Gene Symbol: ttk
Description: tramtrack
Alias: 0037/17, 0250/25, 0438/31, 0702/07, 1049/07, 1119/04, 1184/16, 1209/05, 1209/10, 1260/10, 1281/04, 1325/15, 1372/08, 1396/14, 1418/06, 3540, 5125, 5311, CG11558, CG1856, Dmel\CG1856, E(yan)100D, FTZ-F2, TTK, TTK69, TTK88, TTKA, Ttk, Ttk69, Ttk88, anon-EST:Liang-2.9, clone 2.9, ftz-f2, ftzf2/ttk, l(3)02667, l(3)j2A1, l(3)j7B8, osn, oss, ovs, tramtrak, ttk/FTZ-F2, ttk69, ttkp69, twk, tramtrack, CG1856-PA, CG1856-PB, CG1856-PC, CG1856-PD, CG1856-PE, CG1856-PF, CG1856-PG, CG1856-PH, Tramtrack69, Tramtrack88, Ttk88 repressor, enhancer of yan at 100D, oversensitive, schmal, tramtrack-69, tramtrak, ttk-PA, ttk-PB, ttk-PC, ttk-PD, ttk-PE, ttk-PF, ttk-PG, ttk-PH
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ttk

Top Publications

  1. Xiong W, Montell C. tramtrack is a transcriptional repressor required for cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1085-96 pubmed
    ..We report the identification of a mutation in the Drosophila tramtrack (ttk) locus that is required for cell fate determination in the compound eye...
  2. Brown J, Sonoda S, Ueda H, Scott M, Wu C. Repression of the Drosophila fushi tarazu (ftz) segmentation gene. EMBO J. 1991;10:665-74 pubmed
    ..A putative FTZ-F2 cDNA clone isolated by recognition site screening of an expression library was found to be identical in sequence with the zinc finger protein tramtrack (Harrison and Travers, 1990).
  3. Harrison S, Travers A. The tramtrack gene encodes a Drosophila finger protein that interacts with the ftz transcriptional regulatory region and shows a novel embryonic expression pattern. EMBO J. 1990;9:207-16 pubmed
    ..We propose that the protein may function by repressing inappropriate segmentation gene transcription during embryogenesis. The gene encoding this ftz promoter-binding protein has been named tramtrack (ttk).
  4. Boyle M, Berg C. Control in time and space: Tramtrack69 cooperates with Notch and Ecdysone to repress ectopic fate and shape changes during Drosophila egg chamber maturation. Development. 2009;136:4187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the transcription factor Tramtrack69 (TTK69) controls the fates and shapes of all columnar follicle cells by integrating temporal and spatial ..
  5. Nagaraj R, Banerjee U. Regulation of Notch and Wingless signalling by phyllopod, a transcriptional target of the EGFR pathway. EMBO J. 2009;28:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this study identifies a Phyl-regulated class of endosomal vesicles that specifically include components of Notch and Wg signalling. ..
  6. Badenhorst P. Tramtrack controls glial number and identity in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2001;128:4093-101 pubmed
    ..I show that the Drosophila transcriptional repressor Tramtrack is a key repressor of neuronal fates...
  7. Pagans S, Ortiz Lombardia M, Espinás M, Bernues J, Azorín F. The Drosophila transcription factor tramtrack (TTK) interacts with Trithorax-like (GAGA) and represses GAGA-mediated activation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:4406-13 pubmed
    In this study, we report the interaction of the Drosophila transcription factors Trithorax-like (GAGA) and tramtrack (TTK)...
  8. Hirota Y, Okabe M, Imai T, Kurusu M, Yamamoto A, Miyao S, et al. Musashi and seven in absentia downregulate Tramtrack through distinct mechanisms in Drosophila eye development. Mech Dev. 1999;87:93-101 pubmed is known to be involved in the degradation of the Tramtrack (TTK) protein, leading to the specification of the R7 fate...
  9. Tang A, Neufeld T, Kwan E, Rubin G. PHYL acts to down-regulate TTK88, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal cell fates, by a SINA-dependent mechanism. Cell. 1997;90:459-67 pubmed
    We show that Tramtrack (TTK88) expression represses neuronal fate determination in the developing Drosophila eye...

More Information


  1. Jordan K, Schaeffer V, Fischer K, Gray E, Ruohola Baker H. Notch signaling through tramtrack bypasses the mitosis promoting activity of the JNK pathway in the mitotic-to-endocycle transition of Drosophila follicle cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:16 pubmed
    ..In addition, a downstream target of Notch, tramtrack, acts at the mitotic-to-endocycle transition...
