threshold readouts. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e263 pubmed publisher..Our study demonstrates that equivalence classes of CRMs are powerful tools for detecting lineage-specific adaptations by gene regulatory sequences. ..
- Stathopoulos A, Levine M. Localized repressors delineate the neurogenic ectoderm in the early Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2005;280:482-93 pubmed..Spatially localized repressors such as Snail and Vnd exclude the expression of neurogenic genes in the mesoderm and ventral neuroectoderm, respectively...
- Estes P, Mosher J, Crews S. Drosophila single-minded represses gene transcription by activating the expression of repressive factors. Dev Biol. 2001;232:157-75 pubmed..The mechanism by which Single-minded represses transcription was examined using the ventral nervous system defective gene as a target gene...
- Yagi Y, Suzuki T, Hayashi S. Interaction between Drosophila EGF receptor and vnd determines three dorsoventral domains of the neuroectoderm. Development. 1998;125:3625-33 pubmed..We found that the homeobox gene vnd is required for the expression of esg and scute in the medial column, and show that vnd acts through the negative ..
- Koizumi K, Lintas C, Nirenberg M, Maeng J, Ju J, Mack J, et al. Mutations that affect the ability of the vnd/NK-2 homeoprotein to regulate gene expression: transgenic alterations and tertiary structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3119-24 pubmed..These changes resulting from a single amino acid residue replacement constitute the molecular basis for the phenotypic alterations observed on ectopic expression of the Y54M vndNK-2 gene during embryogenesis. ..
- Erives A, Levine M. Coordinate enhancers share common organizational features in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3851-6 pubmed..Organized binding sites should facilitate the identification of regulatory codes that link primary DNA sequence information with predicted patterns of gene activity. ..
- Bhat K, Apsel N. Upregulation of Mitimere and Nubbin acts through cyclin E to confer self-renewing asymmetric division potential to neural precursor cells. Development. 2004;131:1123-34 pubmed..These results add to our understanding of maintenance and loss of pluripotential stem cell identity. ..
- Gonzalez M, Weiler S, Ferretti J, Ginsburg A. The vnd/NK-2 homeodomain: thermodynamics of reversible unfolding and DNA binding for wild-type and with residue replacements H52R and H52R/T56W in helix III. Biochemistry. 2001;40:4923-31 pubmedThe conformational stabilities of the vnd (ventral nervous system defective)/NK-2 homeodomain [HD(wt); residues 1-80 that encompass the 60-residue homeodomain] and those harboring mutations in helix III of the DNA recognition site [HD(..
- Cande J, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Conservation of enhancer location in divergent insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14414-9 pubmed publisher..We propose that this enhancer constancy might be a general property of regulatory evolution, and should facilitate enhancer discovery in nonmodel organisms. ..
- Xiang B, Weiler S, Nirenberg M, Ferretti J. Structural basis of an embryonically lethal single Ala --> Thr mutation in the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7412-6 pubmedThe structural and DNA binding behavior is described for an analog of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain, which contains a single amino acid residue alanine to threonine replacement in position 35 of the homeodomain...
- Sharma S, Nirenberg M. Silencing of genes in cultured Drosophila neurons by RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12925-30 pubmed..The results suggest that this cultured neural cell system can be used to study RNAi-dependent silencing of genes involved in many kinds of neural functions. ..
- Odenwald W, Rasband W, Kuzin A, Brody T. EVOPRINTER, a multigenomic comparative tool for rapid identification of functionally important DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14700-5 pubmed publisher..Also, evoprinter allows one to assess the degree of evolutionary divergence between orthologous DNAs by highlighting differences between a selected species and the other test species...
- McHale P, Mizutani C, Kosman D, Mackay D, Belu M, Hermann A, et al. Gene length may contribute to graded transcriptional responses in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2011;360:230-40 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that gene length may contribute to establishing graded responses to morphogen gradients by providing transient prepatterns that are subsequently amplified and stabilized by traditional cis-regulatory interactions. ..
- Shao X, Koizumi K, Nosworthy N, Tan D, Odenwald W, Nirenberg M. Regulatory DNA required for vnd/NK-2 homeobox gene expression pattern in neuroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:113-7 pubmedb>Vnd/NK-2 protein was detected in 11 neuroblasts per hemisegment in Drosophila embryos, 9 medial and 2 intermediate neuroblasts...
- Jurata L, Thomas J, Pfaff S. Transcriptional mechanisms in the development of motor control. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:72-9 pubmed
- Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. The effects of zygotic lethal mutations on female germ-line functions in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1984;105:404-14 pubmed..Three loci were found which, in germ-line clones, produced embryonic phenotypes that resemble maternal effect mutations. The implications of this study for the genetic analysis of early development are discussed. ..
