Gene Symbol: tsl
Description: torso-like
Alias: CG6705, Dm-tsl, Dmel\CG6705, Tsl, fs(3)00617, torso-like, CG6705-PA, CG6705-PB, CG6705-PC, Torso-like, fs(3)torso-like, torso like, torsolike, tsl-PA, tsl-PB, tsl-PC
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Struhl G, Johnston P, Lawrence P. Control of Drosophila body pattern by the hunchback morphogen gradient. Cell. 1992;69:237-249 pubmed
    ..Thus, hb protein functions as a classical morphogen, triggering several distinct responses as a function of its graded distribution. ..
  2. Martin J, Ollo R. A new Drosophila Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (Caki) is localized in the central nervous system and implicated in walking speed. EMBO J. 1996;15:1865-76 pubmed
    ..In the adult head, immunohistochemistry reveals Caki protein in the lamina, the neuropil of the medulla, lobula, lobula plate and in the central brain. Mutant caki flies show reduced walking speed in 'Buridan's paradigm'. ..
  3. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Simões S, Röper J, Eaton S, Zallen J. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells. Dev Cell. 2009;17:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in a positive feedback loop that leads to multicellular actomyosin cable formation and efficient tissue elongation. ..
  4. Stevens L, Beuchle D, Jurcsak J, Tong X, Stein D. The Drosophila embryonic patterning determinant torsolike is a component of the eggshell. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1058-63 pubmed
    ..The spatial regulation of Trk processing is thought to be mediated by the secreted product of the torsolike (tsl) gene, which is expressed during oogenesis by a specialized population of follicle cells present at the two ..
  5. Furriols M, Ventura G, Casanova J. Two distinct but convergent groups of cells trigger Torso receptor tyrosine kinase activation by independently expressing torso-like. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11660-5 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate how independently acquired expression of a signaling molecule can constitute a mechanism by which distinct groups of cells act together in the activation of a signaling pathway. ..
  6. Ventura G, Furriols M, Martin N, Barbosa V, Casanova J. closca, a new gene required for both Torso RTK activation and vitelline membrane integrity. Germline proteins contribute to Drosophila eggshell composition. Dev Biol. 2010;344:224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation also provides a new scenario that accounts for the long known contribution of germline products to vitelline membrane biogenesis and to the follicle cell-dependent activation of the Torso receptor...
  7. Blankenship J, Backovic S, Sanny J, Weitz O, Zallen J. Multicellular rosette formation links planar cell polarity to tissue morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;11:459-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that the generation of higher-order rosette structures links local cell interactions to global tissue reorganization during morphogenesis. ..
  8. Jiménez G, González Reyes A, Casanova J. Cell surface proteins Nasrat and Polehole stabilize the Torso-like extracellular determinant in Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Dev. 2002;16:913-8 pubmed
    ..Stabilization of secreted factors by specialized pericellular proteins may be a general mechanism during signaling and developmental patterning. ..
  9. Furriols M, Casanova J. In and out of Torso RTK signalling. EMBO J. 2003;22:1947-52 pubmed

More Information


  1. Furriols M, Casali A, Casanova J. Dissecting the mechanism of torso receptor activation. Mech Dev. 1998;70:111-8 pubmed
    ..how this signal is generated, although it is known to depend on the activity of many genes such as torso-like (tsl) and trunk (trk)...
  2. Casali A, Casanova J. The spatial control of Torso RTK activation: a C-terminal fragment of the Trunk protein acts as a signal for Torso receptor in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:1709-15 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that the restricted activation of the torso receptor is defined by the spatial control of the proteolytic processing of the trunk protein. ..
  3. Martin J, Raibaud A, Ollo R. Terminal pattern elements in Drosophila embryo induced by the torso-like protein. Nature. 1994;367:741-5 pubmed
    The genes torso (tor) and torso-like (tsl) are two of the Drosophila maternal group genes implicated in a receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway that specifies terminal cell fate (reviewed in ref. 3)...
