Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: trol
Description: terribly reduced optic lobes
Alias: BcDNA:GM02481, CG12497, CG33675, CG33950, CG7981, CT23996, Dmel\CG33950, EG:BACR25B3.1, EG:BACR25B3.10, EG:BACR25B3.11, EG:BACR25B3.2, GC7891, MRE7, Pcan, TROL, Trol, Trol-A, Trol-B, Troll, ZW-1, anon-WO0153538.72, l(1)3Ac, l(1)9-96, l(1)G0023, l(1)G0271, l(1)G0374, l(1)VA51, l(1)trol, l(1)zw1, l(1)zwl, pcan, troll, zw-1, zw1, terribly reduced optic lobes, CG33950-PAE, CG33950-PAF, CG33950-PAG, CG33950-PAH, CG33950-PAI, CG33950-PAK, CG33950-PAL, CG33950-PAM, CG33950-PAN, CG33950-PAO, CG33950-PAP, CG33950-PAQ, CG33950-PAR, CG33950-PAS, CG33950-PAT, CG33950-PAU, CG33950-PAV, CG33950-PAW, CG33950-PAX, CG33950-PAY, CG33950-PAZ, CG33950-PBA, Trol/perlecan, dPerlecan, lethal (1) G0023, lethal (1) G0271, lethal (1) G0374, mRNA-like ncRNA in embryogenesis 7, perlecan, trol-PAE, trol-PAF, trol-PAG, trol-PAH, trol-PAI, trol-PAK, trol-PAL, trol-PAM, trol-PAN, trol-PAO, trol-PAP, trol-PAQ, trol-PAR, trol-PAS, trol-PAT, trol-PAU, trol-PAV, trol-PAW, trol-PAX, trol-PAY, trol-PAZ, trol-PBA
Species: fruit fly
- Pastor Pareja J, Xu T. Shaping cells and organs in Drosophila by opposing roles of fat body-secreted Collagen IV and perlecan. Dev Cell. 2011;21:245-56 pubmed publisher..of Collagen IV determines organ shape, first by mechanically constricting cells and second through recruitment of Perlecan, which counters constriction by Collagen IV...
- Schneider M, Khalil A, Poulton J, Castillejo Lopez C, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A, et al. Perlecan and Dystroglycan act at the basal side of the Drosophila follicular epithelium to maintain epithelial organization. Development. 2006;133:3805-15 pubmed..Using the Drosophila follicle-cell epithelium (FCE) as a model system, we show that the ECM molecule Perlecan (Pcan) is required for maintenance of epithelial-cell polarity...
- Park Y, Rangel C, Reynolds M, Caldwell M, Johns M, Nayak M, et al. Drosophila perlecan modulates FGF and hedgehog signals to activate neural stem cell division. Dev Biol. 2003;253:247-57 pubmed..Here, we show that trol encodes the Drosophila homolog of Perlecan and regulates neuroblast division by modulating both FGF and Hh signaling...
- Park Y, Ng C, Datta S. Induction of string rescues the neuroblast proliferation defect in trol mutant animals. Genesis. 2003;36:187-95 pubmedIn trol mutants, neuroblasts fail to exit G1 for S phase. Increasing string expression in trol mutants rescues the number of S phase neuroblasts without an increase in M phase neuroblasts...
- Voigt A, Pflanz R, Schäfer U, Jackle H. Perlecan participates in proliferation activation of quiescent Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Dyn. 2002;224:403-12 pubmed..proliferation in the central nervous system (CNS), including anachronism (ana), even skipped (eve) and terribly reduced optic lobes (trol)...
- Hayashi Y, Sexton T, Dejima K, Perry D, Takemura M, Kobayashi S, et al. Glypicans regulate JAK/STAT signaling and distribution of the Unpaired morphogen. Development. 2012;139:4162-71 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we establish the follicular epithelium as a new model for morphogen signaling in complex organ development. ..
- Medioni C, Astier M, Zmojdzian M, Jagla K, Semeriva M. Genetic control of cell morphogenesis during Drosophila melanogaster cardiac tube formation. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:249-61 pubmed publisher..We suggest that this new example of tube formation may be helpful in studying vertebrate heart tube formation and primary vasculogenesis. ..
- Urbano J, Torgler C, Molnar C, Tepass U, López Varea A, Brown N, et al. Drosophila laminins act as key regulators of basement membrane assembly and morphogenesis. Development. 2009;136:4165-76 pubmed publisher..Accordingly, abnormal accumulation of major basement membrane components, such as Collagen IV and Perlecan, is observed in mutant tissues...
