Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: tub
Alias: CG10520, Dmel\CG10520, Tube, tube, CG10520-PC, tub-PC
Species: fruit fly
- Letsou A, Alexander S, Orth K, Wasserman S. Genetic and molecular characterization of tube, a Drosophila gene maternally required for embryonic dorsoventral polarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:810-4 pubmedLoss of maternal function of the tube gene disrupts a signaling pathway required for pattern formation in Drosophila, causing cells throughout the embryo to adopt the fate normally reserved for those at the dorsal surface...
- Towb P, Sun H, Wasserman S. Tube Is an IRAK-4 homolog in a Toll pathway adapted for development and immunity. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:309-21 pubmed publisher..In flies, the Toll pathway also functions in patterning of the syncytial embryo and requires Tube, a Drosophila -specific adaptor protein lacking a catalytic domain...
- Anderson K, Nusslein Volhard C. Information for the dorsal--ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is stored as maternal mRNA. Nature. 1984;311:223-7 pubmed..Injection of RNA isolated from wild-type embryos into mutants at six loci partially restores dorsal-ventral polarity. For the mutant snake, injection of poly(A)+ RNA restores a complete dorsal-ventral pattern. ..
- Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
- Lemaitre B, Meister M, Govind S, Georgel P, Steward R, Reichhart J, et al. Functional analysis and regulation of nuclear import of dorsal during the immune response in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1995;14:536-45 pubmed..These data underline the complexity of the Drosophila immune response. Finally, we observed that like other rel proteins, dl can control the level of its own transcription. ..
- Whalen A, Steward R. Dissociation of the dorsal-cactus complex and phosphorylation of the dorsal protein correlate with the nuclear localization of dorsal. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:523-34 pubmed..This differential phosphorylation event is regulated by the dorsal group pathway. ..
- Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
- Grosshans J, Schnorrer F, Nusslein Volhard C. Oligomerisation of Tube and Pelle leads to nuclear localisation of dorsal. Mech Dev. 1999;81:127-38 pubmed..signal, which is transmitted to the interior of the egg cell by a cascade of proteins involving the novel protein Tube and the protein kinase Pelle...
- Hoffmann J. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:33-8 pubmed..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity. ..
- Marek L, Kagan J. Phosphoinositide binding by the Toll adaptor dMyD88 controls antibacterial responses in Drosophila. Immunity. 2012;36:612-22 pubmed publisher..its antimicrobial and developmental functions as well as for the recruitment of the downstream cytosolic adaptor Tube to the cell surface...
- Xiao T, Towb P, Wasserman S, Sprang S. Three-dimensional structure of a complex between the death domains of Pelle and Tube. Cell. 1999;99:545-55 pubmedThe interaction of the serine/threonine kinase Pelle and adaptor protein Tube through their N-terminal death domains leads to the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor Dorsal and activation of zygotic patterning genes during ..
- Edwards D, Towb P, Wasserman S. An activity-dependent network of interactions links the Rel protein Dorsal with its cytoplasmic regulators. Development. 1997;124:3855-64 pubmed..A cell surface signal relayed by Toll, Tube and Pelle releases the Rel-related protein Dorsal from its cytoplasmic inhibitor Cactus; free Dorsal translocates ..
- Qiu P, Pan P, Govind S. A role for the Drosophila Toll/Cactus pathway in larval hematopoiesis. Development. 1998;125:1909-20 pubmed..As maternally encoded proteins, Toll, Cactus and Dorsal, along with Tube and Pelle, participate in a common signal transduction pathway to specify the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis...
- Sun H, Towb P, Chiem D, Foster B, Wasserman S. Regulated assembly of the Toll signaling complex drives Drosophila dorsoventral patterning. EMBO J. 2004;23:100-10 pubmed..transmembrane receptor Toll acts through three death domain-containing proteins, the kinase Pelle and the adapters Tube and MyD88, in signaling to downstream NF-kappaB-like transcription factors...
- Chen L, Wang J, Hyvert Y, Lin H, Perrimon N, Imler J, et al. Weckle is a zinc finger adaptor of the toll pathway in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1183-93 pubmed..Upon activation by the cytokine Spätzle, Toll interacts with the adaptor proteins DmMyD88 and Tube and the kinase Pelle and triggers degradation of the inhibitor Cactus, thus allowing the nuclear translocation of ..
- Janssens S, Beyaert R. Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognition. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:637-46 pubmed..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity. ..