  2. Farkas G, Gausz J, Galloni M, Reuter G, Gyurkovics H, Karch F. The Trithorax-like gene encodes the Drosophila GAGA factor. Nature. 1994;371:806-8 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analysis suggests that the chromatin modelling function of the GAGA factor is not restricted to promoter regions. ..
  3. Lehembre F, Badenhorst P, Muller S, Travers A, Schweisguth F, Dejean A. Covalent modification of the transcriptional repressor tramtrack by the ubiquitin-related protein Smt3 in Drosophila flies. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1072-82 pubmed
    ..Similar to its human counterpart, dSmt3 protein is observed in a punctate nuclear pattern. We demonstrate that Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69), a repressor of neuronal differentiation, is a bona fide in vivo substrate for dSmt3 conjugation...
  4. De Velasco B, Mandal L, Mkrtchyan M, Hartenstein V. Subdivision and developmental fate of the head mesoderm in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:39-51 pubmed
    ..The lSHM contributes hemocytes, as well as the nephrocytes forming the subesophageal body, also called garland cells. ..
  5. Cooper S, Murawsky C, Lowe N, Travers A. Two modes of degradation of the tramtrack transcription factors by Siah homologues. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1076-83 pubmed
    ..We show that it can direct the degradation of the transcriptional repressor Tramtrack (Ttk) using two different mechanisms...
  6. Pritchard D, Schubiger G. Activation of transcription in Drosophila embryos is a gradual process mediated by the nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1131-42 pubmed
    ..of this process is regulated by the concentration of the maternally loaded, repressing transcription factor tramtrack (ttk)...
  7. Guo M, Jan L, Jan Y. Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron. 1996;17:27-41 pubmed
    ..Notch then positively regulates a transcription factor encoded by tramtrack (ttk). This leads to Ttk expression in the daughter cell that does not inherit Numb...
  8. Hens K, Feuz J, Isakova A, Iagovitina A, Massouras A, Bryois J, et al. Automated protein-DNA interaction screening of Drosophila regulatory elements. Nat Methods. 2011;8:1065-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we biologically validated several interactions and identified two new regulators of sine oculis gene expression and hence eye development. ..
  9. Li S, Xu C, Carthew R. Phyllopod acts as an adaptor protein to link the sina ubiquitin ligase to the substrate protein tramtrack. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6854-65 pubmed
    ..of Phyllopod is induced upon Ras activation, allowing the complex to degrade the transcription repressor Tramtrack and removing its block of neuronal development in photoreceptor precursors...
  10. Lai Z, Li Y. Tramtrack69 is positively and autonomously required for Drosophila photoreceptor development. Genetics. 1999;152:299-305 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila BTB/POZ (Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad complex/Pox virus and Zinc finger) domain-containing Tramtrack (Ttk) proteins have been previously shown ..
  11. Giesen K, Hummel T, Stollewerk A, Harrison S, Travers A, Klämbt C. Glial development in the Drosophila CNS requires concomitant activation of glial and repression of neuronal differentiation genes. Development. 1997;124:2307-16 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a novel component required for all CNS glia development. The tramtrack gene encodes two zinc-finger proteins, one of which, ttkp69, is expressed in all non-neuronal CNS cells...
  12. Lai Z, Fetchko M, Li Y. Repression of Drosophila photoreceptor cell fate through cooperative action of two transcriptional repressors Yan and Tramtrack. Genetics. 1997;147:1131-7 pubmed
    ..We report here identification of tramtrack (ttk) mutations that act as dominant enhancers of yan...
  13. Murawsky C, Brehm A, Badenhorst P, Lowe N, Becker P, Travers A. Tramtrack69 interacts with the dMi-2 subunit of the Drosophila NuRD chromatin remodelling complex. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:1089-94 pubmed
    ..complex, was identified in a two-hybrid screen as an interacting partner of the transcriptional repressor, Tramtrack69 (Ttk69). A short region of Ttk69 is sufficient to mediate this interaction...
  14. Badenhorst P, Finch J, Travers A. Tramtrack co-operates to prevent inappropriate neural development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2002;117:87-101 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the BTB/POZ-domain transcriptional repressor Tramtrack (Ttk) co-operates in this repression. Ttk is expressed ubiquitously, except in proneural clusters and SOPs...