- Datta S, Kankel D. l(1)trol and l(1)devl, loci affecting the development of the adult central nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1992;130:523-37 pubmed..Two of these, including one that is allelic to l(1)zw1, were chosen for further analysis.
- Park Y, Fujioka M, Jaynes J, Datta S. Drosophila homeobox gene eve enhances trol, an activator of neuroblast proliferation in the larval CNS. Dev Genet. 1998;23:247-57 pubmed..Stem cell division in the Drosophila brain is controlled by trol, which is required for activation of proliferation by quiescent neuroblasts at the appropriate stage of larval ..
- Garcia Bellido A, Robbins L. Viability of Female Germ-Line Cells Homozygous for Zygotic Lethals in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1983;103:235-47 pubmed..The abundance of genes whose products are required for oogenesis, whose products are required in the oocyte, and whose activity is required during zygotic development is discussed. ..
- Peter A, Schöttler P, Werner M, Beinert N, Dowe G, Burkert P, et al. Mapping and identification of essential gene functions on the X chromosome of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:34-8 pubmed..The distribution of the P element integration sites, the identified genes and transcription units as well as the expression patterns of the P-element-tagged enhancers is described and discussed. ..
- Princivalle M, de Agostini A. Developmental roles of heparan sulfate proteoglycans: a comparative review in Drosophila, mouse and human. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:267-78 pubmed
- Brandt S, Jaramillo Gutierrez G, Kumar S, Barillas Mury C, Schneider D. Use of a Drosophila model to identify genes regulating Plasmodium growth in the mosquito. Genetics. 2008;180:1671-8 pubmed publisher..Loss of function of four of these genes in the mosquito affected Plasmodium growth, suggesting that Drosophila can be used effectively as a surrogate mosquito to identify relevant host factors in the mosquito. ..
- Yan D, Lin X. Drosophila glypican Dally-like acts in FGF-receiving cells to modulate FGF signaling during tracheal morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;312:203-16 pubmed..This mechanism is distinct from HSPG functions in morphogen distribution, and is likely a general paradigm for HSPG functions in FGF signaling in Drosophila. ..
- Hong X, Doddapaneni H, Comeron J, Rodesch M, Halvensleben H, Nien C, et al. Microarray-based capture of novel expressed cell type-specific transfrags (CoNECT) to annotate tissue-specific transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:873-82 pubmed publisher..Ovary and testis isotigs over 200 bp have been deposited with the GenBank Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database as bioproject no.PRJNA89451 (accession nos. JV208106–JV230865). ..
- Judd B, Shen M, Kaufman T. The anatomy and function of a segment of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;71:139-56 pubmed..The data clearly show one functional group per chromomere. It is postulated that a chromomere is one cistron within which much of the DNA is regulatory in function. ..
- Brooks A, Yang L, Duff M, Hansen K, Park J, Dudoit S, et al. Conservation of an RNA regulatory map between Drosophila and mammals. Genome Res. 2011;21:193-202 pubmed publisher..This observation suggests that the regulatory codes of individual RNA binding proteins may be nearly immutable, yet the regulatory modules controlled by these proteins are highly evolvable. ..
- Schneider M, Baumgartner S. Differential expression of Dystroglycan-spliceforms with and without the mucin-like domain during Drosophila embryogenesis. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:29-35 pubmed..glycosylation in the mucin-like domain of DG, which is required for binding of the ECM molecules Laminin and Perlecan. In epithelial cells, reduced expression of DG is associated with increased invasiveness of cancer cells and loss ..
- Kemppainen E, Fernández Ayala D, Galbraith L, O Dell K, Jacobs H. Phenotypic suppression of the Drosophila mitochondrial disease-like mutant tko(25t) by duplication of the mutant gene in its natural chromosomal context. Mitochondrion. 2009;9:353-63 pubmed publisher..Increased mutant gene dosage can thus compensate the mutant phenotype, but only when located in its normal chromosomal context. ..
- Montgomery E, Huang S, Langley C, Judd B. Chromosome rearrangement by ectopic recombination in Drosophila melanogaster: genome structure and evolution. Genetics. 1991;129:1085-98 pubmed
- Goldberg M, Colvin R, Mellin A. The Drosophila zeste locus is nonessential. Genetics. 1989;123:145-55 pubmed..This suggests that the zeste protein normally is either a very weak transcription factor, or that its function can be substituted by that of other regulatory proteins. ..
- Devergne O, Tsung K, Barcelo G, Schupbach T. Polarized deposition of basement membrane proteins depends on Phosphatidylinositol synthase and the levels of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7689-94 pubmed publisher..We propose that PIP2, through the control of Crag's subcellular localization, restricts the secretion of BM proteins to the basal side. ..
