Gene Symbol: Trl
Description: Trithorax-like
Alias: Adf-2, Adf-2-519, Adf2, CG33261, CG9343, Dmel\CG33261, E(var)3-trl, E(var)62, GAF, GAGA, GAGA factor, Gaf, Gaga, NC70F, Nc70F, TRL, TfGAGA/Adf-2, Trl-GAGA, anon-EST:fe2E12, gaga, l(3)s2325, trl, Trithorax-like, Adh transcription factor 2, CG33261-PA, CG33261-PB, CG33261-PC, CG33261-PD, CG33261-PE, CG33261-PF, CG33261-PH, CG33261-PI, CG33261-PJ, CG33261-PK, GAGA element, GAGA factor, GAGA transcription factor, GAGA-factor, Trithorax-related, Trithroax-like, Trl-PA, Trl-PB, Trl-PC, Trl-PD, Trl-PE, Trl-PF, Trl-PH, Trl-PI, Trl-PJ, Trl-PK, anon-fast-evolving-2E12, neural conserved at 70F, transcription-factor-Adh2, trithorax like, trithorax-like
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Trl

Top Publications

  1. Lis J. Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:347-56 pubmed
  2. Soeller W, Oh C, Kornberg T. Isolation of cDNAs encoding the Drosophila GAGA transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:7961-70 pubmed
    To investigate the mechanisms involved in expression of the Drosophila melanogaster engrailed gene, we purified GAGA protein, one of several putative transcriptional activator proteins that binds to the proximal region of the engrailed ..
  3. Greenberg A, Schedl P. GAGA factor isoforms have distinct but overlapping functions in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8565-74 pubmed
    The Drosophila melanogaster GAGA factor (encoded by the Trithorax-like [Trl] gene) is required for correct chromatin architecture at diverse chromosomal sites...
  4. Cavalli G, Paro R. The Drosophila Fab-7 chromosomal element conveys epigenetic inheritance during mitosis and meiosis. Cell. 1998;93:505-18 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila embryos, Polycomb protein and the trxG protein GAGA factor colocalize at the Fab-7 DNA element of the bithorax complex...
  5. Pai C, Lei E, Ghosh D, Corces V. The centrosomal protein CP190 is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2004;16:737-48 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that endogenous gypsy insulators contain binding sites for CP190, which is essential for insulator function, and may or may not contain binding sites for Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4)2.2. ..
  6. Bardwell V, Treisman R. The POZ domain: a conserved protein-protein interaction motif. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1664-77 pubmed
    ..present in a large family of proteins that includes both the otherwise unrelated zinc finger proteins, such as Ttk, GAGA, and ZF5, and a group of poxvirus proteins: We therefore refer to this domain as the POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) ..
  7. Tsukiyama T, Wu C. Purification of GAGA factor of Drosophila and its role in nucleosome disruption. Methods Enzymol. 1996;274:291-9 pubmed
  8. Mishra K, Chopra V, Srinivasan A, Mishra R. Trl-GAGA directly interacts with lola like and both are part of the repressive complex of Polycomb group of genes. Mech Dev. 2003;120:681-9 pubmed
    ..We identified lola like, aka batman, as a strong interactor of GAGA factor in a yeast two-hybrid screen...
  9. Shopland L, Hirayoshi K, Fernandes M, Lis J. HSF access to heat shock elements in vivo depends critically on promoter architecture defined by GAGA factor, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II binding sites. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2756-69 pubmed
    ..We found three promoter sequences that influence the access of HSF to its binding sites: the GAGA element, sequences surrounding the transcription start site, and a region in the leader of hsp70 where RNA polymerase ..

