Gene Symbol: twi
Description: twist
Alias: CG2956, DTwist, Dmel\CG2956, EC9, TWI, Twi, Twist, bHLHb17, dip5, twist, CG2956-PA, CG2956-PB, CG2956-PC, twi-PA, twi-PB, twi-PC
Species: fruit fly
Products:     twi

Top Publications

  1. Chen G, Nguyen P, Courey A. A role for Groucho tetramerization in transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:7259-68 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that oligomerization is essential for Gro-mediated repression and that the primary function of the conserved N-terminal domain is to mediate this oligomerization. ..
  2. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Simões S, Röper J, Eaton S, Zallen J. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells. Dev Cell. 2009;17:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in a positive feedback loop that leads to multicellular actomyosin cable formation and efficient tissue elongation. ..
  3. Zinzen R, Papatsenko D. Enhancer responses to similarly distributed antagonistic gradients in development. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e84 pubmed
  4. Fernandes J, Keshishian H. Patterning the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLM) of Drosophila: insights from the ablation of larval scaffolds. Development. 1996;122:3755-63 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the role of the persistent larval muscles in muscle patterning involves the partitioning of DLM myoblasts, and in doing so, they regulate formation of the correct number of DLM fibers. ..
  5. Bhaskar V, Courey A. The MADF-BESS domain factor Dip3 potentiates synergistic activation by Dorsal and Twist. Gene. 2002;299:173-84 pubmed
    The transcription factors Dorsal and Twist regulate dorsoventral axis formation during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dorsal and Twist bind to closely linked DNA elements in a number of promoters and synergistically activate transcription...
  6. Carmena A, Bate M, Jimenez F. Lethal of scute, a proneural gene, participates in the specification of muscle progenitors during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2373-83 pubmed
    ..Loss-of-function and overexpression phenotypes indicate a role for l'sc in the segregation of muscle progenitors and the formation of the muscle pattern. ..
  7. Chahda J, Sousa Neves R, Mizutani C. Variation in the dorsal gradient distribution is a source for modified scaling of germ layers in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2013;23:710-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that variation in mesodermal size occurs at a fast evolutionary rate and is an important mechanism to define the ventral boundary of the neuroectoderm...
  8. Hewitt G, Strunk B, Margulies C, Priputin T, Wang X, Amey R, et al. Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. Development. 1999;126:1201-10 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain. ..
  9. Baylies M, Michelson A. Invertebrate myogenesis: looking back to the future of muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:431-9 pubmed
    ..Drosophila myogenesis has become a highly informative model for understanding the interplay between the signaling and transcriptional networks that underlie cell-fate specification during embryonic development. ..

More Information


  1. Stathopoulos A, Levine M. Linear signaling in the Toll-Dorsal pathway of Drosophila: activated Pelle kinase specifies all threshold outputs of gene expression while the bHLH protein Twist specifies a subset. Development. 2002;129:3411-9 pubmed
    ..We investigate the activities of the Pelle kinase and Twist basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor in transducing Toll signaling...
  2. Fernandes J, Celniker S, Lewis E, Vijayraghavan K. Muscle development in the four-winged Drosophila and the role of the Ultrabithorax gene. Curr Biol. 1994;4:957-64 pubmed
    ..Segmental information expressed in the ectoderm, and the autonomous function of homeotic selector genes in the mesoderm, are both required for the complete development of indirect flight muscles. ..
  3. Biemar F, Zinzen R, Ronshaugen M, Sementchenko V, Manak J, Levine M. Spatial regulation of microRNA gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15907-11 pubmed
    ..the 8-miR enhancer is regulated by the localized Huckebein repressor, whereas miR-1 is activated by Dorsal and Twist. These results provide evidence that restricted activities of the 8-miR and miR-1 miRNAs are mediated by classical ..
  4. Nowak S, Aihara H, Gonzalez K, Nibu Y, Baylies M. Akirin links twist-regulated transcription with the Brahma chromatin remodeling complex during embryogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002547 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, Akirin, as a novel cofactor of the key Drosophila melanogaster mesoderm and muscle transcription factor Twist. We find that Akirin interacts genetically and physically with Twist to facilitate expression of some, but not all,..
  5. Zinzen R, Senger K, Levine M, Papatsenko D. Computational models for neurogenic gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative models based on the fractional occupancy of Dorsal, Twist, and Snail binding sites raise the possibility that cooperative interactions among these regulatory proteins ..