- Aderem A, Ulevitch R. Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature. 2000;406:782-7 pubmed..This reflects a remarkable conservation of function and it is therefore not surprising that studies of the mechanism by which they act has revealed new and important insights into host defence. ..
- Ferreira Ã, Naylor H, Esteves S, Pais I, Martins N, Teixeira L. The Toll-dorsal pathway is required for resistance to viral oral infection in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004507 pubmed publisher..These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors. ..
- Winans K, Hashimoto C. Ventralization of the Drosophila embryo by deletion of extracellular leucine-rich repeats in the Toll protein. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:587-96 pubmed..These results support the view that Toll is a receptor whose extracellular domain regulates the intrinsic signaling activity of its cytoplasmic domain. ..
- Wasserman S. A conserved signal transduction pathway regulating the activity of the rel-like proteins dorsal and NF-kappa B. Mol Biol Cell. 1993;4:767-71 pubmed
- Grossniklaus U, Bellen H, Wilson C, Gehring W. P-element-mediated enhancer detection applied to the study of oogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 1989;107:189-200 pubmed..On the basis of our results, we suggest new strategies, which are not primarily based on the generation of mutants, to screen for and isolated female sterile genes. ..
- Moncrieffe M, Stott K, Gay N. Solution structure of the isolated Pelle death domain. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3920-6 pubmedThe interaction between the death domains (DDs) of Tube and the protein kinase Pelle is an important component of the Toll pathway...
- Nicolas E, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Lemaitre B. In vivo regulation of the IkappaB homologue cactus during the immune response of Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:10463-9 pubmed..This degradation is also dependent on the Toll signaling pathway. Altogether, our results underline the striking similarities between the regulation of IkappaB and cactus during the immune response. ..
- Medzhitov R, Janeway C. Fly immunity: great expectations. Genome Biol. 2000;1:REVIEWS106 pubmed..Preliminary analysis of the Drosophila genome sequence reveals important similarities and differences between the functioning of mammalian and invertebrate immune systems. ..
- Trivedi B. Biography of Kathryn V. Anderson. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5910-2 pubmed
- Quintin J, Asmar J, Matskevich A, Lafarge M, Ferrandon D. The Drosophila Toll pathway controls but does not clear Candida glabrata infections. J Immunol. 2013;190:2818-27 pubmed publisher..glabrata in this model. Unexpectedly, yapsins do not appear to be required to counteract the cellular immune response but are needed for the colonization of the wild-type host. ..
- Dearolf C. Fruit fly "leukemia". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1377:M13-23 pubmed
- Carroll S, Winslow G, Twombly V, Scott M. Genes that control dorsoventral polarity affect gene expression along the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1987;99:327-32 pubmed
- Belvin M, Jin Y, Anderson K. Cactus protein degradation mediates Drosophila dorsal-ventral signaling. Genes Dev. 1995;9:783-93 pubmed
- Belvin M, Anderson K. A conserved signaling pathway: the Drosophila toll-dorsal pathway. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1996;12:393-416 pubmed..Binding of extracellular ligand activates the transmembrane receptor Toll, which requires the novel protein Tube to activate the cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Pelle...
- Gillespie S, Wasserman S. Dorsal, a Drosophila Rel-like protein, is phosphorylated upon activation of the transmembrane protein Toll. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3559-68 pubmed..demonstrated that signal-dependent dorsal phosphorylation is modulated by three intracellular proteins, pelle, tube, and cactus...
- Gay N, Keith F. Formation of a gradient of the Drosophila dorsal morphogen by differential nuclear localisation. Bioessays. 1990;12:181-2 pubmed
- Ray R, Arora K, Nusslein Volhard C, Gelbart W. The control of cell fate along the dorsal-ventral axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1991;113:35-54 pubmed..Two of the genes, dpp and twi, are unaffected by mutations in any of the tested zygotic dorsal-ventral genes, suggesting that dpp and twi are the primary patterning genes for dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm, respectively...
- van Der Flier A, Sonnenberg A. Structural and functional aspects of filamins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1538:99-117 pubmed..In this review aspects of filamin structure, its splice variants, binding partners and biological function will be discussed. ..
- Takeda Y. A generalized epistasis analysis as a method of reconstruction of developmental process and its application to Drosophila dorso-ventral axis formation. J Theor Biol. 1995;176:47-58 pubmed..The difference between orderliness diagrams of the dorsal and ventral sides of the embryo shows that the cells on the ventral side receive the signal and the fate of the cells on the dorsal side is default in the wild-type embryo. ..
