Gene Symbol: Vmat
Description: Vesicular monoamine transporter
Alias: CG33528, CG6119, CG6139, DVMAT, DVMAT-A, DVMAT-B, Dmel\CG33528, VMAT, dVMAT, l(2)SH0459, l(2)SH2 0459, vmat, vesicular monoamine transporter, CG33528-PC, CG33528-PD, CG33528-PE, CG33528-PF, Vmat-PC, Vmat-PD, Vmat-PE, Vmat-PF, drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter, lethal (2) SH0459, vesicle transporter
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Greer C, Grygoruk A, Patton D, Ley B, Romero Calderon R, Chang H, et al. A splice variant of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter contains a conserved trafficking domain and functions in the storage of dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. J Neurobiol. 2005;64:239-58 pubmed
    ..of vesicular transporter function and regulation, we have cloned the Drosophila homolog of the vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT)...
  2. Middleton C, Nongthomba U, Parry K, Sweeney S, Sparrow J, Elliott C. Neuromuscular organization and aminergic modulation of contractions in the Drosophila ovary. BMC Biol. 2006;4:17 pubmed
    ..They all express tyrosine decarboxylase (required for tyramine and octopamine synthesis) and Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT). No fibres innervate the ovarioles...
  3. Sang T, Chang H, Lawless G, Ratnaparkhi A, Mee L, Ackerson L, et al. A Drosophila model of mutant human parkin-induced toxicity demonstrates selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and dependence on cellular dopamine. J Neurosci. 2007;27:981-92 pubmed
    ..Overexpression or knockdown of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter, which regulates cytosolic DA homeostasis, partially rescues or exacerbates, respectively, the ..
  4. Wu T, Lu Y, Chuang C, Wu C, Chiang A, Krantz D, et al. Loss of vesicular dopamine release precedes tauopathy in degenerative dopaminergic neurons in a Drosophila model expressing human tau. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;125:711-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Tau triggers a synaptic pathology visualized by vesicular monoamine transporter-pHGFP that precedes both the age-dependent formation of tau-containing neurofibrillary tangle-like ..
  5. Seugnet L, Galvin J, Suzuki Y, Gottschalk L, Shaw P. Persistent short-term memory defects following sleep deprivation in a drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Sleep. 2009;32:984-92 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize the importance of sleep in a degenerating/reorganizing brain and shows that pathological processes induced by sleep deprivation can be dissected at the molecular and cellular level using Drosophila genetics. ..
  6. Williams M, Goergen P, Rajendran J, Klockars A, Kasagiannis A, Fredriksson R, et al. Regulation of aggression by obesity-linked genes TfAP-2 and Twz through octopamine signaling in Drosophila. Genetics. 2014;196:349-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that genetically manipulating the obesity-linked homologs TfAP-2 and Twz is sufficient to affect octopamine signaling, which in turn modulates Drosophila male behavior through the regulation of the satiation hormone Dsk. ..
  7. Chang H, Grygoruk A, Brooks E, Ackerson L, Maidment N, Bainton R, et al. Overexpression of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter increases motor activity and courtship but decreases the behavioral response to cocaine. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:99-113 pubmed
    ..We show that a Drosophila isoform of VMAT (DVMAT-A) is expressed in both dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the adult Drosophila brain...
  8. Lawal H, Chang H, Terrell A, Brooks E, Pulido D, Simon A, et al. The Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter reduces pesticide-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) regulates intracellular dopamine content, and we have tested the neuroprotective effects of ..
  9. Romero Calderon R, Uhlenbrock G, Borycz J, Simon A, Grygoruk A, Yee S, et al. A glial variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter is required to store histamine in the Drosophila visual system. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000245 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that a novel mRNA splice variant of Drosophila VMAT (DVMAT-B) is expressed not in neurons but rather in a small subset of glia in the lamina of the fly's optic lobe...

More Information


  1. Shiba Fukushima K, Inoshita T, Hattori N, Imai Y. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin boosts Parkin activity in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004391 pubmed publisher
  2. Chen A, Ng F, Lebestky T, Grygoruk A, Djapri C, Lawal H, et al. Dispensable, redundant, complementary, and cooperative roles of dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2013;193:159-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila melanogaster behavior by biogenic amines, we have exploited the broad requirement of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) for the vesicular storage and exocytotic release of all monoamine neurotransmitters...
