Gene Symbol: vg
Description: vestigial
Alias: CG3830, Dmel\CG3830, vg21, vestigial, CG3830-PA, vestgial, vestigal, vg-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Nagel A, Wech I, Preiss A. Scalloped and strawberry notch are target genes of Notch signaling in the context of wing margin formation in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2001;109:241-51 pubmed
    ..As suggested by physical interactions, these proteins could be co-factors of the cut trans-regulator Vestigial. Additional regulatory input comes from the Wingless pathway...
  2. Matakatsu H, Blair S. Separating the adhesive and signaling functions of the Fat and Dachsous protocadherins. Development. 2006;133:2315-24 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that ft mutants or a dominant-negative Ft construct can affect disc growth without changes in the expression of wingless and Wingless target genes. ..
  3. Baena Lopez L, Franch Marro X, Vincent J. Wingless promotes proliferative growth in a gradient-independent manner. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra60 pubmed publisher
  4. del Alamo Rodríguez D, Terriente Felix J, Diaz Benjumea F. The role of the T-box gene optomotor-blind in patterning the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2004;268:481-92 pubmed
    ..repress the expression of the gene master of thick veins and also to activate the expression of spalt (sal) and vestigial (vg), two decapentaplegic target genes...
  5. Diez Del Corral R, Aroca P, G mez Skarmeta J, Cavodeassi F, Modolell J. The Iroquois homeodomain proteins are required to specify body wall identity in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1754-61 pubmed
    ..This border is not a cell lineage restriction boundary. ..
  6. Goto S, Hayashi S. Specification of the embryonic limb primordium by graded activity of Decapentaplegic. Development. 1997;124:125-32 pubmed
    ..We propose that Wingless and Decapentaplegic act sequentially to initiate the proximodistal axis. ..
  7. Maqbool T, Soler C, Jagla T, Daczewska M, Lodha N, Palliyil S, et al. Shaping leg muscles in Drosophila: role of ladybird, a conserved regulator of appendicular myogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e122 pubmed
    ..A key role for ladybird in leg myogenesis is further supported by its capacity to repress vestigial and to down-regulate the vestigial-governed flight muscle developmental programme...
  8. Zecca M, Struhl G. Recruitment of cells into the Drosophila wing primordium by a feed-forward circuit of vestigial autoregulation. Development. 2007;134:3001-10 pubmed
    The Drosophila wing primordium is defined by expression of the selector gene vestigial (vg) in a discrete subpopulation of cells within the wing imaginal disc...
  9. Morata G, Sánchez Herrero E. Patterning mechanisms in the body trunk and the appendages of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2823-8 pubmed
    ..We speculate that, although the basic mechanisms are similar, there are significant differences in the manner the body trunk and appendages respond to them. ..

More Information


  1. Culi J, Mann R. Boca, an endoplasmic reticulum protein required for wingless signaling and trafficking of LDL receptor family members in Drosophila. Cell. 2003;112:343-54 pubmed
    ..Consequently, boca is an essential component of the Wingless pathway but is more generally required for the activities of multiple LDL receptor family members. ..
  2. Estella C, Rieckhof G, Calleja M, Morata G. The role of buttonhead and Sp1 in the development of the ventral imaginal discs of Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5929-41 pubmed
    ..We propose that this property is a reflection of the initial function of the btd/Sp1 genes that consists of establishing the fate of the ventral disc primordia and determining their pattern and growth...
  3. Baena Lopez L, Garcia Bellido A. Control of growth and positional information by the graded vestigial expression pattern in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13734-9 pubmed
    ..We show that differences in vestigial expression between neighboring cells of the wing blade autonomously and nonautonomously affect cell ..
  4. Lai E. Notch signaling: control of cell communication and cell fate. Development. 2004;131:965-73 pubmed
    ..This primer describes the mechanism of Notch signal transduction and how it is used to control the formation of biological patterns. ..
  5. Simmonds A, Liu X, Soanes K, Krause H, Irvine K, Bell J. Molecular interactions between Vestigial and Scalloped promote wing formation in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3815-20 pubmed
    Scalloped (Sd) and Vestigial (Vg) are each needed for Drosophila wing development. We show that Sd is required for Vg function and that altering their relative cellular levels inhibits wing formation...