  4. Savant Bhonsale S, Montell D. torso-like encodes the localized determinant of Drosophila terminal pattern formation. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2548-55 pubmed
    ..and posterior poles of the Drosophila embryo requires seven maternally expressed genes including torso-like (tsl) and torso (tor)...
  5. Siegfried E, Ambrosio L, Perrimon N. Serine/threonine protein kinases in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1990;6:357-62 pubmed
    ..This review discusses these recent findings and describes the potential for genetic analyses of kinase activity and signal transduction. ..
  6. Rahimi N, Averbukh I, Haskel Ittah M, Degani N, Schejter E, Barkai N, et al. A WntD-Dependent Integral Feedback Loop Attenuates Variability in Drosophila Toll Signaling. Dev Cell. 2016;36:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This circuit exemplifies a broadly applicable induction-contraction mechanism, which reduces patterning variability through a restricted morphogen-dependent expression of a secreted diffusible inhibitor. ..
  7. Zhang S, Xu L, Lee J, Xu T. Drosophila atrophin homolog functions as a transcriptional corepressor in multiple developmental processes. Cell. 2002;108:45-56 pubmed
    ..We propose that Atrophin proteins function as versatile transcriptional corepressors and discuss a model that deregulation of transcription may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. ..
  8. Casanova J. Developmental evolution: torso--a story with different ends?. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R968-70 pubmed
    ..Now, it has been found to control axis elongation in the short germ insect Tribolium. This result raises the issue of the ancestral function of the Torso pathway and its evolution. ..
  9. Sprenger F, Trosclair M, Morrison D. Biochemical analysis of torso and D-raf during Drosophila embryogenesis: implications for terminal signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:1163-72 pubmed
    ..This report provides the first biochemical analysis of the terminal signal transduction pathway in Drosophila embryos. ..
  10. Van Doren M, Williamson A, Lehmann R. Regulation of zygotic gene expression in Drosophila primordial germ cells. Curr Biol. 1998;8:243-6 pubmed
    ..This expression does not require proper patterning of the soma, indicating that it is likely to be controlled by the germ plasm. ..
  11. Helman A, Cinnamon E, Mezuman S, Hayouka Z, Von Ohlen T, Orian A, et al. Phosphorylation of Groucho mediates RTK feedback inhibition and prolonged pathway target gene expression. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, in this manner, phosphorylation of Groucho enables transiently active RTK pathways to fix the spatiotemporal expression profiles of downstream targets over time. ..
  12. Tsuda L, Inoue Y, Yoo M, Mizuno M, Hata M, Lim Y, et al. A protein kinase similar to MAP kinase activator acts downstream of the raf kinase in Drosophila. Cell. 1993;72:407-14 pubmed
    ..Our genetic results demonstrate the connection between raf and the highly conserved protein kinase cascade involving MAP kinase in vivo. ..
  13. Mineo A, Furriols M, Casanova J. Accumulation of the Drosophila Torso-like protein at the blastoderm plasma membrane suggests that it translocates from the eggshell. Development. 2015;142:1299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..This process relies on the restricted expression of the gene torso-like (tsl) in subpopulations of follicle cells during oogenesis and its protein accumulation at both poles of the eggshell, ..
  14. Jack T, McGinnis W. Establishment of the Deformed expression stripe requires the combinatorial action of coordinate, gap and pair-rule proteins. EMBO J. 1990;9:1187-98 pubmed
    ..In addition, the activation code for Deformed is redundant; other pair-rule genes in addition to even-skipped can apparently act in combination with bicoid and hunchback to activate Deformed. ..
  15. Lye C, Blanchard G, Naylor H, Muresan L, Huisken J, Adams R, et al. Mechanical Coupling between Endoderm Invagination and Axis Extension in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002292 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that apical constriction leading to endoderm invagination is the source of the extrinsic force contributing to germband extension. This highlights the importance of physical interactions between tissues during morphogenesis. ..