- Nelson B, Freisinger T, Ishii K, Okado K, Shinzawa N, Fukumoto S, et al. Activation of Imd pathway in hemocyte confers infection resistance through humoral response in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;430:1120-5 pubmed publisher..aureus, counter to notions of traditional roles of the Imd pathway thought largely to responsible for resistance to Gram-negative bacteria. ..
- Zapata J, Matsuzawa S, Godzik A, Leo E, Wasserman S, Reed J. The Drosophila tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-1 (DTRAF1) interacts with Pelle and regulates NFkappaB activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12102-7 pubmed..Interactions of DTRAF1 with human TRAF-, TNF receptor-, and IAP-family proteins imply strong evolutionary conservation of TRAF protein structure and function throughout Metazoan evolution. ..
- Castillejo Lopez C, Hacker U. The serine protease Sp7 is expressed in blood cells and regulates the melanization reaction in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1075-82 pubmed
- Ji S, Sun M, Zheng X, Li L, Sun L, Chen D, et al. Cell-surface localization of Pellino antagonizes Toll-mediated innate immune signalling by controlling MyD88 turnover in Drosophila. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3458 pubmed publisher..that the plasma membrane localization of Drosophila MyD88 is necessary for the recruitment of cytosolic adaptor Tube to the cell surface, thus contributing to Toll signalling transduction...
- Levashina E, Ohresser S, Lemaitre B, Imler J. Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowin. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:515-27 pubmed..5 kb of metchnikowin gene upstream sequences indicates that this fragment is able to confer full immune inducibility and tissue specificity of expression on the transgene. ..
- Ip Y. Transcriptional regulation. Converting an activator into a repressor. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1-3 pubmed..Dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila requires the Dorsal morphogen to act as both an activator and a repressor of transcription: an HMG1-like protein may serve to switch Dorsal from one to the other. ..
- Peng J, Zipperlen P, Kubli E. Drosophila sex-peptide stimulates female innate immune system after mating via the Toll and Imd pathways. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1690-4 pubmed..Mating may physically damage females and pathogens may be transferred. Thus, endogenous stimulation of AMP transcription by SP at mating might be considered as a preventive step to encounter putative immunogenic attacks. ..
- Wu L, Anderson K. Related signaling networks in Drosophila that control dorsoventral patterning in the embryo and the immune response. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:97-103 pubmed
- Stein D, Nusslein Volhard C. Multiple extracellular activities in Drosophila egg perivitelline fluid are required for establishment of embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity. Cell. 1992;68:429-40 pubmed..This process requires serine proteolytic activity; the injection of serine protease inhibitors into the perivitelline space of wild-type embryos results in the formation of dorsalized embryos...
- Norris J, Manley J. Functional interactions between the pelle kinase, Toll receptor, and tube suggest a mechanism for activation of dorsal. Genes Dev. 1996;10:862-72 pubmed..required for activation of dl: Toll, a transmembrane receptor; pelle (pll), a serine/threonine protein kinase; and tube, a protein of unknown function...
- Faivre Sarrailh C, Banerjee S, Li J, Hortsch M, Laval M, Bhat M. Drosophila contactin, a homolog of vertebrate contactin, is required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function. Development. 2004;131:4931-42 pubmed..Hence, our data provide evidence that the organization of SJs is dependent on the interactions between these highly conserved cell-adhesion molecules. ..
- Qureshi S, Gros P, Malo D. Host resistance to infection: genetic control of lipopolysaccharide responsiveness by TOLL-like receptor genes. Trends Genet. 1999;15:291-4 pubmed..Tlr4 is a member of an ancient gene family that regulates antimicrobial host defense in plants, invertebrates and mammals. ..
- Chasan R, Jin Y, Anderson K. Activation of the easter zymogen is regulated by five other genes to define dorsal-ventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1992;115:607-16 pubmed..We propose that dorsal-ventral asymmetry is initiated by a ventrally-localized molecule in the vitelline membrane that nucleates an easter zymogen activation complex, leading to the production of ventrally active easter enzyme. ..
- Govind S, Nehm R. Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recycling. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E276 pubmed
- Grosshans J, Bergmann A, Haffter P, Nusslein Volhard C. Activation of the kinase Pelle by Tube in the dorsoventral signal transduction pathway of Drosophila embryo. Nature. 1994;372:563-6 pubmed..to mediate the signal transduction between Toll and Dorsal-Cactus: Pelle, a serine/threonine protein kinase, and Tube, a protein with an unknown biochemical activity...