  6. Baylies M, Bate M. twist: a myogenic switch in Drosophila. Science. 1996;272:1481-4 pubmed
    Somatic muscle is derived from a subset of embryonic mesoderm. In Drosophila, Twist (Twi), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a candidate regulator of mesodermal differentiation and myogenesis...
  7. Currie D, Bate M. The development of adult abdominal muscles in Drosophila: myoblasts express twist and are associated with nerves. Development. 1991;113:91-102 pubmed
    ..The adult myoblasts express twist in the third larval instar and the early pupa and are closely associated with nerves...
  8. Winans K, Hashimoto C. Ventralization of the Drosophila embryo by deletion of extracellular leucine-rich repeats in the Toll protein. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:587-96 pubmed
    ..These results support the view that Toll is a receptor whose extracellular domain regulates the intrinsic signaling activity of its cytoplasmic domain. ..
  9. Shishido E, Higashijima S, Emori Y, Saigo K. Two FGF-receptor homologues of Drosophila: one is expressed in mesodermal primordium in early embryos. Development. 1993;117:751-61 pubmed
    ..In early embryos, DFR1 RNA expression, requiring both twist and snail proteins, is specific to mesodermal primordium and invaginated mesodermal cells...
  10. Sawyer J, Harris N, Slep K, Gaul U, Peifer M. The Drosophila afadin homologue Canoe regulates linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to adherens junctions during apical constriction. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:57-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, Cno localizes to AJs by a Rap1- and actin-dependent mechanism. These data suggest that Cno regulates linkage between AJs and the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. ..
  11. Vincent S, Wilson R, Coelho C, Affolter M, Leptin M. The Drosophila protein Dof is specifically required for FGF signaling. Mol Cell. 1998;2:515-25 pubmed
    ..Dof is needed in these cells for activation of the MAPK cascade via FGF signaling, but not for activation via other RTK ligands. Dof therefore appears to be committed exclusively to FGFR-mediated signal transduction. ..
  12. Dubnicoff T, Valentine S, Chen G, Shi T, Lengyel J, Paroush Z, et al. Conversion of dorsal from an activator to a repressor by the global corepressor Groucho. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2952-7 pubmed
    ..Groucho is therefore a critical component of the dorsal/ventral patterning system. ..
  13. Crocker J, Tamori Y, Erives A. Evolution acts on enhancer organization to fine-tune gradient threshold readouts. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e263 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that equivalence classes of CRMs are powerful tools for detecting lineage-specific adaptations by gene regulatory sequences. ..
  14. Maqbool T, Soler C, Jagla T, Daczewska M, Lodha N, Palliyil S, et al. Shaping leg muscles in Drosophila: role of ladybird, a conserved regulator of appendicular myogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e122 pubmed
    ..The ladybird/Lbx1 gene family appears as a part of an ancient genetic circuitry determining leg-specific properties of myoblasts and making an appendage adapted for locomotion. ..
  15. Grosshans J, Wieschaus E. A genetic link between morphogenesis and cell division during formation of the ventral furrow in Drosophila. Cell. 2000;101:523-31 pubmed
    ..When overexpressed in a microinjection assay, Tribbles directly inhibits mitosis. We propose that Frühstart and Tribbles form a link between the morphogenetic movements and mitotic control. ..
  16. Nguyen H, Xu X. Drosophila mef2 expression during mesoderm development is controlled by a complex array of cis-acting regulatory modules. Dev Biol. 1998;204:550-66 pubmed
    ..region of the mef2 gene showed that the initial widespread mesodermal expression is achieved through a 280-bp twist-dependent enhancer...
  17. Ip Y, Maggert K, Levine M. Uncoupling gastrulation and mesoderm differentiation in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1994;13:5826-34 pubmed
    In Drosophila, ventral furrow formation and mesoderm differentiation are initiated by two regulatory genes, twist (twi) and snail (sna). Both genes are evolutionarily conserved and have also been implicated in vertebrate gastrulation...
  18. Leptin M. twist and snail as positive and negative regulators during Drosophila mesoderm development. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1568-76 pubmed
    b>twist and snail are members of the helix-loop-helix and zinc-finger protein families, respectively, and determine the development of the mesoderm in Drosophila...