  16. Brent A, Yucel G, Small S, Desplan C. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo. Science. 2007;315:1841-3 pubmed
  17. Stein D, Stevens L. Establishment of dorsal-ventral and terminal pattern in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1991;1:247-54 pubmed
  18. Forbes Beadle L, Crossman T, Johnson T, Burke R, Warr C, Whisstock J. Development of the Cellular Immune System of Drosophila Requires the Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin-Like Protein Torso-Like. Genetics. 2016;204:675-681 pubmed
    ..Together these data suggest that Torso-like plays an important role in controlling the development of the Drosophila cellular immune system. ..
  19. Duncan E, Benton M, Dearden P. Canonical terminal patterning is an evolutionary novelty. Dev Biol. 2013;377:245-61 pubmed publisher
  20. Jacob Y, Sather S, Martin J, Ollo R. Analysis of Krüppel control elements reveals that localized expression results from the interaction of multiple subelements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:5912-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, a protein instability motif encoded in the second exon appears to be important for resetting the dynamic Kr pattern. ..
  21. Pelegri F, Lehmann R. A role of polycomb group genes in the regulation of gap gene expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 1994;136:1341-53 pubmed
    ..Because Pc-G genes are thought to control gene expression by regulating chromatin, we propose that imprinting at the chromatin level underlies the determination of anteroposterior polarity in the early embryo. ..
  22. Greenwood S, Struhl G. Different levels of Ras activity can specify distinct transcriptional and morphological consequences in early Drosophila embryos. Development. 1997;124:4879-86 pubmed
  23. Duffy J, Harrison D, Perrimon N. Identifying loci required for follicular patterning using directed mosaics. Development. 1998;125:2263-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, using different UAS-FLP, GAL4 and existing FRT lines, we have built stocks that permit the analysis of approximately 95% of the genome in follicular mosaics. ..
  24. Small S, Blair A, Levine M. Regulation of two pair-rule stripes by a single enhancer in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1996;175:314-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a general model for the regulation of segmentation stripes, whereby enhancers integrate positional information provided by broadly distributed activators and spatially restricted repressors. ..
  25. Reuter R, Leptin M. Interacting functions of snail, twist and huckebein during the early development of germ layers in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1137-50 pubmed
    ..We suggest that mesodermal fate is determined where sna and twi but not hkb are expressed. Anteriorly hkb together with sna determines endodermal fate, and hkb together with sna and twi are required for foregut development. ..
  26. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  27. Perrimon N, Desplan C. Signal transduction in the early Drosophila embryo: when genetics meets biochemistry. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:509-13 pubmed
    ..This pathway involves a membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is similar to other Drosophila RTKs, such as sevenless, and the mammalian RTKs, such as the epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor receptors. ..
  28. Merabet S, Catala F, Pradel J, Graba Y. A green fluorescent protein reporter genetic screen that identifies modifiers of Hox gene function in the Drosophila embryo. Genetics. 2002;162:189-202 pubmed
    ..Five of them encode products acting in or in connection with signal transduction pathways, which suggests an extensive use of signaling in the control of Hox gene function. ..
  29. Pae J, Cinalli R, Marzio A, Pagano M, Lehmann R. GCL and CUL3 Control the Switch between Cell Lineages by Mediating Localized Degradation of an RTK. Dev Cell. 2017;42:130-142.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..This precisely orchestrated mechanism of CRL3GCL function and regulation defines cell fate at the single-cell level. ..
  30. Cinnamon E, Gur Wahnon D, Helman A, St Johnston D, Jiménez G, Paroush Z. Capicua integrates input from two maternal systems in Drosophila terminal patterning. EMBO J. 2004;23:4571-82 pubmed
  31. Schulz C, Tautz D. Zygotic caudal regulation by hunchback and its role in abdominal segment formation of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1995;121:1023-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that cad is the so far missing region-specific activator of abdominal segmentation genes. ..
  32. Johnson T, Henstridge M, Herr A, Moore K, Whisstock J, Warr C. Torso-like mediates extracellular accumulation of Furin-cleaved Trunk to pattern the Drosophila embryo termini. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8759 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data represent an alternative mechanism for the spatial control of receptor signalling, and define a different role for perforin-like proteins in eukaryotes. ..