  6. Maier D, Chen A, Preiss A, Ketelhut M. The tiny Hairless protein from Apis mellifera: a potent antagonist of Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:175 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, Apis Hairless is sufficient to repress the Notch target gene vestigial in Drosophila...
  7. Williams J, Paddock S, Vorwerk K, Carroll S. Organization of wing formation and induction of a wing-patterning gene at the dorsal/ventral compartment boundary. Nature. 1994;368:299-305 pubmed
    ..The vestigial gene is required for formation of the entire Drosophila wing, and the dorsal/ventral boundary is shown to ..
  8. Doherty D, Feger G, Younger Shepherd S, Jan L, Jan Y. Delta is a ventral to dorsal signal complementary to Serrate, another Notch ligand, in Drosophila wing formation. Genes Dev. 1996;10:421-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover, ectopic Delta expression induces wingless, vestigial, and cut and causes adult wing tissue outgrowth in the dorsal compartment...
  9. Okajima T, Irvine K. Regulation of notch signaling by o-linked fucose. Cell. 2002;111:893-904 pubmed
  10. Galant R, Walsh C, Carroll S. Hox repression of a target gene: extradenticle-independent, additive action through multiple monomer binding sites. Development. 2002;129:3115-26 pubmed
  11. Klein T, Arias A. The vestigial gene product provides a molecular context for the interpretation of signals during the development of the wing in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:913-25 pubmed
    The vestigial (vg) gene of Drosophila plays a central role in the development and patterning of the wing: loss of vestigial results in failures in wing development and ectopic expression of vestigial leads to the development of ectopic ..
  12. Blair S. Compartments and appendage development in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1995;17:299-309 pubmed
    ..Thus, compartments can act as organizing centers for patterning within compartments. Evidence for non-compartmental patterning mechanisms will also be discussed. ..
  13. Muller D, Jagla T, Bodart L, Jährling N, Dodt H, Jagla K, et al. Regulation and functions of the lms homeobox gene during development of embryonic lateral transverse muscles and direct flight muscles in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14323 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the direct flight muscles in the adults require lms for reliably exerting their functions in controlling wing postures. ..
  14. Dubois L, Enriquez J, Daburon V, Crozet F, Lebreton G, Crozatier M, et al. Collier transcription in a single Drosophila muscle lineage: the combinatorial control of muscle identity. Development. 2007;134:4347-55 pubmed
  15. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Matsuno K, Fortini M. Notch signaling. Science. 1995;268:225-32 pubmed
    ..Several vertebrate Notch receptors have also been discovered recently and play important roles in normal development and tumorigenesis. ..
  16. Neumann C, Cohen S. Long-range action of Wingless organizes the dorsal-ventral axis of the Drosophila wing. Development. 1997;124:871-80 pubmed that Wg acts directly, at long range, to define the expression domains of its target genes, Distal-less and vestigial. Expression of the Achaete-scute genes, Distal-less and vestigial at different distances from the DV boundary is ..
  17. Kim J, Irvine K, Carroll S. Cell recognition, signal induction, and symmetrical gene activation at the dorsal-ventral boundary of the developing Drosophila wing. Cell. 1995;82:795-802 pubmed
    ..Ser in turn triggers the expression of genes involved in wing growth and patterning on both sides of the DV boundary. ..
  18. Baylies M, Michelson A. Invertebrate myogenesis: looking back to the future of muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:431-9 pubmed
    ..Drosophila myogenesis has become a highly informative model for understanding the interplay between the signaling and transcriptional networks that underlie cell-fate specification during embryonic development. ..
  19. Ruiz Gomez M, Romani S, Hartmann C, Jackle H, Bate M. Specific muscle identities are regulated by Krüppel during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1997;124:3407-14 pubmed
    ..We show that gain and loss of Krüppel expression in sibling founder cells is sufficient to switch these cells, and the muscles that they give rise to, between alternative cell fates. ..
  20. Zecca M, Basler K, Struhl G. Direct and long-range action of a wingless morphogen gradient. Cell. 1996;87:833-44 pubmed
    ..We interpret these findings as evidence that Wg can act directly and at long range as a gradient morphogen during normal development. ..
