Gene Symbol: verm
Description: vermiform
Alias: CG8756, DmCDA2, Dmel\CG8756, LCBP1, N63, Verm, hlm, l(3)76BDx, vermiform, CG8756-PG, CG8756-PH, CG8756-PI, LDLa domain containing chitin binding protein 1, helmsman, verm-PG, verm-PH, verm-PI
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Luschnig S, Bätz T, Armbruster K, Krasnow M. serpentine and vermiform encode matrix proteins with chitin binding and deacetylation domains that limit tracheal tube length in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:186-94 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe two genes involved in chitin modification, serpentine (serp) and vermiform (verm), mutations in which cause excessively long and tortuous tracheal tubes...
  2. Wang S, Jayaram S, Hemphälä J, Senti K, Tsarouhas V, Jin H, et al. Septate-junction-dependent luminal deposition of chitin deacetylases restricts tube elongation in the Drosophila trachea. Curr Biol. 2006;16:180-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that the subsequent structural modification of chitin by chitin binding deacetylases selectively instructs the termination of tube elongation to the underlying epithelium. ..
  3. Paul S, Palladino M, Beitel G. A pump-independent function of the Na,K-ATPase is required for epithelial junction function and tracheal tube-size control. Development. 2007;134:147-55 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, the rat alpha1 isoform has full junctional activity and can rescue Atpalpha-null mutants to viability, suggesting that the Na,K-ATPase has an evolutionarily conserved role in junction formation and function. ..
  4. Tsarouhas V, Senti K, Jayaram S, Tiklová K, Hemphälä J, Adler J, et al. Sequential pulses of apical epithelial secretion and endocytosis drive airway maturation in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;13:214-25 pubmed
    ..The coordination of luminal matrix secretion and endocytosis may be a general mechanism in tubular organ morphogenesis and maturation. ..
  5. Laplante C, Paul S, Beitel G, Nilson L. Echinoid regulates tracheal morphology and fusion cell fate in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2509-19 pubmed publisher SJs, and ed(M/Z) embryos have intact SJs and show normal luminal accumulation of the matrix-modifying protein Vermiform. Surprisingly, tracheal length is not increased in ed(M/Z) mutants, but a previously undescribed combination of ..
  6. Jayaram S, Senti K, Tiklová K, Tsarouhas V, Hemphälä J, Samakovlis C. COPI vesicle transport is a common requirement for tube expansion in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1964 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the programmed deposition and growth of distinct luminal molds may provide distending forces during tube expansion in diverse organs. ..
  7. Nelson K, Furuse M, Beitel G. The Drosophila Claudin Kune-kune is required for septate junction organization and tracheal tube size control. Genetics. 2010;185:831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the tracheal system, septate junctions have a barrier-independent function that promotes lumenal secretion of Vermiform and Serpentine, extracellular matrix modifier proteins that are required to restrict tube length...
  8. Förster D, Armbruster K, Luschnig S. Sec24-dependent secretion drives cell-autonomous expansion of tracheal tubes in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a critical role of membrane-associated proteins in the process and imply a mechanism that coordinates autonomous behaviors of individual cells within epithelial structures. ..
  9. Dong B, Hannezo E, Hayashi S. Balance between apical membrane growth and luminal matrix resistance determines epithelial tubule shape. Cell Rep. 2014;7:941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape. ..

More Information


  1. Choi W, Jung K, Nelson K, Bhat M, Beitel G, Peifer M, et al. The single Drosophila ZO-1 protein Polychaetoid regulates embryonic morphogenesis in coordination with Canoe/afadin and Enabled. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2010-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Canoe (Cno) and Pyd are required for proper Ena localization during dorsal closure, and strong genetic interactions suggest that Cno, Pyd, and Ena act together in regulating or anchoring the actin cytoskeleton during dorsal closure. ..
  2. Norum M, TÃ¥ng E, Chavoshi T, Schwarz H, Linke D, Uv A, et al. Trafficking through COPII stabilises cell polarity and drives secretion during Drosophila epidermal differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10802 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that COPII vesicles constitute a central hub for these processes. ..
  3. Hildebrandt A, Pflanz R, Behr M, Tarp T, Riedel D, Schuh R. Bark beetle controls epithelial morphogenesis by septate junction maturation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2015;400:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which Bark acts as a scaffold protein that mediates cell adhesion and mounting of SJ core complexes during cell rearrangement in tissue morphogenesis. ..
  4. Dixit R, Arakane Y, Specht C, Richard C, Kramer K, Beeman R, et al. Domain organization and phylogenetic analysis of proteins from the chitin deacetylase gene family of Tribolium castaneum and three other species of insects. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:440-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the CDA-like proteins have a putative signal peptide consistent with their role in modifying extracellular chitin in both cuticle and peritrophic membrane during morphogenesis and molting. ..
  5. Yanagihashi Y, Usui T, Izumi Y, Yonemura S, Sumida M, Tsukita S, et al. Snakeskin, a membrane protein associated with smooth septate junctions, is required for intestinal barrier function in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1980-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the barrier function of the midgut to a fluorescent tracer is impaired in ssk-knockdown larvae. These results suggest that Ssk is required for the intestinal barrier function in Drosophila. ..
  6. Ile K, Tripathy R, Goldfinger V, Renault A. Wunen, a Drosophila lipid phosphate phosphatase, is required for septate junction-mediated barrier function. Development. 2012;139:2535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, by comparing the rescue ability of different LPP homologs we show that wun function in the trachea is distinct from its role in germ cell migration...