- Beck E, Gasque G, Imlach W, Jiao W, Jiwon Choi B, Wu P, et al. Regulation of Fasciclin II and synaptic terminal development by the splicing factor beag. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7058-73 pubmed publisher..beag and dsmu1 mutants demonstrate an essential role for these previously uncharacterized splicing factors in the regulation of synapse development and function. ..
- Campbell J, Gu Q, Guo D, Nash H. Genetic effects in Drosophila on the potency of diverse general anesthetics: a distinctive pattern of altered sensitivity. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:412-21 pubmed publisher..Intriguingly, P element insertions that co-map with several NEP loci have been shown to alter the fly's response to cocaine and ethanol, suggesting that common genetic elements are involved in the response to all three drugs. ..
- Fay A, Misulovin Z, Li J, Schaaf C, Gause M, Gilmour D, et al. Cohesin selectively binds and regulates genes with paused RNA polymerase. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1624-34 pubmed publisher..Our findings argue that cohesin and pausing factors are recruited independently to the same genes, perhaps by GAF and the GT repeats, and that their combined action determines the level of actively elongating RNA polymerase. ..
- Barrett A, Krueger S, Datta S. Branchless and Hedgehog operate in a positive feedback loop to regulate the initiation of neuroblast division in the Drosophila larval brain. Dev Biol. 2008;317:234-45 pubmed publisher..These studies establish the molecular mechanism through which Branchless and Hedgehog signaling interface to regulate the activation of neural stem cell division. ..
- Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. The effects of zygotic lethal mutations on female germ-line functions in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1984;105:404-14 pubmed..Three loci were found which, in germ-line clones, produced embryonic phenotypes that resemble maternal effect mutations. The implications of this study for the genetic analysis of early development are discussed. ..
- Susic Jung L, Hornbruch Freitag C, Kuckwa J, Rexer K, Lammel U, Renkawitz Pohl R. Multinucleated smooth muscles and mononucleated as well as multinucleated striated muscles develop during establishment of the male reproductive organs of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2012;370:86-97 pubmed publisher
- Kamimura K, Ueno K, Nakagawa J, Hamada R, Saitoe M, Maeda N. Perlecan regulates bidirectional Wnt signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:219-33 pubmed publisher..In this paper, we demonstrate that mutations in the gene of a secreted HSPG, perlecan/trol, resulted in diverse postsynaptic defects and overproduction of synaptic boutons at NMJ...
- Murakami S, Umetsu D, Maeyama Y, Sato M, Yoshida S, Tabata T. Focal adhesion kinase controls morphogenesis of the Drosophila optic stalk. Development. 2007;134:1539-48 pubmed..Hence the optic stalk is a simple monolayered structure that can serve as an ideal system for studying glial cell morphogenesis and the developmental role(s) of focal adhesion signaling. ..
- Thierry Mieg D. Paralog, a control mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1982;100:209-37 pubmed..We interpret the data by postulating that the expression of sets of dispersed genes might be controlled by the local topology of the chromosome, itself constrained by pairing of dispersed repeated elements. We call the mutation paralog. ..
- Cho J, Chak K, Andreone B, Wooley J, Kolodkin A. The extracellular matrix proteoglycan perlecan facilitates transmembrane semaphorin-mediated repulsive guidance. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2222-35 pubmed publisher..trol encodes the phylogenetically conserved secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) perlecan, a component of the extracellular matrix...
- Eaton S. Release and trafficking of lipid-linked morphogens. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:17-22 pubmed
- Zang Y, Wan M, Liu M, Ke H, Ma S, Liu L, et al. Plasma membrane overgrowth causes fibrotic collagen accumulation and immune activation in Drosophila adipocytes. elife. 2015;4:e07187 pubmed publisher..Our work indicates that traffic imbalances and PM topology may contribute to fibrosis. It also places fibrotic deposits both downstream and upstream of immune signaling, consistent with the chronic character of fibrotic diseases. ..
- Drechsler M, Schmidt A, Meyer H, Paululat A. The conserved ADAMTS-like protein lonely heart mediates matrix formation and cardiac tissue integrity. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003616 pubmed publisher..and tissue specific ECM, while it does not influence the accumulation of other matrix proteins like Nidogen or Perlecan. Our findings demonstrate that the function of ADAMTS-like proteins is conserved throughout evolution and reveal ..
- Sotillos S, Aguilar M, Hombria J. Forces shaping a Hox morphogenetic gene network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4303-8 pubmed publisher..This experimental-based hypothesis proposes how the frequently observed complex organogenetic gene networks are put together. ..