- Campos A, Grossman D, White K. Mutant alleles at the locus elav in Drosophila melanogaster lead to nervous system defects. A developmental-genetic analysis. J Neurogenet. 1985;2:197-218 pubmed..The embryonic lethality caused by the mutant alleles and abnormalities observed in the genetic mosaics have led us to rename the locus l(1)EC7 to elav (embryonic lethal, abnormal visual system). ..
- Helman A, Cinnamon E, Mezuman S, Hayouka Z, Von Ohlen T, Orian A, et al. Phosphorylation of Groucho mediates RTK feedback inhibition and prolonged pathway target gene expression. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1102-10 pubmed publisher..We propose that, in this manner, phosphorylation of Groucho enables transiently active RTK pathways to fix the spatiotemporal expression profiles of downstream targets over time. ..
- Ruden D, Chen L, Possidente D, Possidente B, Rasouli P, Wang L, et al. Genetical toxicogenomics in Drosophila identifies master-modulatory loci that are regulated by developmental exposure to lead. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:898-914 pubmed publisher..For these 33 genes, rather than allelic variation at one locus exerting differential effects in two environments, we found that variation at two different loci are required for optimal effects on lead-induced expression. ..
- Chan Y, Jan Y. Conservation of neurogenic genes and mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999;9:582-8 pubmed..These findings pave the way for future work that will help to establish the extent to which these similarities represent evolutionary conservation. ..
- Chitnis A. Control of neurogenesis--lessons from frogs, fish and flies. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999;9:18-25 pubmed..The analysis of these genes has begun to fill gaps in our understanding of events that lead from neural induction to the generation of neurons within three longitudinal columns in the Xenopus and zebrafish neural plate. ..
- Uhler J, Zhang H, Syu L, Mellerick D. The Nk-2 box of the Drosophila homeodomain protein, Vnd, contributes to its repression activity in a Groucho-dependent manner. Mech Dev. 2007;124:1-10 pubmedThe transcription factor, Vnd, is a dual regulator that specifies ventral neuroblast identity in Drosophila by both repressing and activating target genes...
- Jimenez F, Campos Ortega J. Defective neuroblast commitment in mutants of the achaete-scute complex and adjacent genes of D. melanogaster. Neuron. 1990;5:81-9 pubmedLoss of function mutations in genes of the achaete-scute complex (ASC) or in the gene vnd of D. melanogaster result in neural hypoplasia...
- Sprecher S, Reichert H, Hartenstein V. Gene expression patterns in primary neuronal clusters of the Drosophila embryonic brain. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:584-95 pubmed
- Boettiger A, Levine M. Synchronous and stochastic patterns of gene activation in the Drosophila embryo. Science. 2009;325:471-3 pubmed publisher..Transcriptional synchrony might ensure the orderly deployment of the complex gene regulatory networks that control embryogenesis. ..
- Von Ohlen T, Moses C, Poulson W. Ind represses msh expression in the intermediate column of the Drosophila neuroectoderm, through direct interaction with upstream regulatory DNA. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2735-44 pubmed publisher..These are from ventral to dorsal: Ventral nervous system defective (vnd), Intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind) and Muscle segment homeobox (msh)...
- Seibert J, Urbach R. Role of en and novel interactions between msh, ind, and vnd in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila brain and ventral nerve cord. Dev Biol. 2010;346:332-45 pubmed publisher..novel genetic interactions that control expression of the evolutionary conserved homeobox genes ventral nervous system defective (vnd), intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind), and muscle segment homeobox (msh)...
- Oh C, Kwon S, Jeon K, Han P, Kim S, Jeon S. Local inhibition of Drosophila homeobox-containing neural dorsoventral patterning genes by Dpp. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:427-31 pubmed..b>Ventral nervous system defective (vnd), intermediate neuroblast defective (ind), muscle-specific homeobox (msh), and orthodenticle (..
- Brittain A, Stroebele E, Erives A. Microsatellite repeat instability fuels evolution of embryonic enhancers in Hawaiian Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101177 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, as most indels are produced by microsatellite repeat slippage, enhancers from Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, which experience dynamic evolutionary pressures, would become grossly enriched in MSR content. ..
- La Penna G, Fausti S, Perico A, Ferretti J. Smoluchowski dynamics of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain from Drosophila melanogaster: second-order maximum correlation approximation. Biopolymers. 2000;54:89-103 pubmed..5, 60.8, and 81.1 MHz of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain from Drosophila melanogaster...
- La Penna G, Mormino M, Pioli F, Perico A, Fioravanti R, Gruschus J, et al. Smoluchowski dynamics of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain from Drosophila melanogaster: first-order mode-coupling approximation. Biopolymers. 1999;49:235-54 pubmed..of the bonds and compare the calculated with the experimental nmr 15N spin-lattice relaxation time behavior of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain from Drosophila melanogaster...