  33. Conte V, Ulrich F, Baum B, Munoz J, Veldhuis J, Brodland W, et al. A biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34473 pubmed publisher
  34. Pope K, Harris T. Control of cell flattening and junctional remodeling during squamous epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:2227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis revealed that Myosin II and Bazooka cooperate to properly position adherens junctions. These results identify a specific cellular mechanism of squamous tissue morphogenesis and molecular interactions involved. ..
  35. Montell D. Command and control: regulatory pathways controlling invasive behavior of the border cells. Mech Dev. 2001;105:19-25 pubmed
    ..This may contribute to the metastatic effects of steroid hormones on certain cancers and the inhibition of metastasis by steroid hormone antagonists such as tamoxifen. ..
  36. Nishida Y, Inoue Y, Tsuda L, Adachi Yamada T, Lim Y, Hata M, et al. The Raf/MAP kinase cascade in cell cycle regulation and differentiation in Drosophila. Cell Struct Funct. 1996;21:437-44 pubmed
  37. Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Schedl P. Overlapping mechanisms function to establish transcriptional quiescence in the embryonic Drosophila germline. Development. 2004;131:1247-57 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, pgc is required to establish a repressive chromatin architecture in pole cells. ..
  38. Henstridge M, Johnson T, Warr C, Whisstock J. Trunk cleavage is essential for Drosophila terminal patterning and can occur independently of Torso-like. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3419 pubmed publisher
    ..must be cleaved in order to bind Tor, and that these proteolytic events are controlled by secretion of Torso-like (Tsl) only at the embryo poles...
  39. Nüsslein Volhard C. The bicoid morphogen papers (I): account from CNV. Cell. 2004;116:S1-5, 2 p following S9 pubmed
  40. da Silva S, Vincent J. Oriented cell divisions in the extending germband of Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:3049-54 pubmed
    ..An alternative means of planar polarisation must therefore be at work in the embryonic epidermis. ..
  41. Rusch J, Levine M. Regulation of the dorsal morphogen by the Toll and torso signaling pathways: a receptor tyrosine kinase selectively masks transcriptional repression. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1247-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that RTK signaling pathways can control gene expression by antirepression, and that multiple pathways can fine-tune the activities of a single transcription factor. ..
  42. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Zallen J. Oscillatory behaviors and hierarchical assembly of contractile structures in intercalating cells. Phys Biol. 2011;8:045005 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss models to explain how the architecture of cytoskeletal networks regulates their contractile behavior and the mechanisms that give rise to oscillatory cell behaviors in intercalating cells...
  43. Johnson T, Moore K, Whisstock J, Warr C. Maternal Torso-Like Coordinates Tissue Folding During Drosophila Gastrulation. Genetics. 2017;206:1459-1468 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the perforin-like protein Torso-like (Tsl), the key extracellular determinant for Drosophila embryonic terminal patterning, also functions to control ..
  44. Bellaiche Y, Bandyopadhyay R, Desplan C, Dostatni N. Neither the homeodomain nor the activation domain of Bicoid is specifically required for its down-regulation by the Torso receptor tyrosine kinase cascade. Development. 1996;122:3499-508 pubmed
    ..We propose that Torso does not affect the ability of Bcd to bind DNA, but instead directs modification of Bcd or of a potential Bcd co-factor, which renders the Bcd protein unable to activate transcription. ..
  45. Sauer F, Rivera Pomar R, Hoch M, Jackle H. Gene regulation in the Drosophila embryo. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1996;351:579-87 pubmed
  46. McGuire S, Roman G, Davis R. Gene expression systems in Drosophila: a synthesis of time and space. Trends Genet. 2004;20:384-91 pubmed
  47. Wang Y, Khan Z, Wieschaus E. Distinct Rap1 activity states control the extent of epithelial invagination via ?-catenin. Dev Cell. 2013;25:299-309 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby distinct activity states of Rap1 modulate ?-catenin-dependent coupling between junctions and actin to control the extent of epithelial invagination. ..