  19. Costa M, Wilson E, Wieschaus E. A putative cell signal encoded by the folded gastrulation gene coordinates cell shape changes during Drosophila gastrulation. Cell. 1994;76:1075-89 pubmed
    ..Our analyses indicate that cell-cell communication ensures the rapid, orderly progression of constriction initiations from the middle of invagination primordia out toward the margins. ..
  20. Treisman J, Luk A, Rubin G, Heberlein U. eyelid antagonizes wingless signaling during Drosophila development and has homology to the Bright family of DNA-binding proteins. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1949-62 pubmed
    ..Based on this homology and on the phenotypic analysis, we suggest that Eld could act as a transcription factor antagonistic to the Wg pathway. ..
  21. Astigarraga S, Grossman R, Diaz Delfin J, Caelles C, Paroush Z, Jiménez G. A MAPK docking site is critical for downregulation of Capicua by Torso and EGFR RTK signaling. EMBO J. 2007;26:668-77 pubmed
    ..Finally, we describe differences in the modes of Capicua downregulation by Torso and EGFR signaling, raising the possibility that such differences contribute to the tissue specificity of both signals. ..
  22. Fox D, Peifer M. Abelson kinase (Abl) and RhoGEF2 regulate actin organization during cell constriction in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:567-78 pubmed
    ..These observations identify an important morphogenetic role for Abl and suggest a conserved mechanism for this kinase during apical cell constriction. ..
  23. Chen G, Fernandez J, Mische S, Courey A. A functional interaction between the histone deacetylase Rpd3 and the corepressor groucho in Drosophila development. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2218-30 pubmed
    ..They also provide evidence for a specific role of Rpd3 in early development. ..
  24. Taylor M, Beatty K, Hunter H, Baylies M. Drosophila MEF2 is regulated by twist and is expressed in both the primordia and differentiated cells of the embryonic somatic, visceral and heart musculature. Mech Dev. 1995;50:29-41 pubmed
    ..DMEF2 may play a role in this important event because our experiments show that it is a downstream target for twist and that its early expression pattern modulates as the mesoderm is organising into cell groupings with distinct ..
  25. Ip Y, Park R, Kosman D, Yazdanbakhsh K, Levine M. dorsal-twist interactions establish snail expression in the presumptive mesoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1518-30 pubmed
    The first step in the differentiation of the Drosophila mesoderm is the activation of two regulatory genes, twist (twi) and snail (sna), in ventral regions of early embryos...
  26. Yagi Y, Hayashi S. Role of the Drosophila EGF receptor in determination of the dorsoventral domains of escargot expression during primary neurogenesis. Genes Cells. 1997;2:41-53 pubmed
    ..The effect of dorsoventral patterning genes on esg expression was studied. decapentaplegic, snail and twist were found to repress esg expression outside the neuroectoderm...
  27. Riechmann V, Rehorn K, Reuter R, Leptin M. The genetic control of the distinction between fat body and gonadal mesoderm in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:713-23 pubmed
    ..The homeotic gene abdominalA limits the region of serpent activity by interfering in a mutually repressive feed back loop between gonadal and fat body development. ..
  28. Ray R, Arora K, Nusslein Volhard C, Gelbart W. The control of cell fate along the dorsal-ventral axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1991;113:35-54 pubmed
    ..of the expression patterns of four zygotic patterning genes: decapentaplegic (dpp), zerknüllt (zen), twist (twi), and snail (sna)...
  29. Sandstrom D, Bayer C, Fristrom J, Restifo L. Broad-complex transcription factors regulate thoracic muscle attachment in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1997;181:168-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that 20-hydroxyecdysone acts through the Broad-Complex to control the development of thoracic myotendinous junctions. ..
  30. Courey A, Jia S. Transcriptional repression: the long and the short of it. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2786-96 pubmed
  31. Zinzen R, Cande J, Ronshaugen M, Papatsenko D, Levine M. Evolution of the ventral midline in insect embryos. Dev Cell. 2006;11:895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..sim is regulated by a combination of Notch signaling and a Twist (Twi) activator gradient in D. mel., but it is activated solely by Twi in A. mel...
  32. Castanon I, Baylies M. A Twist in fate: evolutionary comparison of Twist structure and function. Gene. 2002;287:11-22 pubmed
    ..Since the discovery of the twist gene, there has been great progress toward unraveling the molecular mechanisms that control mesoderm specification ..
