Gene Symbol: vari
Description: varicose
Alias: 38E.21, CG9326, Dmel\CG9326, Vari, l(2)03953, l(2)03953b, l(2)38EFa, szar, varicose, CG9326-PB, CG9326-PC, CG9326-PD, CG9326-PE, CG9326-PF, lethal (2) 38EFa, senz'aria, senz-aria, vari-PB, vari-PC, vari-PD, vari-PE, vari-PF
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Behr M, Riedel D, Schuh R. The claudin-like megatrachea is essential in septate junctions for the epithelial barrier function in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:611-20 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that claudin-like proteins are functionally conserved between vertebrates and Drosophila. ..
  2. Wu V, Schulte J, Hirschi A, Tepass U, Beitel G. Sinuous is a Drosophila claudin required for septate junction organization and epithelial tube size control. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:313-23 pubmed the same pathway as the septate junction genes neurexin and scribble, but that nervana 2, convoluted, varicose, and cystic have functions not shared by sinuous...
  3. Laprise P, Paul S, Boulanger J, Robbins R, Beitel G, Tepass U. Epithelial polarity proteins regulate Drosophila tracheal tube size in parallel to the luminal matrix pathway. Curr Biol. 2010;20:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that Yrt, Cora, Crb, and Scrib operate independently of the Verm pathway. Our data support a model in which Cora and Yrt act through Crb to regulate epithelial tube size. ..
  4. Oshima K, Fehon R. Analysis of protein dynamics within the septate junction reveals a highly stable core protein complex that does not include the basolateral polarity protein Discs large. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that formation of a stable SJ core complex is separable from its proper subcellular localization, and provide new insights into the complex processes that regulate epithelial polarity and assembly of the SJ. ..
  5. Laval M, Bel C, Faivre Sarrailh C. The lateral mobility of cell adhesion molecules is highly restricted at septate junctions in Drosophila. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Varicose (Vari) and Coracle (Cora), that both interact with the cytoplasmic tail of Nrx IV, are scaffolding molecules ..
  6. Paul S, Ternet M, Salvaterra P, Beitel G. The Na+/K+ ATPase is required for septate junction function and epithelial tube-size control in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2003;130:4963-74 pubmed
  7. Tonning A, Hemphälä J, Tång E, Nannmark U, Samakovlis C, Uv A. A transient luminal chitinous matrix is required to model epithelial tube diameter in the Drosophila trachea. Dev Cell. 2005;9:423-30 pubmed
    ..We propose that the transient luminal protein/polysaccharide matrix is sensed by the epithelial cells and coordinates cytoskeletal organization to ensure uniform lumen diameter. ..
  8. BACHMANN A, Draga M, Grawe F, Knust E. On the role of the MAGUK proteins encoded by Drosophila varicose during embryonic and postembryonic development. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show by electron microscopic analysis that Drosophila embryos lacking varicose function fail to develop septate junctions in the tracheae and the epidermis...
  9. Moyer K, Jacobs J. Varicose: a MAGUK required for the maturation and function of Drosophila septate junctions. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:99 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterize here a Drosophila MAGUK member, Varicose (Vari), the homologue of vertebrate scaffolding protein PALS2...

More Information


  1. Kozlova T, Pokholkova G, Tzertzinis G, Sutherland J, Zhimulev I, Kafatos F. Drosophila hormone receptor 38 functions in metamorphosis: a role in adult cuticle formation. Genetics. 1998;149:1465-75 pubmed
    ..Dhr38 alleles cause localized fragility and rupturing of the adult cuticle, demonstrating that Dhr38 plays an important role in late stages of epidermal metamorphosis. ..
  2. Gajan A, Barnes V, Liu M, Saha N, Pile L. The histone demethylase dKDM5/LID interacts with the SIN3 histone deacetylase complex and shares functional similarities with SIN3. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2016;9:4 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data provide a solid framework for analyzing the gene regulatory pathways through which SIN3 and dKDM5/LID control diverse biological processes in the organism. ..
  3. Laprise P, Lau K, Harris K, Silva Gagliardi N, Paul S, Beronja S, et al. Yurt, Coracle, Neurexin IV and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase form a novel group of epithelial polarity proteins. Nature. 2009;459:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that the mammalian Yrt orthologue EPB41L5 (also known as YMO1 and Limulus) is required for lateral membrane formation, indicating a conserved function of Yrt proteins in epithelial polarity. ..
  4. Swanson L, Yu M, Nelson K, Laprise P, Tepass U, Beitel G. Drosophila convoluted/dALS is an essential gene required for tracheal tube morphogenesis and apical matrix organization. Genetics. 2009;181:1281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we present evidence indicating that Conv/dALS has a novel, IGF-signaling independent function in tracheal morphogenesis. ..
  5. Juarez M, Patterson R, Sandoval Guillen E, McGinnis W. Duox, Flotillin-2, and Src42A are required to activate or delimit the spread of the transcriptional response to epidermal wounds in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002424 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define new genetic functions that interact to instruct only a limited number of cells around puncture wounds to mount a transcriptional response, mediating local repair and regeneration...
  6. Song Y, Eng M, Ghabrial A. Focal defects in single-celled tubes mutant for Cerebral cavernous malformation 3, GCKIII, or NSF2. Dev Cell. 2013;25:507-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic junctional and apical proteins are present in wheezy terminal cells, and we show that tube dilation is suppressed by reduction of NSF2, of the apical determinant Crumbs, or of septate junction protein Varicose.
  7. Wells R, Barry J, Warrington S, Cuhlmann S, Evans P, Huber W, et al. Control of tissue morphology by Fasciclin III-mediated intercellular adhesion. Development. 2013;140:3858-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results identify a conserved molecular mechanism that directly links JAK/STAT pathway signalling to intercellular adhesion and that sculpts both tubular and planar epithelial shape. ..
  8. Hildebrandt A, Pflanz R, Behr M, Tarp T, Riedel D, Schuh R. Bark beetle controls epithelial morphogenesis by septate junction maturation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2015;400:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which Bark acts as a scaffold protein that mediates cell adhesion and mounting of SJ core complexes during cell rearrangement in tissue morphogenesis. ..
  9. Baer M, Bilstein A, Leptin M. A clonal genetic screen for mutants causing defects in larval tracheal morphogenesis in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;176:2279-91 pubmed
    ..In particular we found a range of defects in terminal cells, including failure in lumen formation and reduced or extensive branching. Other mutations affect cell growth, cell shape, and cell migration. ..
  10. Rotstein B, Molnar D, Adryan B, Llimargas M. Tramtrack is genetically upstream of genes controlling tracheal tube size in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28985 pubmed publisher
    ..The computational analysis of our tissue-specific gene expression data highlighted the sensitivity of the approach and revealed an interesting set of novel putatively tracheal genes. ..
  11. Timmons L, Hersperger E, Woodhouse E, Xu J, Liu L, Shearn A. The expression of the Drosophila awd gene during normal development and in neoplastic brain tumors caused by lgl mutations. Dev Biol. 1993;158:364-79 pubmed
    ..Using the same awd reporter gene as a marker of donor cells, we have confirmed the invasiveness of lgl-induced neuroblastomas. ..