  48. Cinnamon E, Helman A, Ben Haroush Schyr R, Orian A, Jiménez G, Paroush Z. Multiple RTK pathways downregulate Groucho-mediated repression in Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2008;135:829-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that phosphorylation of Groucho provides a widespread, long-term mechanism by which RTK signals control target gene expression. ..
  49. Nishida Y. [Oncogene research using Drosophila as a model system]. Jpn J Genet. 1990;65:121-34 pubmed
  50. Liu F, Morrison A, Gregor T. Dynamic interpretation of maternal inputs by the Drosophila segmentation gene network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6724-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Martin A, Gelbart M, Fernandez Gonzalez R, Kaschube M, Wieschaus E. Integration of contractile forces during tissue invagination. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:735-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, pulsed actomyosin contractions require a supracellular, tensile meshwork to transmit cellular forces to the tissue level during morphogenesis. ..
  52. Stegmaier J, Amat F, Lemon W, McDole K, Wan Y, Teodoro G, et al. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Cell Segmentation in Large-Scale Microscopy Data of Developing Embryos. Dev Cell. 2016;36:225-40 pubmed publisher
    ..4 days. RACE is easy to use, as it requires adjustment of only three parameters, takes full advantage of state-of-the-art multi-core processors and graphics cards, and is available as open-source software for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS. ..
  53. Bronner G, Jackle H. Control and function of terminal gap gene activity in the posterior pole region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1991;35:205-11 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, suggests that the terminal gap gene activities prevent metamerization by repression of central gap genes, thereby distinguishing the segmented trunk from the nonsegmented tail region of the embryo. ..
  54. Casanova J, Struhl G. Localized surface activity of torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase, specifies terminal body pattern in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1989;3:2025-38 pubmed
  55. LeMosy E. Pattern formation: the eggshell holds the cue. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R508-10 pubmed
    Recent data indicate that Torsolike, a spatial cue for patterning terminal structures of a Drosophila embryo, is stably anchored in the fruitfly eggshell; an as yet unidentified factor is required for the high activity of Torsolike at ..
  56. Schulz C, Tautz D. Autonomous concentration-dependent activation and repression of Krüppel by hunchback in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1994;120:3043-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that the artificially created hunchback gradient can organize a large part of the segment pattern, although it is expressed at a different position and in a different shape than the wild-type gradient of hunchback. ..
  57. Nusslein Volhard C, Frohnhofer H, Lehmann R. Determination of anteroposterior polarity in Drosophila. Science. 1987;238:1675-81 pubmed
    ..Mutants in these genes lack either the anterior or posterior part of the segmented pattern. The unsegmented terminal embryonic regions require a third class of genes and form independently of the anterior and posterior centers. ..
  58. Schaeffer V, Killian D, Desplan C, Wimmer E. High bicoid levels render the terminal system dispensable for Drosophila head development. Development. 2000;127:3993-9 pubmed
    ..This observation is consistent with a recent evolution of an anterior morphogenetic center consisting of Bcd and anterior Tor function. ..
  59. Lu X, Perkins L, Perrimon N. The torso pathway in Drosophila: a model system to study receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction. Dev Suppl. 1993;:47-56 pubmed
    ..Also involved in tor signaling is the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew (csw). Here, we review the current model and discuss future research directions in this field. ..
  60. Brodland G, Conte V, Cranston P, Veldhuis J, Narasimhan S, Hutson M, et al. Video force microscopy reveals the mechanics of ventral furrow invagination in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..VFM shows that in mutants with reduced junction integrity and myosin II activity, the driving forces are reduced, thus accounting for ventral furrow failure. ..
  61. Pawson T, Bernstein A. Receptor tyrosine kinases: genetic evidence for their role in Drosophila and mouse development. Trends Genet. 1990;6:350-6 pubmed
  62. Grillo M, Furriols M, de Miguel C, Franch Marro X, Casanova J. Conserved and divergent elements in Torso RTK activation in Drosophila development. Sci Rep. 2012;2:762 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of these mechanisms is likely to allow the repeated activation of a single receptor in different contexts. ..