- Arnold C, Gerlach D, Stelzer C, Boryń Ł, Rath M, Stark A. Genome-wide quantitative enhancer activity maps identified by STARR-seq. Science. 2013;339:1074-7 pubmed publisher..STARR-seq can be used to identify and quantify enhancer activity in other eukaryotes, including humans. ..
- Dani N, Nahm M, Lee S, Broadie K. A targeted glycan-related gene screen reveals heparan sulfate proteoglycan sulfation regulates WNT and BMP trans-synaptic signaling. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003031 pubmed publisher..Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects. ..
- Isabella A, Horne Badovinac S. Rab10-Mediated Secretion Synergizes with Tissue Movement to Build a Polarized Basement Membrane Architecture for Organ Morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2016;38:47-60 pubmed publisher..This work highlights how regulated protein secretion can synergize with tissue movement to build a polarized BM architecture that controls tissue shape. ..
- Lin H, Wolfner M. Cloning and analysis of fs(1) Ya, a maternal effect gene required for the initiation of Drosophila embryogenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;215:257-65 pubmed..The transcript is not detected in later stages of embryonic development. This expression pattern correlates closely with the genetic and developmental characteristics expected of the fs(1) Ya gene product. ..
- Robbins L. The use of maternally coded gene products in Drosophila. Genet Res. 1990;55:87-96 pubmed
- Lim J, Snyder L. Cytogenetic and complementation analyses of recessive lethal mutations induced in the X chromosome of Drosophila by three alkylating agents. Genet Res. 1974;24:1-10 pubmed
- Liu C, Lim J. Complementation analysis of methyl methane-sulfonate-induced recessive lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;79:601-11 pubmed
- Swain A, Misulovin Z, Pherson M, Gause M, Mihindukulasuriya K, Rickels R, et al. Drosophila TDP-43 RNA-Binding Protein Facilitates Association of Sister Chromatid Cohesion Proteins with Genes, Enhancers and Polycomb Response Elements. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006331 pubmed publisher..These findings demonstrate that RNA-binding proteins help govern association of sister chromatid cohesion proteins with genes and enhancers. ..
- Grigorian M, Mandal L, Hartenstein V. Hematopoiesis at the onset of metamorphosis: terminal differentiation and dissociation of the Drosophila lymph gland. Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:121-31 pubmed publisher..Cells of the secondary lobes undergo a rapid phase of proliferation that lasts until 8 h APF, followed by expression of Pxn and dispersal. These hemocytes do not express P1, indicating that they disperse prior to full maturation...
- Isabella A, Horne Badovinac S. Dynamic regulation of basement membrane protein levels promotes egg chamber elongation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2015;406:212-21 pubmed publisher..We additionally observe a decrease in Perlecan levels during elongation, and show that Perlecan is a negative regulator of this process...
- Shannon M, Kaufman T, Shen M, Judd B. Lethality patterns and morphology of selected lethal and semi-lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;72:615-38 pubmed..These results provide additional evidence that only one function is associated with each chromomere.-The results of the lethality pattern analysis are also compared with previous studies of lethal mutants of Drosophila. ..
- Steigemann P, Molitor A, Fellert S, Jackle H, Vorbrüggen G. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan promotes axonal and myotube guidance by slit/robo signaling. Curr Biol. 2004;14:225-30 pubmed..The results suggest that Syndecan is a necessary component of Slit/Robo signaling and is required in the Slit target cells. ..
- Sitaram P, Merkle J, Lee E, Lee L. asunder is required for dynein localization and dorsal fate determination during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014;386:42-52 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our data indicate that asun is a critical regulator of dynein localization and dynein-mediated processes during Drosophila oogenesis. ..
- Vyas N, Goswami D, Manonmani A, Sharma P, Ranganath H, Vijayraghavan K, et al. Nanoscale organization of hedgehog is essential for long-range signaling. Cell. 2008;133:1214-27 pubmed publisher..Thus, Hh exhibits a hierarchical organization from the nanoscale to visible clusters with distinct functions. ..
- Grigorian M, Liu T, Banerjee U, Hartenstein V. The proteoglycan Trol controls the architecture of the extracellular matrix and balances proliferation and differentiation of blood progenitors in the Drosophila lymph gland. Dev Biol. 2013;384:301-12 pubmed publisherThe heparin sulfate proteoglycan Terribly Reduced Optic Lobes (Trol) is the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the vertebrate protein Perlecan...