- Clemmons A, Wasserman S. Combinatorial effects of transposable elements on gene expression and phenotypic robustness in Drosophila melanogaster development. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:1531-8 pubmed publisher..Here we characterize a set of recessive alleles of the Toll pathway component tube that destabilize embryonic dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila melanogaster...
- Gesellchen V, Kuttenkeuler D, Steckel M, Pelte N, Boutros M. An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:979-84 pubmed..Our results indicate that IAP gene family members may have acquired other functions, such as the regulation of the tumour necrosis factor-like IMD pathway during innate immune responses. ..
- Moncrieffe M, Grossmann J, Gay N. Assembly of oligomeric death domain complexes during Toll receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33447-54 pubmed publisher..Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88)...
- Gerard C. Bacterial infection. For whom the bell tolls. Nature. 1998;395:217, 219 pubmed
- Stein D, Stevens L. Establishment of dorsal-ventral and terminal pattern in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1991;1:247-54 pubmed
- Gosu V, Basith S, Durai P, Choi S. Molecular evolution and structural features of IRAK family members. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49771 pubmed publisher..A comparative phylogenetic analysis with insect homologs of IRAKs suggests that the Tube protein is a homolog of IRAK4, unlike the anticipated protein, Pelle...
- Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Pillars article: the dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996. 86: 973-983. J Immunol. 2012;188:5210-20 pubmed..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
- Towb P, Galindo R, Wasserman S. Recruitment of Tube and Pelle to signaling sites at the surface of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1998;125:2443-50 pubmed..b>Tube and Pelle then transduce the signal from activated Toll to a complex of Dorsal and Cactus...
- Bacher S, Grosshans J, Droge W, Schmitz M. The Drosophila proteins Pelle and Tube induce JNK/AP-1 activity in mammalian cells. FEBS Lett. 2001;497:153-8 pubmed..in mammalian cells, inactive and constitutively active versions of the protein kinase Pelle and its regulator Tube were expressed in HeLa cells and tested for their impact on IL-1-dependent signaling events...
- Janssens S, Beyaert R. A universal role for MyD88 in TLR/IL-1R-mediated signaling. Trends Biochem Sci. 2002;27:474-82 pubmed..The generation of MyD88-deficient mice, as well as the identification of MyD88-related proteins and regulators of MyD88 signaling, has revealed new and important insights into the function of MyD88. ..
- Galindo R, Edwards D, Gillespie S, Wasserman S. Interaction of the pelle kinase with the membrane-associated protein tube is required for transduction of the dorsoventral signal in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1995;121:2209-18 pubmedWithin the Drosophila embryo, tube and the protein kinase pelle transduce an intracellular signal generated by the transmembrane receptor Toll...
- Minakhina S, Yang J, Steward R. Tamo selectively modulates nuclear import in Drosophila. Genes Cells. 2003;8:299-310 pubmed..Tamo has an essential function during oogenesis. Tamo interacts with Dorsal and proteins that are part of the nuclear import machinery. We propose that tamo modulates the levels of import of Dorsal and other proteins. ..
- Khush R, Leulier F, Lemaitre B. Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science. 2002;296:273-5 pubmed
- Govind S, Steward R. Gene regulation: coming to grips with cactus. Curr Biol. 1993;3:351-4 pubmed
- Roth S, Hiromi Y, Godt D, Nusslein Volhard C. cactus, a maternal gene required for proper formation of the dorsoventral morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1991;112:371-88 pubmed..We discuss models of how the action of the dorsal group genes might counteract the cactus function ventrally. ..
- Cantera R, Barrio R. Do the genes of the innate immune response contribute to neuroprotection in Drosophila?. J Innate Immun. 2015;7:3-10 pubmed publisher..This review opens this debate in Drosophila, which could thus be used as an instrumental model to elucidate this question. ..
- Benosman S, Ravanan P, Correa R, Hou Y, Yu M, Gulen M, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-2 (IRAK2) is a critical mediator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64256 pubmed publisher..Similarly, RNAi-mediated silencing of the IRAK family member Tube (but not Pelle) suppresses activation of stress kinase signaling induced by ER stress in Drosophila cells...
- Sorrentino R, Melk J, Govind S. Genetic analysis of contributions of dorsal group and JAK-Stat92E pathway genes to larval hemocyte concentration and the egg encapsulation response in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;166:1343-56 pubmed..Larvae carrying loss-of-function mutations in dorsal group genes (including Toll and tube) have reduced hemocyte concentrations, whereas larvae deficient in Hopscotch-Stat92E signaling do not...