  7. Petkau G, Wingen C, Jussen L, Radtke T, Behr M. Obstructor-A is required for epithelial extracellular matrix dynamics, exoskeleton function, and tubulogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21396-405 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolutionary conservation suggests a common role of Obstructor-A and homologs in coordinating extracellular matrix protection in epithelial tissues of chitinous invertebrates. ..
  8. Laprise P, Paul S, Boulanger J, Robbins R, Beitel G, Tepass U. Epithelial polarity proteins regulate Drosophila tracheal tube size in parallel to the luminal matrix pathway. Curr Biol. 2010;20:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..ECM organization requires apical (luminal) secretion of the protein Vermiform (Verm), which depends on the basolateral septate junction (SJ)...
  9. Massarwa R, Schejter E, Shilo B. Apical secretion in epithelial tubes of the Drosophila embryo is directed by the Formin-family protein Diaphanous. Dev Cell. 2009;16:877-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism allows efficient utilization of the entire apical membrane for secretion. ..
  10. Dong B, Miao G, Hayashi S. A fat body-derived apical extracellular matrix enzyme is transported to the tracheal lumen and is required for tube morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2014;141:4104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus reveal that the fat body, a mesodermal organ, actively contributes to tracheal development. ..
  11. Pesch Y, Riedel D, Patil K, Loch G, Behr M. Chitinases and Imaginal disc growth factors organize the extracellular matrix formation at barrier tissues in insects. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18340 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservation of Chts and Idgfs proposes analogous roles in ECM dynamics across the insect taxa, indicating that Chts/Idgfs are new targets for species specific pest control. ..
  12. Swanson L, Beitel G. Tubulogenesis: an inside job. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R51-3 pubmed
  13. Gangishetti U, Veerkamp J, Bezdan D, Schwarz H, Lohmann I, Moussian B. The transcription factor Grainy head and the steroid hormone ecdysone cooperate during differentiation of the skin of Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Full differentiation of the skin necessitates a second, complementing taxon-specific programme that requires its own decoder, which is represented by ecdysone in arthropods, whereas the vertebrate specific one remains to be identified. ..
  14. Förster D, Luschnig S. Src42A-dependent polarized cell shape changes mediate epithelial tube elongation in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:526-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas exocytosis-dependent membrane growth drives circumferential tube expansion, Src42A is required to orient membrane growth in the axial dimension of the tube. ..
  15. Mariappa D, Sauert K, Mariño K, Turnock D, Webster R, van Aalten D, et al. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is required for fibroblast growth factor signaling in Drosophila. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra89 pubmed publisher
  16. Swanson L, Yu M, Nelson K, Laprise P, Tepass U, Beitel G. Drosophila convoluted/dALS is an essential gene required for tracheal tube morphogenesis and apical matrix organization. Genetics. 2009;181:1281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..septate junction formation, deposition of a lumenal/apical extracellular matrix, and lumenal secretion of Vermiform and Serpentine, two putative matrix-modifying proteins...
  17. Araújo S, Cela C, Llimargas M. Tramtrack regulates different morphogenetic events during Drosophila tracheal development. Development. 2007;134:3665-76 pubmed
    ..In summary, the involvement of Ttk in different steps of tube morphogenesis identifies it as a key player in tracheal development. ..
  18. Armbruster K, Luschnig S. The Drosophila Sec7 domain guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein Gartenzwerg localizes at the cis-Golgi and is essential for epithelial tube expansion. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1318-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, garz might regulate epithelial tube morphogenesis and secretion by controlling the rate of trafficking of COPI vesicles. ..
  19. Jaspers M, Pflanz R, Riedel D, Kawelke S, Feussner I, Schuh R. The fatty acyl-CoA reductase Waterproof mediates airway clearance in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2014;385:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering its conservation throughout evolution, Waterproof orthologues may play a similar role in the vertebrate lung. ..
  20. Bätz T, Förster D, Luschnig S. The transmembrane protein Macroglobulin complement-related is essential for septate junction formation and epithelial barrier function in Drosophila. Development. 2014;141:899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Mcr represents a novel paradigm for investigating functional links between occluding junction formation and pathogen defense mechanisms. ..
  21. Wang S, Meyer H, Ochoa Espinosa A, Buchwald U, Onel S, Altenhein B, et al. GBF1 (Gartenzwerg)-dependent secretion is required for Drosophila tubulogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:461-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that homologues of Garz are present in every annotated metazoan genome indicates that secretion processes mediated by the GBF-type ArfGEFs play a universal role in animal development. ..
  22. McKay J, Nightingale B, Pollock J. Helmsman is expressed in both trachea and photoreceptor development: partial inactivation alters tracheal morphology and visually guided behavior. J Neurogenet. 2008;22:1 pubmed publisher
    We have identified helmsman (hlm), which is expressed in the fruit fly photoreceptor cells during neural network development. Hlm is also expressed in the elongating cells of the embryonic trachea...
  23. Pesch Y, Riedel D, Behr M. Obstructor A organizes matrix assembly at the apical cell surface to promote enzymatic cuticle maturation in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10071-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is essential for maturation and stabilization of the aECM in a growing and remodeling epithelial tissue as an outermost barrier. ..
  24. Caviglia S, Luschnig S. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity. Development. 2013;140:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The switch from a branching towards an anastomosing tip cell type may have evolved with the acquisition of a main tube that connects separate tracheal primordia to generate a tubular network. ..
  25. Dong B, Hayashi S. Shaping of biological tubes by mechanical interaction of cell and extracellular matrix. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2015;32:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence suggests that aECM coordinates apical membrane growth and cell contractility to control tube growth at the tissue level. In the present review, we will discuss the physical mechanisms underlying this interaction. ..