  21. Martín F, Herrera S, Morata G. Cell competition, growth and size control in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Development. 2009;136:3747-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The values predicted by the simulation are very close to those obtained experimentally. ..
  22. Carroll S, Weatherbee S, Langeland J. Homeotic genes and the regulation and evolution of insect wing number. Nature. 1995;375:58-61 pubmed
  23. Chen C, Struhl G. Wingless transduction by the Frizzled and Frizzled2 proteins of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:5441-52 pubmed
    ..These results extend prior evidence of a ligand-receptor relationship between Wnt and Frizzled proteins and suggest that Fz and Fz2 are the primary receptors for Wg in Drosophila. ..
  24. Dutta D, Anant S, Ruiz Gomez M, Bate M, Vijayraghavan K. Founder myoblasts and fibre number during adult myogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3761-72 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the embryo, the selection of individual adult founder cells during myogenesis does not depend on Notch-mediated lateral inhibition. Our results suggest a general mechanism by which multi-fibre muscles can be patterned. ..
  25. Kugler S, Nagel A. putzig is required for cell proliferation and regulates notch activity in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3733-40 pubmed
    ..Our findings uncover different modes of operation of pzg during imaginal development of Drosophila, and they provide a novel mechanism of Notch regulation. ..
  26. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Rand M, Lake R. Notch signaling: cell fate control and signal integration in development. Science. 1999;284:770-6 pubmed
    ..Notch activity affects the implementation of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptotic programs, providing a general developmental tool to influence organ formation and morphogenesis. ..
  27. Bate M, Rushton E, Frasch M. A dual requirement for neurogenic genes in Drosophila myogenesis. Dev Suppl. 1993;:149-61 pubmed
    ..founder cells, characterised by the expression of genes encoding putative transcription factors such as S59 or vestigial, fuse with neighbouring myoblasts to form syncytial precursors of individual muscles...
  28. Rushton E, Drysdale R, Abmayr S, Michelson A, Bate M. Mutations in a novel gene, myoblast city, provide evidence in support of the founder cell hypothesis for Drosophila muscle development. Development. 1995;121:1979-88 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this subset of myoblasts represents the proposed muscle founder cells and we draw an analogy between these founder cells and the muscle pioneers described for grasshopper muscle development. ..
  29. Klein T, Arias A. Different spatial and temporal interactions between Notch, wingless, and vestigial specify proximal and distal pattern elements of the wing in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1998;194:196-212 pubmed
    ..The vestigial (vg) gene is necessary for the development of the wing and is a target of these signaling systems during the ..
  30. Sui L, Pflugfelder G, Shen J. The Dorsocross T-box transcription factors promote tissue morphogenesis in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Development. 2012;139:2773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Doc expression was restricted by two inhibitors, Vestigial and Homothorax, leading to two narrow Doc stripes where the folds separating hinge and blade are forming...
  31. Bernard F, Dutriaux A, Silber J, Lalouette A. Notch pathway repression by vestigial is required to promote indirect flight muscle differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2006;295:164-77 pubmed
    ..It has been shown that both vestigial and Notch are crucial for correct formation of these muscles...
  32. Buff E, Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Jimenez F, Michelson A. Signalling by the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor is required for the specification and diversification of embryonic muscle progenitors. Development. 1998;125:2075-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, the epidermal growth factor receptor contributes both to muscle progenitor specification and to the diversification of muscle identities. ..
  33. Weatherbee S, Halder G, Kim J, Hudson A, Carroll S. Ultrabithorax regulates genes at several levels of the wing-patterning hierarchy to shape the development of the Drosophila haltere. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1474-82 pubmed
    ..Wingless (Wg) signaling protein and a subset of Wg- and Decapentaplegic-activated genes such as spalt-related, vestigial, Serum Response Factor, and achaete-scute, whose products regulate morphological features that differ between ..
  34. Halder G, Polaczyk P, Kraus M, Hudson A, Kim J, Laughon A, et al. The Vestigial and Scalloped proteins act together to directly regulate wing-specific gene expression in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3900-9 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the vestigial gene is required for wing formation and is able to induce wing-like outgrowths on other structures...