  3. Damulewicz M, Pyza E. The clock input to the first optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster expressing neuronal circadian plasticity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21258 pubmed publisher
  4. Tauber J, Vanlandingham P, Zhang B. Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27100 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) suppresses excessive grooming...
  5. Hanna M, Bednářová A, Rakshit K, Chaudhuri A, O Donnell J, Krishnan N. Perturbations in dopamine synthesis lead to discrete physiological effects and impact oxidative stress response in Drosophila. J Insect Physiol. 2015;73:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..encodes guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase, required for TH activity, and (iv) a mutant in the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT(Δ14)), which is required for packaging of DA as vesicles inside DA neurons...
  6. Williams M, Perland E, Eriksson M, Carlsson J, Erlandsson D, Laan L, et al. Recurrent Sleep Fragmentation Induces Insulin and Neuroprotective Mechanisms in Middle-Aged Flies. Front Aging Neurosci. 2016;8:180 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that neuroprotective pathways remain upregulated in middle-aged flies beyond sleep fragmentation suggests it might represent a strong stressor for the brain during later life. ..
  7. Curran K, Chalasani S. Serotonin circuits and anxiety: what can invertebrates teach us?. Invert Neurosci. 2012;12:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These model systems possess well-defined neuroanatomies and robust serotonin-mediated behavior and should reveal insights into how serotonin can modulate human cognitive functions...
  8. Hong X, Doddapaneni H, Comeron J, Rodesch M, Halvensleben H, Nien C, et al. Microarray-based capture of novel expressed cell type-specific transfrags (CoNECT) to annotate tissue-specific transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:873-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovary and testis isotigs over 200 bp have been deposited with the GenBank Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database as bioproject no.PRJNA89451 (accession nos. JV208106–JV230865). ..
  9. Park S, Schulz E, Lee D. Disruption of dopamine homeostasis underlies selective neurodegeneration mediated by alpha-synuclein. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:3104-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, overexpression of a Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter rescued alpha-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration through enhanced sequestration of cytoplasmic DA ..
  10. Wang Z, Ferdousy F, Lawal H, Huang Z, Daigle J, Izevbaye I, et al. Catecholamines up integrates dopamine synthesis and synaptic trafficking. J Neurochem. 2011;119:1294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid, an oxidative metabolite of dopamine, and resistance to the vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitor, reserpine, suggesting that excess dopamine is synaptically active and that Catsup ..
  11. Asensio C, Sirkis D, Edwards R. RNAi screen identifies a role for adaptor protein AP-3 in sorting to the regulated secretory pathway. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1173-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Although vesicles with a dense core still form in the absence of AP-3, they contain substantially less synaptotagmin 1, indicating that AP-3 concentrates the proteins required for regulated exocytosis. ..
  12. Nall A, Sehgal A. Small-molecule screen in adult Drosophila identifies VMAT as a regulator of sleep. J Neurosci. 2013;33:8534-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that administration of reserpine, a small-molecule inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) that repackages monoamines into presynaptic vesicles, resulted in an increase in sleep...
  13. Naylor S, DiAntonio A. EGFR signaling modulates synaptic connectivity via Gurken. Dev Neurobiol. 2012;72:1229-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify a new pathway mediating cell-type and branch-specific synaptic repulsion, a novel role for EGFR signaling in synaptic target selection, and an unexpected role for Gurken as a muscle-secreted repulsive ligand. ..
  14. Inamdar A, Hossain M, Bernstein A, Miller G, Richardson J, Bennett J. Fungal-derived semiochemical 1-octen-3-ol disrupts dopamine packaging and causes neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:19561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) rescued the dopamine toxicity and neurodegeneration, whereas mutations decreasing VMAT and ..
  15. Grygoruk A, Chen A, Martin C, Lawal H, Fei H, Gutierrez G, et al. The redistribution of Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter mutants from synaptic vesicles to large dense-core vesicles impairs amine-dependent behaviors. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6924-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we generated mutations in the C-terminal trafficking domain of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT), which is required for the vesicular storage of monoamines in both SVs and LDCVs...