  15. Sun J, Smith L, Armento A, Deng W. Regulation of the endocycle/gene amplification switch by Notch and ecdysone signaling. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:885-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Extended Notch activity suppresses EcR activation and prevents exit from the endocycle. Tramtrack (Ttk), a zinc-finger protein essential for the switch, is regulated negatively by Notch and positively by EcR...
  16. Baonza A, Murawsky C, Travers A, Freeman M. Pointed and Tramtrack69 establish an EGFR-dependent transcriptional switch to regulate mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:976-80 pubmed
    ..Here we show that two antagonistic transcriptional regulators, Pointed, an activator, and Tramtrack69, a repressor, directly regulate the transcription of string...
  17. Lai Z, Harrison S, Karim F, Li Y, Rubin G. Loss of tramtrack gene activity results in ectopic R7 cell formation, even in a sina mutant background. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5025-30 pubmed
    ..The members of one of the identified complementation groups correspond to disruptions of the tramtrack (ttk) gene. As heterozygotes, ttk alleles increase the percentage of R7 cells in yan mutant eyes...
  18. Bajpe P, van der Knaap J, Demmers J, Bezstarosti K, Bassett A, van Beusekom H, et al. Deubiquitylating enzyme UBP64 controls cell fate through stabilization of the transcriptional repressor tramtrack. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1606-15 pubmed
    ..Using a proteomics approach, we identified the transcriptional repressor Tramtrack (TTK) as a primary UBP64 substrate...
  19. Wen Y, Nguyen D, Li Y, Lai Z. The N-terminal BTB/POZ domain and C-terminal sequences are essential for Tramtrack69 to specify cell fate in the developing Drosophila eye. Genetics. 2000;156:195-203 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that overexpression of the Tramtrack69 (Ttk69) protein not only blocks neuronal photoreceptor differentiation but also promotes nonneuronal cone cell ..
  20. Chen Y, Chiang C, Weng L, Lengyel J, Liaw G. Tramtrack69 is required for the early repression of tailless expression. Mech Dev. 2002;116:75-83 pubmed
    ..Various lines of evidence have suggested that multiple factors are required for this repression. We show that Tramtrack69 (TTK69) binds to two sites within tll cis-regulatory DNA, TC2 and TC5, and that TTK69 is phosphorylated by ..
  21. Sun J, Deng W. Hindsight mediates the role of notch in suppressing hedgehog signaling and cell proliferation. Dev Cell. 2007;12:431-42 pubmed
    ..Hindsight, along with another zinc-finger protein, Tramtrack, downregulates Hedgehog signaling through transcriptional repression of cubitus interruptus...
  22. Siddall N, Hime G, Pollock J, Batterham P. Ttk69-dependent repression of lozenge prevents the ectopic development of R7 cells in the Drosophila larval eye disc. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show a genetic interaction between Tramtrack69 (Ttk69) a key transcriptional repressor and an inhibitor of neuronal fate specification, and lz, the master ..
  23. Xu C, Kauffmann R, Zhang J, Kladny S, Carthew R. Overlapping activators and repressors delimit transcriptional response to receptor tyrosine kinase signals in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2000;103:87-97 pubmed
    ..We show that Sevenless activates prospero independent of the enhancer and involves targeted degradation of Tramtrack, a transcription repressor.
  24. Pagans S, Piñeyro D, Kosoy A, Bernues J, Azorín F. Repression by TTK69 of GAGA-mediated activation occurs in the absence of TTK69 binding to DNA and solely requires the contribution of the POZ/BTB domain of TTK69. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9725-32 pubmed
    b>tramtrack 69 (TTK69) is known to repress GAGA-mediated activation of the eve promoter in S2 cells...
  25. Li S, Li Y, Carthew R, Lai Z. Photoreceptor cell differentiation requires regulated proteolysis of the transcriptional repressor Tramtrack. Cell. 1997;90:469-78 pubmed
    The transcription repressor Tramtrack (TTK) is found in cone cells but not photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila eye...
  26. Furriols M, Casanova J. In and out of Torso RTK signalling. EMBO J. 2003;22:1947-52 pubmed
  27. Guo M, Bier E, Jan L, Jan Y. tramtrack acts downstream of numb to specify distinct daughter cell fates during asymmetric cell divisions in the Drosophila PNS. Neuron. 1995;14:913-25 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate a role of tramtrack (ttk), previously identified as a zinc finger-containing putative transcription factor, in the determination of ..