  35. Deng H, Bell J, Simmonds A. Vestigial is required during late-stage muscle differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3304-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a combination of null mutations and a truncated version of Sd that binds Vg but not DNA, we show that Vestigial (Vg) is required in ventral longitudinal muscles to induce formation of stable intermuscular attachments...
  36. Whitworth A, Russell S. Temporally dynamic response to Wingless directs the sequential elaboration of the proximodistal axis of the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2003;254:277-88 pubmed
    ..Development of the wing blade requires the Notch and wingless signalling pathways to activate vestigial at the dorsoventral boundary. However, in the proximal wing, Wingless activates a different subset of genes, e.g...
  37. Goulev Y, Fauny J, Gonzalez Marti B, Flagiello D, Silber J, Zider A. SCALLOPED interacts with YORKIE, the nuclear effector of the hippo tumor-suppressor pathway in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..SD physically interacts with the product of the vestigial (vg) gene, where the dimer functions as a master gene controlling wing formation [3, 4]...
  38. Lee N, Maurange C, Ringrose L, Paro R. Suppression of Polycomb group proteins by JNK signalling induces transdetermination in Drosophila imaginal discs. Nature. 2005;438:234-7 pubmed
    ..that, when activated outside their normal context, induce ectopic expression of the wing-specific selector gene vestigial. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain cellular fates by controlling the expression patterns of homeotic genes ..
  39. Irvine K, Vogt T. Dorsal-ventral signaling in limb development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997;9:867-76 pubmed
  40. Gorfinkiel N, Morata G, Guerrero I. The homeobox gene Distal-less induces ventral appendage development in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2259-71 pubmed
    ..induces this transformation by activating the endogenous Dll gene and repressing the wing determinant gene vestigial. It is proposed that Dll induces the development of ventral appendages and also participates in a genetic ..
  41. Koelzer S, Klein T. Regulation of expression of Vg and establishment of the dorsoventral compartment boundary in the wing imaginal disc by Suppressor of Hairless. Dev Biol. 2006;289:77-90 pubmed
    ..Su(H) function during wing development results in a transient de-repression of expression of the selector gene vestigial (vg)...
  42. Kim J, Sebring A, Esch J, Kraus M, Vorwerk K, Magee J, et al. Integration of positional signals and regulation of wing formation and identity by Drosophila vestigial gene. Nature. 1996;382:133-8 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila vestigial gene is selectively required for wing-cell proliferation, and is sufficient to induce outgrowths of wing tissue ..
  43. Kamimura K, Rhodes J, Ueda R, McNeely M, Shukla D, Kimata K, et al. Regulation of Notch signaling by Drosophila heparan sulfate 3-O sulfotransferase. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:1069-79 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Hs3st-B is involved in Notch signaling by affecting stability or intracellular trafficking of Notch protein. ..
  44. Halder G, Carroll S. Binding of the Vestigial co-factor switches the DNA-target selectivity of the Scalloped selector protein. Development. 2001;128:3295-305 pubmed
    ..development in Drosophila by regulating the expression of numerous target genes and forming a complex with the Vestigial protein. We show that binding of Vestigial to Scalloped switches the DNA-binding selectivity of Scalloped...
  45. Crozatier M, Vincent A. Requirement for the Drosophila COE transcription factor Collier in formation of an embryonic muscle: transcriptional response to notch signalling. Development. 1999;126:1495-504 pubmed
  46. Go M, Eastman D, Artavanis Tsakonas S. Cell proliferation control by Notch signaling in Drosophila development. Development. 1998;125:2031-40 pubmed
    ..The activation of the Notch receptor in the wing disc induces the expression of the wing margin patterning genes vestigial and wingless, and strong mitotic activity...
  47. Goto S, Taniguchi M, Muraoka M, Toyoda H, Sado Y, Kawakita M, et al. UDP-sugar transporter implicated in glycosylation and processing of Notch. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:816-22 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that changes in nucleotide-sugar levels can differently affect Wingless and two distinct aspects of Notch signalling. ..
  48. Cho E, Irvine K. Action of fat, four-jointed, dachsous and dachs in distal-to-proximal wing signaling. Development. 2004;131:4489-500 pubmed
  49. Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Minoda A, Riddle N, Ernst J, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2011;471:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function. ..