  16. Park S, George R, Cai Y, Chang H, Krantz D, Friggi Grelin F, et al. Cell-type-specific limitation on in vivo serotonin storage following ectopic expression of the Drosophila serotonin transporter, dSERT. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:452-62 pubmed
    ..levels and subcellular distribution of GFP-dSERT protein, nor is it due to lack of the vesicular transporter, dVMAT. These data suggest that a small number of neurons selectively express factor(s) required for 5-HT storage, and ..
  17. Freyberg Z, Sonders M, Aguilar J, Hiranita T, Karam C, Flores J, et al. Mechanisms of amphetamine action illuminated through optical monitoring of dopamine synaptic vesicles in Drosophila brain. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10652 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show in rodents that acute pharmacological inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) blocks amphetamine-induced locomotion and self-administration without impacting cocaine-..
  18. Daubert E, Heffron D, Mandell J, Condron B. Serotonergic dystrophy induced by excess serotonin. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here support a model in which excess cytoplasmic neurotransmitter triggers a cell-specific pathway inducing aberrant morphology in fly serotonergic neurons that may be shared in certain mammalian pathologies. ..
  19. Grygoruk A, Fei H, Daniels R, Miller B, DiAntonio A, Krantz D. A tyrosine-based motif localizes a Drosophila vesicular transporter to synaptic vesicles in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6867-78 pubmed publisher
    ..proposed trafficking domains in Drosophila orthologs of the vesicular monoamine and glutamate transporters, DVMAT-A and DVGLUT...
  20. Harbison S, McCoy L, Mackay T. Genome-wide association study of sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:281 pubmed publisher
    ..Our discovery of genetic variants that influence environmental sensitivity to sleep may have a wider application to all GWA studies, because individuals with highly plastic genotypes will not have consistent phenotypes. ..
  21. Williams M, Goergen P, Rajendran J, Zheleznyakova G, Hägglund M, Perland E, et al. Obesity-linked homologues TfAP-2 and Twz establish meal frequency in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004499 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. ..
  22. Asensio C, Sirkis D, Maas J, Egami K, To T, Brodsky F, et al. Self-assembly of VPS41 promotes sorting required for biogenesis of the regulated secretory pathway. Dev Cell. 2013;27:425-37 pubmed publisher
    ..VPS41 also self-assembles into a lattice, suggesting that it acts as a coat protein for AP-3 in formation of the regulated secretory pathway...
  23. Gnerer J, Venken K, Dierick H. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:e56 pubmed publisher
    ..We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. ..
  24. Fei H, Karnezis T, Reimer R, Krantz D. Membrane topology of the Drosophila vesicular glutamate transporter. J Neurochem. 2007;101:1662-71 pubmed
    ..Lumenal domains include sequences between TMs 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10. These data provide a basis for determining structure-function relationships for DVGLUT and other related proteins. ..
  25. Simon A, Daniels R, Romero Calderon R, Grygoruk A, Chang H, Najibi R, et al. Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter mutants can adapt to reduced or eliminated vesicular stores of dopamine and serotonin. Genetics. 2009;181:525-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate these adaptive processes, we have characterized mutations in the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT), which is required for the vesicular storage of dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine...
  26. Nässel D, Williams M. Cholecystokinin-Like Peptide (DSK) in Drosophila, Not Only for Satiety Signaling. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:219 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity in the DSK-producing neurons is regulated by octopamine. We discuss mechanisms behind CCK function in satiety, aggression, and locomotion in some detail and highlight similarities to mammalian CCK signaling. ..
  27. Borycz J, Borycz J, Edwards T, Boulianne G, Meinertzhagen I. The metabolism of histamine in the Drosophila optic lobe involves an ommatidial pathway: ?-alanine recycles through the retina. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:1399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..The lamina's marginal glia are also a hub involved in the storage and/or disposal of carcinine and ?-alanine. ..
  28. Henry G, Davis F, Picard S, Eddy S. Cell type-specific genomics of Drosophila neurons. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9691-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that applying INTACT to specific neuronal populations can illuminate the transcriptional regulatory networks that underlie neuronal cell identity. ..