  63. Johnson T, Crossman T, Foote K, Henstridge M, Saligari M, Forbes Beadle L, et al. Torso-like functions independently of Torso to regulate Drosophila growth and developmental timing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14688-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Tor) only at the termini of the embryo is achieved by the localized expression of the maternal gene Torso-like (Tsl)...
  64. Paroush Z, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Torso signalling regulates terminal patterning in Drosophila by antagonising Groucho-mediated repression. Development. 1997;124:3827-34 pubmed
    ..We show that torso signalling permits terminal gap gene expression by antagonising Gro-mediated repression. Thus, the corepressor Gro is employed in diverse developmental contexts and, probably, by a variety of DNA-binding repressors. ..
  65. Tsai C, Kramer S, Gergen J. Pair-rule gene runt restricts orthodenticle expression to the presumptive head of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Genet. 1998;23:35-44 pubmed
  66. Ambrosio L, Mahowald A, Perrimon N. l(1)pole hole is required maternally for pattern formation in the terminal regions of the embryo. Development. 1989;106:145-58 pubmed
    ..Thus, the maternal l(1)ph+ gene product is required for the establishment of cell identities at the anterior and posterior poles of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  67. de Las Heras J, Casanova J. Spatially distinct downregulation of Capicua repression and tailless activation by the Torso RTK pathway in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2006;123:481-6 pubmed
    ..These data provide new insights into the mode of action of the Torso signalling pathway and on the events patterning the early Drosophila embryo. ..
  68. Zallen J, Wieschaus E. Patterned gene expression directs bipolar planar polarity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;6:343-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that spatial patterns of gene expression coordinate planar polarity across a multicellular population through the localized distribution of proteins required for cell movement. ..
  69. Bier E. Localized activation of RTK/MAPK pathways during Drosophila development. Bioessays. 1998;20:189-94 pubmed
    ..The ability to visualize the output of RTK signaling also permits detailed establishment of epistatic relationships between signaling components of RTK cascades. ..
  70. Farge E. Mechanical induction of Twist in the Drosophila foregut/stomodeal primordium. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1365-77 pubmed
    ..I propose that anterior-gut formation is mechanically induced by the movement of germ-band extension through the induction of Twist expression in stomodeal cells. ..
  71. Berezhkovskii A, Coppey M, Shvartsman S. Signaling gradients in cascades of two-state reaction-diffusion systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1087-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state concentration profiles of mobile and immobile particles and analyze how the output of a cascade is controlled by properties of the constituent stages. ..
  72. Blankenship J, Wieschaus E. Two new roles for the Drosophila AP patterning system in early morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5129-38 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore suggest a link between cytoskeletal organization during cellularization and subsequent morphogenetic processes of gastrulation. ..
  73. Panousopoulou E, Green J. Spindle orientation processes in epithelial growth and organisation. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;34:124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Coupling between growth perpendicular to and within epithelial planes is recognised, but so are exceptions, as is the often passive role of spindle orientation sometimes hitherto considered to be an active driver of directional growth. ..
  74. Gaul U, Jackle H. Role of gap genes in early Drosophila development. Adv Genet. 1990;27:239-75 pubmed
  75. Gabay L, Seger R, Shilo B. MAP kinase in situ activation atlas during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1997;124:3535-41 pubmed
    ..Since the antibody was raised against the phosphorylated form of a conserved ERK peptide containing the TEY motif, this approach is applicable to a wide spectrum of multicellular organisms. ..
  76. Casanova J, Struhl G. The torso receptor localizes as well as transduces the spatial signal specifying terminal body pattern in Drosophila. Nature. 1993;362:152-5 pubmed
    ..Ligand trapping by receptor may also localize spatial signals in other patterning systems, including specification of the dorsal-ventral axis in Drosophila and of vulval cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. ..
  77. Amarnath S, Stevens L, Stein D. Reconstitution of Torso signaling in cultured cells suggests a role for both Trunk and Torso-like in receptor activation. Development. 2017;144:677-686 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Torso interacts with both Trunk and Torso-like, which cooperate to mediate dimerization and activation of Torso at the ends of the Drosophila embryo. ..