  28. Reddy B, Bajpe P, Bassett A, Moshkin Y, Kozhevnikova E, Bezstarosti K, et al. Drosophila transcription factor Tramtrack69 binds MEP1 to recruit the chromatin remodeler NuRD. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins binding the Drosophila transcription factor Tramtrack69 (TTK69) identified MEP1...
  29. French R, Cosand K, Berg C. The Drosophila female sterile mutation twin peaks is a novel allele of tramtrack and reveals a requirement for Ttk69 in epithelial morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2003;253:18-35 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene tramtrack (ttk) encodes two transcriptional repressors, Ttk69 and Ttk88, which are required for normal embryogenesis and imaginal disc development...
  30. Papatsenko D, Makeev V, Lifanov A, Regnier M, Nazina A, Desplan C. Extraction of functional binding sites from unique regulatory regions: the Drosophila early developmental enhancers. Genome Res. 2002;12:470-81 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the definition of true binding sites and the possible biological principles that govern patterning of regulatory regions and the distribution of transcriptional signals. ..
  31. Read D, Manley J. Alternatively spliced transcripts of the Drosophila tramtrack gene encode zinc finger proteins with distinct DNA binding specificities. EMBO J. 1992;11:1035-44 pubmed
    ..of a cDNA encoding this binding activity, the sequence of which identifies it as the 69 kDa zinc finger tramtrack (ttk) protein...
  32. Read D, Levine M, Manley J. Ectopic expression of the Drosophila tramtrack gene results in multiple embryonic defects, including repression of even-skipped and fushi tarazu. Mech Dev. 1992;38:183-95 pubmed
    The tramtrack (ttk) gene of Drosophila encodes 69-kDa and 88-kDa proteins through alternative splicing of the primary ttk transcript...
  33. Araújo S, Cela C, Llimargas M. Tramtrack regulates different morphogenetic events during Drosophila tracheal development. Development. 2007;134:3665-76 pubmed
    b>Tramtrack (Ttk) is a widely expressed transcription factor, the function of which has been analysed in different adult and embryonic tissues in Drosophila...
  34. Althauser C, Jordan K, Deng W, Ruohola Baker H. Fringe-dependent notch activation and tramtrack function are required for specification of the polar cells in Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:1013-20 pubmed
    ..We now demonstrate that Notch signaling, activated by Delta and transduced by the transcription factor Tramtrack, is involved in the process of refining the prepolar cell group to two polar cells...
  35. Dickson B. Photoreceptor development: breaking down the barriers. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R90-2 pubmed
    One form of the Tramtrack protein (Ttk88) acts as a general inhibitor of photoreceptor differentiation in developing Drosophila eyes...
  36. Dong X, Tsuda L, Zavitz K, Lin M, Li S, Carthew R, et al. ebi regulates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1999;13:954-65 pubmed
    ..Proteins with related structures regulate protein degradation. Similarly, in the developing eye, ebi promotes EGFR-dependent down-regulation of Tramtrack88, an antagonist of neuronal development.
  37. Chinnadurai G. CtBP, an unconventional transcriptional corepressor in development and oncogenesis. Mol Cell. 2002;9:213-24 pubmed
    ..CtBPs play important roles during development and oncogenesis. In this review, their unusual properties, the mechanisms of transcriptional repression, regulation, and their biological functions are discussed. ..
  38. Kumar J, Moses K. Transcription factors in eye development: a gorgeous mosaic?. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2023-8 pubmed
  39. Dallman J, Allopenna J, Bassett A, Travers A, Mandel G. A conserved role but different partners for the transcriptional corepressor CoREST in fly and mammalian nervous system formation. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7186-93 pubmed
    ..The gene at the center of the strategy in flies encodes the repressor Tramtrack88 (Ttk88), a protein with no discernable homology to REST but that nonetheless is able to interact with the same ..
  40. Rotstein B, Molnar D, Adryan B, Llimargas M. Tramtrack is genetically upstream of genes controlling tracheal tube size in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28985 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila transcription factor Tramtrack (Ttk) is involved in a wide range of developmental decisions, ranging from early embryonic patterning to differentiation processes in organogenesis...
  41. Brown J, Wu C. Repression of Drosophila pair-rule segmentation genes by ectopic expression of tramtrack. Development. 1993;117:45-58 pubmed
    The tramtrack (ttk) protein has been proposed as a maternally provided repressor of the fushi tarazu (ftz) gene in Drosophila embryos at the preblastoderm stage...