  33. Frasch M. Induction of visceral and cardiac mesoderm by ectodermal Dpp in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 1995;374:464-7 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates that the spatial expression of dpp in the ectoderm determines which cells of the mesoderm become competent to develop into visceral mesoderm and the heart. ..
  34. Van Doren M, Williamson A, Lehmann R. Regulation of zygotic gene expression in Drosophila primordial germ cells. Curr Biol. 1998;8:243-6 pubmed
    ..This expression does not require proper patterning of the soma, indicating that it is likely to be controlled by the germ plasm. ..
  35. Taylor M. Muscle development. Making Drosophila muscle. Curr Biol. 1995;5:740-2 pubmed
    ..Analysis of flies with mutations in the gene encoding the D-mef2 transcription factor identifies it as a controller of differentiation in multiple muscle cell types; it is the first such gene to be described. ..
  36. Mellerick D, Nirenberg M. Dorsal-ventral patterning genes restrict NK-2 homeobox gene expression to the ventral half of the central nervous system of Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 1995;171:306-16 pubmed
    ..b>Twist activates the NK-2 gene in the posterior portion of the embryo or is a coactivator with dorsal...
  37. Liberman L, Stathopoulos A. Design flexibility in cis-regulatory control of gene expression: synthetic and comparative evidence. Dev Biol. 2009;327:578-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model for neurogenic ectoderm specification in which gene regulation occurs at the intersection of temporal and spatial transcription factor inputs...
  38. Honkela A, Girardot C, Gustafson E, Liu Y, Furlong E, Lawrence N, et al. Model-based method for transcription factor target identification with limited data. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7793-8 pubmed publisher
    ..genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip) and loss-of-function mutant expression data for two TFs, Twist, and Mef2, controlling mesoderm development in Drosophila...
  39. Jimenez G, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Casanova J. Relief of gene repression by torso RTK signaling: role of capicua in Drosophila terminal and dorsoventral patterning. Genes Dev. 2000;14:224-31 pubmed
    ..cic has been evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that Cic-like proteins may act as repressors regulated by RTK signaling in other organisms. ..
  40. Pouille P, Ahmadi P, Brunet A, Farge E. Mechanical signals trigger Myosin II redistribution and mesoderm invagination in Drosophila embryos. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra16 pubmed publisher
    ..The second wave is controlled by the transcription factor Twist and requires the secreted protein Fog...
  41. Ghazi A, Anant S, Vijayraghavan K. Apterous mediates development of direct flight muscles autonomously and indirect flight muscles through epidermal cues. Development. 2000;127:5309-18 pubmed
    ..Our results, which may have broad implications, suggest novel mechanisms of muscle patterning in the adult, in contrast to embryonic myogenesis. ..
  42. Yin Z, Xu X, Frasch M. Regulation of the twist target gene tinman by modular cis-regulatory elements during early mesoderm development. Development. 1997;124:4971-82 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that the early-active enhancer element is a direct target of twist, a gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, which is necessary for tinman activation...
  43. Fernandes J, Keshishian H. Nerve-muscle interactions during flight muscle development in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1769-79 pubmed
  44. Akimaru H, Hou D, Ishii S. Drosophila CBP is required for dorsal-dependent twist gene expression. Nat Genet. 1997;17:211-4 pubmed
    ..To initiate the differentiation of the mesoderm in Drosophila, multiple zygotic genes such as twist (twi) and snail (sna), which encode a basic-helix-loop-helix and a zinc finger transcription factor, respectively, ..
  45. Desprat N, Supatto W, Pouille P, Beaurepaire E, Farge E. Tissue deformation modulates twist expression to determine anterior midgut differentiation in Drosophila embryos. Dev Cell. 2008;15:470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the deformations caused by germ band extension upregulate Twist expression in the stomodeal primordium...
  46. Busser B, Huang D, Rogacki K, Lane E, Shokri L, Ni T, et al. Integrative analysis of the zinc finger transcription factor Lame duck in the Drosophila myogenic gene regulatory network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20768-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings provide insights into the transcriptional codes regulating muscle gene expression and offer a generalizable approach for similar studies in other systems. ..
  47. Kulkarni M, Arnosti D. cis-regulatory logic of short-range transcriptional repression in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3411-20 pubmed
    ..This cis-regulatory "grammar" may aid the identification of enhancers regulated by short-range repressors and facilitate bioinformatic prediction of the functional output of transcriptional regulatory sequences. ..