- Bunt S, Hooley C, Hu N, Scahill C, Weavers H, Skaer H. Hemocyte-secreted type IV collagen enhances BMP signaling to guide renal tubule morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2010;19:296-306 pubmed publisher..Such regulated interplay between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions is likely to have wide relevance in organogenesis and congenital disease. ..
- Kramer K, Yost H. Heparan sulfate core proteins in cell-cell signaling. Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:461-84 pubmed..Genetic manipulation of HS core protein genes is beginning to indicate that HS core proteins have functional specificities that are required during distinct stages of development. ..
- Lear B, Merrill C, Lin J, Schroeder A, Zhang L, Allada R. A G protein-coupled receptor, groom-of-PDF, is required for PDF neuron action in circadian behavior. Neuron. 2005;48:221-7 pubmed..gop is expressed most strongly in the dorsal brain in regions that lie in proximity to PDF-containing nerve terminals. Taken together, these studies implicate GOP as a PDF receptor in Drosophila. ..
- Pastink A, Vreeken C, Vogel E, Eeken J. Mutations induced at the white and vermilion loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1990;231:63-71 pubmed..This was confirmed by sequence analysis of 25 ENU-induced vermilion mutants. In all mutants the alterations are due to base-pair changes, the majority being GC to AT transitions (61%). ..
- Hobert O, Hutter H, Hynes R. The immunoglobulin superfamily in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2004;131:2237-8; author reply 2238-40 pubmed
- Husain N, Pellikka M, Hong H, Klimentova T, Choe K, Clandinin T, et al. The agrin/perlecan-related protein eyes shut is essential for epithelial lumen formation in the Drosophila retina. Dev Cell. 2006;11:483-93 pubmed..Eys is closely related to the proteoglycans agrin and perlecan and secreted by photoreceptor cells into the interrhabdomeral space...
- Robbins L. Maternal-Zygotic Lethal Interactions in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER : Zeste-White Region Single-Cistron Mutations. Genetics. 1983;103:633-48 pubmed..Lethal interactions were found for one or more alleles at 10 of the 13 loci. The implications of these observations with respect to gene regulation and developmental sequence are considered. ..
- Xie X, Auld V. Integrins are necessary for the development and maintenance of the glial layers in the Drosophila peripheral nerve. Development. 2011;138:3813-22 pubmed publisher..Together, our data suggest that integrins are employed in different glial layers to mediate the development and maintenance of the protective glial sheath in Drosophila peripheral nerves. ..
- Nomura T, Kurokawa N. Comparative study on germ cell mutation induced by urethane (ethyl carbamate) gas and X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88:461-7 pubmed..Urethane-induced mutations were strikingly non-random with two hot spots at zw-1 and zw-2, whereas the distribution of X-ray-induced mutations was more nearly random. ..
- You J, Zhang Y, Li Z, Lou Z, Jin L, Lin X. Drosophila perlecan regulates intestinal stem cell activity via cell-matrix attachment. Stem Cell Reports. 2014;2:761-9 pubmed publisher..Currently, the roles of ECM in regulating niche functions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Perlecan (Pcan), a highly conserved ECM component, controls intestinal stem cell (ISC) activities and ISC-ECM attachment ..
- Herranz H, Weng R, Cohen S. Crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in tumorigenesis and imaginal disc development. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1476-84 pubmed publisher..We provide evidence that the secreted proteoglycan Perlecan can act as a context-dependent oncogene cooperating with EGFR to promote tumorigenesis...
- Yatsenko A, Marrone A, Shcherbata H. miRNA-based buffering of the cobblestone-lissencephaly-associated extracellular matrix receptor dystroglycan via its alternative 3'-UTR. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4906 pubmed publisher..Aberrant levels of dystroglycan or deficiencies in miR-310s and nitric oxide signalling result in cobblestone brain appearance, resembling human lissencephaly type II phenotype. ..
- Alvares L, Schubert F, Thorpe C, Mootoosamy R, Cheng L, Parkyn G, et al. Intrinsic, Hox-dependent cues determine the fate of skeletal muscle precursors. Dev Cell. 2003;5:379-90 pubmed..The intrinsic control over myogenic programs can only be overridden by FGF4 signals provided by the apical ectodermal ridge of a developing limb. ..
- Li Y, Rao X, MATTOX W, Amos C, Liu B. RNA-Seq Analysis of Differential Splice Junction Usage and Intron Retentions by DEXSeq. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136653 pubmed publisher..The analysis confirmed previous findings on the alternative splicing of the trol and Ant2 (sesB) genes in the CG8144 (ps)-depletion experiment and identified some new alternative splicing events ..