  50. Bachmann A, Knust E. Positive and negative control of Serrate expression during early development of the Drosophila wing. Mech Dev. 1998;76:67-78 pubmed
    ..The results clearly show that some of the previously described transactivators of Serrate protein expression, e.g. fringe, act on elements required for later aspects of Serrate expression. ..
  51. Sudarsan V, Anant S, Guptan P, Vijayraghavan K, Skaer H. Myoblast diversification and ectodermal signaling in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2001;1:829-39 pubmed
    ..In the late larva, Vestigial and low levels of Cut are expressed in myoblasts that will contribute to the indirect flight muscles...
  52. Guss K, Mistry H, Skeath J. Vestigial expression in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the wing selector vestigial is expressed in discrete sets of neurons...
  53. Martín F, Morata G. Compartments and the control of growth in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Development. 2006;133:4421-6 pubmed its own rate and manifests autonomous regulation in the expression of the developmental genes wingless and vestigial. In spite of these differences, ;mosaic' discs comprising fast and slow compartments differentiate into adult ..
  54. Wu S, Liu Y, Zheng Y, Dong J, Pan D. The TEAD/TEF family protein Scalloped mediates transcriptional output of the Hippo growth-regulatory pathway. Dev Cell. 2008;14:388-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncover a heretofore missing link in the Hpo signaling pathway and provide a glimpse of the molecular events on a Hpo-responsive enhancer element. ..
  55. Speicher S, Thomas U, Hinz U, Knust E. The Serrate locus of Drosophila and its role in morphogenesis of the wing imaginal discs: control of cell proliferation. Development. 1994;120:535-44 pubmed
  56. Williams J, Bell J, Carroll S. Control of Drosophila wing and haltere development by the nuclear vestigial gene product. Genes Dev. 1991;5:2481-95 pubmed
    ..Loss of vestigial (vg) function in Drosophila selectively eliminates wing and haltere formation...
  57. Smith Bolton R, Worley M, Kanda H, Hariharan I. Regenerative growth in Drosophila imaginal discs is regulated by Wingless and Myc. Dev Cell. 2009;16:797-809 pubmed publisher
    ..This system is conducive to forward genetic screens, enabling an unbiased search for genes that regulate both the extent of and the capacity for regeneration. ..
  58. Kim J, Johnson K, Chen H, Carroll S, Laughon A. Drosophila Mad binds to DNA and directly mediates activation of vestigial by Decapentaplegic. Nature. 1997;388:304-8 pubmed
    ..Mad binds to and is required for the activation of an enhancer within the vestigial wing-patterning gene in cells across the entire developing wing blade...
  59. Zeng Y, Rahnama M, Wang S, Sosu Sedzorme W, Verheyen E. Drosophila Nemo antagonizes BMP signaling by phosphorylation of Mad and inhibition of its nuclear accumulation. Development. 2007;134:2061-71 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of the inhibition of Drosophila BMP signaling by a MAPK and represents a novel mechanism of Smad inhibition through the phosphorylation of a conserved serine residue within the MH1 domain of Mad. ..
  60. Hori K, Fostier M, Ito M, Fuwa T, Go M, Okano H, et al. Drosophila deltex mediates suppressor of Hairless-independent and late-endosomal activation of Notch signaling. Development. 2004;131:5527-37 pubmed, Dx activated a target enhancer of N signaling, the dorsoventral compartment boundary enhancer of vestigial (vgBE), in a manner that was independent of the Delta (Dl)/Serrate (Ser) ligands- or Su(H)...
  61. MacKay J, Soanes K, Srivastava A, Simmonds A, Brook W, Bell J. An in vivo analysis of the vestigial gene in Drosophila melanogaster defines the domains required for Vg function. Genetics. 2003;163:1365-73 pubmed
    Considerable evidence indicates an obligate partnership of the Drosophila melanogaster Vestigial (VG) and Scalloped (SD) proteins within the context of wing development...
  62. Schwank G, Restrepo S, Basler K. Growth regulation by Dpp: an essential role for Brinker and a non-essential role for graded signaling levels. Development. 2008;135:4003-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The Dpp-Brk system converts an inherently uneven growth program, with excessive cell proliferation in lateral regions and low proliferation in medial regions, into a spatially homogeneous profile of cell divisions throughout the disc. ..