  48. Cox V, Baylies M. Specification of individual Slouch muscle progenitors in Drosophila requires sequential Wingless signaling. Development. 2005;132:713-24 pubmed
    ..Slouch cluster I, Wg signaling is required to maintain high levels of the myogenic transcriptional regulator Twist. However, to specify cluster II, Wg not only maintains high Twist levels, but also provides a second contribution ..
  49. Dutta D, Anant S, Ruiz Gomez M, Bate M, Vijayraghavan K. Founder myoblasts and fibre number during adult myogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3761-72 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the embryo, the selection of individual adult founder cells during myogenesis does not depend on Notch-mediated lateral inhibition. Our results suggest a general mechanism by which multi-fibre muscles can be patterned. ..
  50. Michelson A, Gisselbrecht S, Zhou Y, Baek K, Buff E. Dual functions of the heartless fibroblast growth factor receptor in development of the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Dev Genet. 1998;22:212-29 pubmed
    ..Finally, parallels between requirements for FGFR signaling in Drosophila and vertebrate mesoderm development are considered. ..
  51. Anant S, Roy S, Vijayraghavan K. Twist and Notch negatively regulate adult muscle differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1361-9 pubmed
    b>Twist is required in Drosophila embryogenesis for mesodermal specification and cell-fate choice. We have examined the role of Twist and Notch during adult indirect flight muscle development...
  52. Seher T, Narasimha M, Vogelsang E, Leptin M. Analysis and reconstitution of the genetic cascade controlling early mesoderm morphogenesis in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2007;124:167-79 pubmed
    ..In the case of the transcriptional activator Twist, which acts at the top of the mesodermal developmental cascade in Drosophila, two targets, Snail and Fog, are ..
  53. Leptin M, Grunewald B. Cell shape changes during gastrulation in Drosophila. Development. 1990;110:73-84 pubmed
    ..Two known zygotic genes that are required for the formation of the mesoderm, twist and snail, are expressed in ventral furrow cells, and the correct execution of cell shape changes in the mesoderm ..
  54. Li X, MacArthur S, Bourgon R, Nix D, Pollard D, Iyer V, et al. Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e27 pubmed publisher
  55. Asha H, De Ruiter N, Wang M, Hariharan I. The Rap1 GTPase functions as a regulator of morphogenesis in vivo. EMBO J. 1999;18:605-15 pubmed
    ..Rap1 mutations also disrupt cell migrations and cause abnormalities in cell shape. These findings indicate a role for Rap proteins as regulators of morphogenesis in vivo. ..
  56. Pouille P, Farge E. Hydrodynamic simulation of multicellular embryo invagination. Phys Biol. 2008;5:015005 pubmed publisher
  57. Alberga A, Boulay J, Kempe E, Dennefeld C, Haenlin M. The snail gene required for mesoderm formation in Drosophila is expressed dynamically in derivatives of all three germ layers. Development. 1991;111:983-92 pubmed
    ..Its regional distribution generally correlates with that of sna transcripts. The complex pattern of sna expression strongly suggests that the function of the gene is not restricted to mesoderm formation...
  58. Bate M, Rushton E, Currie D. Cells with persistent twist expression are the embryonic precursors of adult muscles in Drosophila. Development. 1991;113:79-89 pubmed
    b>twist expression in the embryonic mesoderm of Drosophila declines during germ band retraction to leave a residual population of twist-expressing cells in the late embryo...
  59. Barrett K, Leptin M, Settleman J. The Rho GTPase and a putative RhoGEF mediate a signaling pathway for the cell shape changes in Drosophila gastrulation. Cell. 1997;91:905-15 pubmed
    ..Together, these results establish a Rho-mediated signaling pathway that is essential for the major morphogenetic events in Drosophila gastrulation. ..
  60. Chung K, Kim Y, Kanodia J, Gong E, Shvartsman S, Lu H. A microfluidic array for large-scale ordering and orientation of embryos. Nat Methods. 2011;8:171-176 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach can also be used for live imaging and, with slight modifications, could be adapted for studies of pattern formation and morphogenesis in other model organisms. ..
  61. Farge E. Mechanical induction of Twist in the Drosophila foregut/stomodeal primordium. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1365-77 pubmed
    ..I have analyzed the effects of mechanical stress on the expression of Twist, which is normally expressed only in the most ventral cells of the cellular blastoderm embryo under the control of ..