  42. Bauer D, Buske F, Bailey T. Dual-functioning transcription factors in the developmental gene network of Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:366 pubmed publisher
  43. Bellotto M, Bopp D, Senti K, Burke R, Deak P, Maroy P, et al. Maternal-effect loci involved in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis: P element-induced mutations on the third chromosome. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:149-57 pubmed
    ..Our collection comprises new alleles of previously characterized genes (e.g. kayak, punt, string, tramtrack)...
  44. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  45. Hummel T, Krukkert K, Roos J, Davis G, Klämbt C. Drosophila Futsch/22C10 is a MAP1B-like protein required for dendritic and axonal development. Neuron. 2000;26:357-70 pubmed
    ..Gain-of-function analyses demonstrate a functional interaction of Futsch with other MAPs. In addition, we show that during development, futsch expression is negatively regulated in nonneuronal tissues. ..
  46. Fairall L, Harrison S, Travers A, Rhodes D. Sequence-specific DNA binding by a two zinc-finger peptide from the Drosophila melanogaster Tramtrack protein. J Mol Biol. 1992;226:349-66 pubmed
    We show that the DNA-binding domain of the Drosophila melanogaster regulatory protein Tramtrack consists of a 66 amino acid sequence containing two zinc-finger motifs and a short sequence N-terminal to the first finger motif...
  47. Audibert A, Simon F, Gho M. Cell cycle diversity involves differential regulation of Cyclin E activity in the Drosophila bristle cell lineage. Development. 2005;132:2287-97 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the fate determinant factor, Tramtrack, downregulates Cyclin E expression and is probably involved in the exit of the cells from the cell cycle.
  48. Okabe M, Imai T, Kurusu M, Hiromi Y, Okano H. Translational repression determines a neuronal potential in Drosophila asymmetric cell division. Nature. 2001;411:94-8 pubmed
    ..directs the asymmetry between neuronal and non-neuronal lineages, and a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor Tramtrack69 (TTK69) acts downstream of Notch as a determinant of non-neuronal identity...
  49. Schweisguth F. Dominant-negative mutation in the beta2 and beta6 proteasome subunit genes affect alternative cell fate decisions in the Drosophila sense organ lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11382-6 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that the proteasome targets an active form of the Notch receptor for degradation in Drosophila. ..
  50. Harbison S, Sehgal A. Quantitative genetic analysis of sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;178:2341-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The large mutational target that we observed implicates genes functioning in a variety of biological processes, suggesting that sleep may serve a number of different functions rather than a single purpose. ..
  51. Chen J, Call G, Beyer E, Bui C, Cespedes A, Chan A, et al. Discovery-based science education: functional genomic dissection in Drosophila by undergraduate researchers. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e59 pubmed
  52. Jones B. Transcriptional control of glial cell development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;278:265-73 pubmed
  53. Hwang H, Rulifson E. Serial specification of diverse neuroblast identities from a neurogenic placode by Notch and Egfr signaling. Development. 2011;138:2883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the surprising parallels between the serial specification of neural fates from this neurogenic placode and the fly retina. ..
  54. Rubin G, Chang H, Karim F, Laverty T, Michaud N, Morrison D, et al. Signal transduction downstream from Ras in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:347-52 pubmed
  55. Charng W, Yamamoto S, Jaiswal M, Bayat V, Xiong B, Zhang K, et al. Drosophila Tempura, a novel protein prenyltransferase ? subunit, regulates notch signaling via Rab1 and Rab11. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001777 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Tempura functions as a new geranylgeranyltransferase that regulates the subcellular localization of Rab1 and Rab11, which in turn regulate trafficking of Scabrous and Delta, thereby affecting Notch signaling. ..
  56. Chen Y, Lin S, Chen Y, Chiang C, Liaw G. The Torso signaling pathway modulates a dual transcriptional switch to regulate tailless expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1061-72 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the repressors identified so far, such as Capicuo, Groucho and Tramtrack69 (Ttk69), bind to the tor response element (tor-RE) or fully elucidate tll repression...
  57. Kopan R, Turner D. The Notch pathway: democracy and aristocracy in the selection of cell fate. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6:594-601 pubmed
    ..Molecular models for Notch-mediated cell-fate selection within groups of developmentally equivalent cells are presented. ..