  63. Nagel A, Krejci A, Tenin G, Bravo Patiño A, Bray S, Maier D, et al. Hairless-mediated repression of notch target genes requires the combined activity of Groucho and CtBP corepressors. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10433-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Hairless has a second mode of repression that antagonizes Notch intracellular domain and is independent of Gro or CtBP binding. ..
  64. Zecca M, Struhl G. Control of Drosophila wing growth by the vestigial quadrant enhancer. Development. 2007;134:3011-20 pubmed
    ..into dorsal (D) and ventral (V) compartments, the wing primordium is specified by activity of the selector gene vestigial (vg)...
  65. Azpiazu N, Morata G. Function and regulation of homothorax in the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:2685-93 pubmed
    ..We have identified vestigial (vg) as a Wg and Dpp response factor that is involved in hth control...
  66. Mumm J, Kopan R. Notch signaling: from the outside in. Dev Biol. 2000;228:151-65 pubmed
  67. Coulthard A, Nolan N, Bell J, Hilliker A. Transvection at the vestigial locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2005;170:1711-21 pubmed
    ..In this study we demonstrated that transvection could occur at the vestigial (vg) locus by revealing that partial complementation between two vg mutant alleles could be disrupted by ..
  68. Kubota K, Goto S, Eto K, Hayashi S. EGF receptor attenuates Dpp signaling and helps to distinguish the wing and leg cell fates in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3769-76 pubmed
    ..Differential activation of the two signals and the cross talk between them critically affect this cell fate choice. ..
  69. Srivastava A, Simmonds A, Garg A, Fossheim L, Campbell S, Bell J. Molecular and functional analysis of scalloped recessive lethal alleles in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;166:1833-43 pubmed
    ..Two of the wing noncomplementing alleles have mutations that help to define a VG-binding domain for the SD protein in vivo, and another noncomplementing allele has a lesion within the TEA DNA-..
  70. Calleja M, Herranz H, Estella C, Casal J, Lawrence P, Simpson P, et al. Generation of medial and lateral dorsal body domains by the pannier gene of Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3971-80 pubmed
    ..We argue that pnr acts like a classical selector gene but differs in that its expression is not propagated through cell divisions. ..
  71. Cho E, Feng Y, Rauskolb C, Maitra S, Fehon R, Irvine K. Delineation of a Fat tumor suppressor pathway. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1142-50 pubmed
    ..melanogaster tumor suppressors, establish a basic framework for Fat signaling from receptor to transcription factor and implicate Warts as an integrator of multiple growth control signals. ..
  72. Couso J, Knust E, Martinez Arias A. Serrate and wingless cooperate to induce vestigial gene expression and wing formation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1437-48 pubmed
    ..The earliest identified requirement in wing development is for the induction of vestigial (vg) gene expression at the interface between ventral cells and dorsal cells of the wing disc...
  73. Deng H, Hughes S, Bell J, Simmonds A. Alternative requirements for Vestigial, Scalloped, and Dmef2 during muscle differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:256-69 pubmed publisher
    ..require binding additional cofactors including members of the Transcription Enhancing Factor-1 (TEF-1) and Vestigial-like protein families...
  74. Bernard F, Lalouette A, Gullaud M, Jeantet A, Cossard R, Zider A, et al. Control of apterous by vestigial drives indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2003;260:391-403 pubmed
    ..development requires key regulatory genes such as cut (ct) and apterous (ap), whereas IFM development requires vestigial (vg)...
  75. McClure K, Sustar A, Schubiger G. Three genes control the timing, the site and the size of blastema formation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2008;319:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these genes function in regenerative proliferation, growth and regulate cellular plasticity. ..
  76. Umemori M, Takemura M, Maeda K, Ohba K, Adachi Yamada T. Drosophila T-box transcription factor Optomotor-blind prevents pathological folding and local overgrowth in wing epithelium through confining Hh signal. Dev Biol. 2007;308:68-81 pubmed
    ..These are the mechanisms for generating secondary phenotypes when a single signaling factor Omb fails to function. ..