  62. Soler C, Daczewska M, Da Ponte J, Dastugue B, Jagla K. Coordinated development of muscles and tendons of the Drosophila leg. Development. 2004;131:6041-51 pubmed
    ..In the third instars discs, in the vicinity of tendon progenitors, some Twist-positive myoblasts start to express the muscle founder cell marker dumbfounded (duf)...
  63. Wong M, Castanon I, Baylies M. Daughterless dictates Twist activity in a context-dependent manner during somatic myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;317:417-29 pubmed publisher Drosophila relies on the reiterative activity of the basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator, Twist (Twi). How Twi directs multiple cell fate decisions over the course of mesoderm and muscle development is unclear...
  64. Bernard F, Lalouette A, Gullaud M, Jeantet A, Cossard R, Zider A, et al. Control of apterous by vestigial drives indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2003;260:391-403 pubmed
    ..In addition, in vg(null) adult flies, degenerating DLMs express twist (twi) ectopically...
  65. Taylor M. Drosophila development: novel signal elicits visceral response. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R102-4 pubmed
  66. Rebay I, Rubin G. Yan functions as a general inhibitor of differentiation and is negatively regulated by activation of the Ras1/MAPK pathway. Cell. 1995;81:857-66 pubmed
  67. He Q, Bardet A, Patton B, Purvis J, Johnston J, Paulson A, et al. High conservation of transcription factor binding and evidence for combinatorial regulation across six Drosophila species. Nat Genet. 2011;43:414-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the binding of the developmental transcription factor Twist is highly conserved across six Drosophila species, revealing strong functional constraints at its enhancers...
  68. Ratnaparkhi G, Jia S, Courey A. Uncoupling dorsal-mediated activation from dorsal-mediated repression in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2006;133:4409-14 pubmed
    ..transcription factor Dorsal patterns the dorsoventral axis of the Drosophila embryo by activating genes such as twist and snail and repressing genes such as decapentaplegic and zerknüllt...
  69. Reuter R, Leptin M. Interacting functions of snail, twist and huckebein during the early development of germ layers in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1137-50 pubmed
    Two zygotic genes, snail (sna) and twist (twi), are required for mesoderm development, which begins with the formation of the ventral furrow...
  70. Markstein M, Markstein P, Markstein V, Levine M. Genome-wide analysis of clustered Dorsal binding sites identifies putative target genes in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:763-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that bioinformatics can be used to identify novel target genes and associated regulatory DNAs in a gene network. ..
  71. Thisse B, El Messal M, Perrin Schmitt F. The twist gene: isolation of a Drosophila zygotic gene necessary for the establishment of dorsoventral pattern. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:3439-53 pubmed
    The twist zygotic gene appears to be involved in the establishment of the dorso-ventral pattern in Drosophila embryos...
  72. Reach M, Galindo R, Towb P, Allen J, Karin M, Wasserman S. A gradient of cactus protein degradation establishes dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1996;180:353-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that dorsoventral signaling results in a Cactus concentration gradient and propose that signal-dependent phosphorylation directs the spatially regulated proteolysis of Cactus protein. ..
  73. Furlong E. Integrating transcriptional and signalling networks during muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:343-50 pubmed
    ..The combination of a common set of mesoderm autonomous transcription factors (e.g. Tinman and Twist) and spatially restricted inductive signals (e.g...
  74. González Crespo S, Levine M. Interactions between dorsal and helix-loop-helix proteins initiate the differentiation of the embryonic mesoderm and neuroectoderm in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1703-13 pubmed
    ..We discuss the striking parallels in mesoderm formation and sex determination. ..
  75. Bhaskar V, Valentine S, Courey A. A functional interaction between dorsal and components of the Smt3 conjugation machinery. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:4033-40 pubmed
    ..Six genes were identified, including two that encode previously known Dorsal-interacting proteins (Twist and Cactus), three that encode novel proteins, and one that encodes Drosophila Ubc9 (DmUbc9), a protein thought to ..
  76. Martin A, Kaschube M, Wieschaus E. Pulsed contractions of an actin-myosin network drive apical constriction. Nature. 2009;457:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factors Twist and Snail differentially regulate pulsed constriction...