- Campos Ortega J. The genetics of the Drosophila achaete-scute gene complex: a historical appraisal. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:291-7 pubmed..Due to their intricate organization, these genes have occupied geneticists and developmental biologists for many years. Here, genetic studies on the complex are discussed from a historical point of view. ..
- Jimenez F, Campos Ortega J. Genes in subdivision 1B of the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome and their influence on neural development. J Neurogenet. 1987;4:179-200 pubmed..Three of these genes, mapping to the l'sc(a gene of the achaete-scute complex, ASC),elav and vnd loci, affect major and apparently different aspects of CNS development...
- Ronshaugen M, Levine M. Visualization of trans-homolog enhancer-promoter interactions at the Abd-B Hox locus in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2004;7:925-32 pubmed..Such trans-homolog interactions might be a common mechanism of gene regulation in higher metazoans. ..
- Ball E, Hayward D, Saint R, Miller D. A simple plan--cnidarians and the origins of developmental mechanisms. Nat Rev Genet. 2004;5:567-77 pubmed
- Ashraf S, Ip Y. The Snail protein family regulates neuroblast expression of inscuteable and string, genes involved in asymmetry and cell division in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:4757-67 pubmed..These results suggest that the Snail family of proteins control both asymmetry and cell division of neuroblasts by activating, probably indirectly, the expression of inscuteable and string. ..
- Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
- Hsu T, Schulz R. Sequence and functional properties of Ets genes in the model organism Drosophila. Oncogene. 2000;19:6409-16 pubmed..The information should be of significant value to the study of related processes in higher organisms due to the growing evidence for the cross species conservation of developmental mechanisms. ..
- Held L. Bristle patterning in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1991;13:633-40 pubmed..Some of the genes that control these events participate in more than one stage, and others play key roles in seemingly unrelated developmental pathways, including embryonic neurogenesis, body segmentation, and sex determination. ..
- Seibert J, Volland D, Urbach R. Ems and Nkx6 are central regulators in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila brain. Development. 2009;136:3937-47 pubmed publisher..network implicates novel interactions between these and the evolutionarily conserved homeobox genes ventral nervous system defective (vnd), intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind) and muscle segment homeobox (msh)...
- Yoo S. Kinetic analysis of Drosophila Vnd protein containing homeodomain with its target sequence. BMB Rep. 2010;43:407-12 pubmed..Drosophila Vnd (Ventral nervous system defective) containing HD acts as a regulator to either enhance or suppress gene expression upon binding to its ..
- Lints T, Parsons L, Hartley L, Lyons I, Harvey R. Nkx-2.5: a novel murine homeobox gene expressed in early heart progenitor cells and their myogenic descendants. Development. 1993;119:419-31 pubmed..5 and Nkx-2.6, that are new members of a sp sub-family of homeobox genes related to Drosophila NK2, NK3 and NK4/msh-2. In this paper, we focus on the Nkx-2...
- Kim H, Ahn H, Lee S, Kim J, Park J, Jeon S, et al. Intrinsic dorsoventral patterning and extrinsic EGFR signaling genes control glial cell development in the Drosophila nervous system. Neuroscience. 2015;307:242-52 pubmed publisher..Our study demonstrated that the dorsoventral patterning genes, vnd, ind, and msh, are intrinsically essential for the proper expression of a master glial cell regulator, gcm, and a ..
- Haskel Ittah M, Ben Zvi D, Branski Arieli M, Schejter E, Shilo B, Barkai N. Self-organized shuttling: generating sharp dorsoventral polarity in the early Drosophila embryo. Cell. 2012;150:1016-28 pubmed publisher..Shuttling may represent a general paradigm for patterning early embryos. ..
- Zhao G, Wheeler S, Skeath J. Genetic control of dorsoventral patterning and neuroblast specification in the Drosophila Central Nervous System. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51:107-15 pubmed..pattern the dorsoventral axis of the neuroectoderm: Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr), ventral nerve cord defective (vnd), intermediate neuroblast defective (ind), muscle segment homeobox (msh), Dichaete and Sox-Neuro (..
- Carneiro K, Fontenele M, Negreiros E, Lopes E, Bier E, Araujo H. Graded maternal short gastrulation protein contributes to embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning by delayed induction. Dev Biol. 2006;296:203-18 pubmed
- Bodmer R, Jan L, Jan Y. A new homeobox-containing gene, msh-2, is transiently expressed early during mesoderm formation of Drosophila. Development. 1990;110:661-9 pubmed..H2.0, a homeo-box-containing gene specifically expressed in visceral mesoderm, is not transcribed in the mesoderm in 93C-F deficiency embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..