  77. Jagla T, Bellard F, Lutz Y, Dretzen G, Bellard M, Jagla K. ladybird determines cell fate decisions during diversification of Drosophila somatic muscles. Development. 1998;125:3699-708 pubmed
    ..Altogether our results provide new insights into the genetic control of diversification of muscle precursors and indicate a further similarity between the myogenic and neurogenic pathways. ..
  78. Fakhouri W, Ay A, Sayal R, Dresch J, Dayringer E, Arnosti D. Deciphering a transcriptional regulatory code: modeling short-range repression in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Syst Biol. 2010;6:341 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides essential elements of a transcriptional regulatory code that will allow extensive analysis of genomic information in Drosophila melanogaster and related organisms. ..
  79. Nabel Rosen H, Toledano Katchalski H, Volohonsky G, Volk T. Cell divisions in the drosophila embryonic mesoderm are repressed via posttranscriptional regulation of string/cdc25 by HOW. Curr Biol. 2005;15:295-302 pubmed
    ..embryos despite a positive transcriptional string/cdc25 activation provided by the mesoderm-specific action of Twist. Whereas String/Cdc25 is negatively regulated by Tribbles in the mesoderm at these embryonic stages, the factor(s) ..
  80. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  81. Halfon M, Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Sackerson C, Jimenez F, Baylies M, et al. Ras pathway specificity is determined by the integration of multiple signal-activated and tissue-restricted transcription factors. Cell. 2000;103:63-74 pubmed
    ..Mad, and Pointed-functioning in the Wg, Dpp, and Ras/MAPK pathways, respectively) and two tissue-restricted (Twist and Tinman) transcription factors on a progenitor identity gene enhancer...
  82. Gisselbrecht S, Skeath J, Doe C, Michelson A. heartless encodes a fibroblast growth factor receptor (DFR1/DFGF-R2) involved in the directional migration of early mesodermal cells in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1996;10:3003-17 pubmed
    ..These studies establish that Htl signaling provides a vital connection between initial formation of the embryonic mesoderm in Drosophila and subsequent cell-fate specification within this germ layer. ..
  83. Wrischnik L, Timmer J, Megna L, Cline T. Recruitment of the proneural gene scute to the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2003;165:2007-27 pubmed
    ..Lack of synergistic lethality among mutations in sc, twist, and dorsal argue against a proposed role for sc in mesoderm formation that had seemed potentially relevant to sex-..
  84. Bronner G, Jackle H. Regulation and function of the terminal gap gene huckebein in the Drosophila blastoderm. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:157-65 pubmed
    ..Conversely, ectopic expression of hkb inhibits the formation of the major gastrulation fold which gives rise to the mesoderm and prevents normal segmentation in the ectoderm of the trunk region. ..
  85. Gajewski K, Kim Y, Choi C, Schulz R. Combinatorial control of Drosophila mef2 gene expression in cardiac and somatic muscle cell lineages. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:382-92 pubmed cardiac and adult muscle precursor cells have been identified and their regulation by the Tinman and Twist myogenic factors have been demonstrated...
  86. Jiang J, Rushlow C, Zhou Q, Small S, Levine M. Individual dorsal morphogen binding sites mediate activation and repression in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1992;11:3147-54 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that dl activates the mesoderm determinant twist (twi); here we use a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and P-transformation assays to demonstrate that it ..
  87. Shishido E, Ono N, Kojima T, Saigo K. Requirements of DFR1/Heartless, a mesoderm-specific Drosophila FGF-receptor, for the formation of heart, visceral and somatic muscles, and ensheathing of longitudinal axon tracts in CNS. Development. 1997;124:2119-28 pubmed
    ..DFR1 mutant phenotypes were partially mimicked by the targeted expression of activated Yan, thus demonstrating the MAP kinase pathway to be involved in differentiation of mesoderm. ..
  88. Hong J, Hendrix D, Levine M. Shadow enhancers as a source of evolutionary novelty. Science. 2008;321:1314 pubmed publisher
  89. Jiang J, Kosman D, Ip Y, Levine M. The dorsal morphogen gradient regulates the mesoderm determinant twist in early Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1881-91 pubmed
    ..To determine how dl functions as an activator we have examined the promoter of the mesoderm determinant gene twist (twi)...
  90. Shirokawa J, Courey A. A direct contact between the dorsal rel homology domain and Twist may mediate transcriptional synergy. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3345-55 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Dorsal and the bHLH activator Twist synergistically activate transcription in cell culture and in vitro from a promoter containing binding sites for ..