More Information


  1. Oh H, Slattery M, Ma L, Crofts A, White K, Mann R, et al. Genome-wide association of Yorkie with chromatin and chromatin-remodeling complexes. Cell Rep. 2013;3:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry identify GAGA factor (GAF), the Brahma complex, and the Mediator complex as Yorkie-associated nuclear protein complexes...
  2. Bonchuk A, Denisov S, Georgiev P, Maksimenko O. Drosophila BTB/POZ domains of "ttk group" can form multimers and selectively interact with each other. J Mol Biol. 2011;412:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the BTB domain of the Drosophila GAGA factor (GAF) has been shown to exist as higher-order multimers...
  3. Petruk S, Smith S, Sedkov Y, Mazo A. Association of trxG and PcG proteins with the bxd maintenance element depends on transcriptional activity. Development. 2008;135:2383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..There is, however, no overall synergism or antagonism between and within the trxG and PcG proteins and, instead, only subsets of trxG proteins act synergistically. ..
  4. Mahmoudi T, Katsani K, Verrijzer C. GAGA can mediate enhancer function in trans by linking two separate DNA molecules. EMBO J. 2002;21:1775-81 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the transcription factor GAGA can stimulate transcription by linking an enhancer to its cognate promoter...
  5. Rach E, Winter D, Benjamin A, Corcoran D, Ni T, Zhu J, et al. Transcription initiation patterns indicate divergent strategies for gene regulation at the chromatin level. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001274 pubmed publisher
  6. Greenberg A, Yanowitz J, Schedl P. The Drosophila GAGA factor is required for dosage compensation in males and for the formation of the male-specific-lethal complex chromatin entry site at 12DE. Genetics. 2004;166:279-89 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that mutations in Trithorax-like (Trl) lead to the loss of a single chromatin entry site on the X, male lethality, and mislocalization of dosage ..
  7. Gerasimova T, Corces V. Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Cell. 1998;92:511-21 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a model in which PcG and TrxG proteins regulate insulator function by establishing higher order domains of chromatin organization required for the assembly of functional insulators at the nuclear matrix. ..
  8. Chopra V, Srinivasan A, Kumar R, Mishra K, Basquin D, Docquier M, et al. Transcriptional activation by GAGA factor is through its direct interaction with dmTAF3. Dev Biol. 2008;317:660-70 pubmed publisher
    The GAGA factor (GAF), encoded by the Trithorax like gene (Trl) is a multifunctional protein involved in gene activation, Polycomb-dependent repression, chromatin remodeling and is a component of chromatin domain boundaries...
  9. Espinás M, Jiménez García E, Vaquero A, Canudas S, Bernues J, Azorin F. The N-terminal POZ domain of GAGA mediates the formation of oligomers that bind DNA with high affinity and specificity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16461-9 pubmed
    The Drosophila GAGA factor self-oligomerizes both in vivo and in vitro...
  10. Cavalli G, Paro R. Epigenetic inheritance of active chromatin after removal of the main transactivator. Science. 1999;286:955-8 pubmed
    ..This feature may allow epigenetic maintenance of active states of developmental genes after decay of their early embryonic regulators. ..
  11. Farkas G, Gausz J, Galloni M, Reuter G, Gyurkovics H, Karch F. The Trithorax-like gene encodes the Drosophila GAGA factor. Nature. 1994;371:806-8 pubmed
    ..We found that Trithorax-like encodes the GAGA factor which is involved in the formation of an accessible chromatin structure at promoter sequences...
  12. Poux S, Horard B, Sigrist C, Pirrotta V. The Drosophila trithorax protein is a coactivator required to prevent re-establishment of polycomb silencing. Development. 2002;129:2483-93 pubmed
    ..b>GAGA factor immunoprecipitates with both complexes...
  13. Lopez A, Higuet D, Rosset R, Deutsch J, Peronnet F. corto genetically interacts with Pc-G and trx-G genes and maintains the anterior boundary of Ultrabithorax expression in Drosophila larvae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:572-83 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that corto maintains the anterior border of Ubx expression in third-instar larvae. We suggest that this regulation is accomplished through an interaction with the products of the Pc-G and trx-G genes. ..
  14. Chang Y, King B, Lin S, Kennison J, Huang D. A double-bromodomain protein, FSH-S, activates the homeotic gene ultrabithorax through a critical promoter-proximal region. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5486-98 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that FSH-S is involved in phosphorylation of itself and other regulatory factors. We suggest that FSH-S acts as a critical component of a regulatory circuitry mediating long-range effects of distant enhancers. ..
  15. Moon H, Filippova G, Loukinov D, Pugacheva E, Chen Q, Smith S, et al. CTCF is conserved from Drosophila to humans and confers enhancer blocking of the Fab-8 insulator. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:165-70 pubmed
    ..Four proteins have been identified in Drosophila mediating enhancer blocking-Su(Hw), Zw5, BEAF32 and GAGA factor. In vertebrates, the single protein CTCF, with 11 highly conserved zinc fingers, confers enhancer blocking in ..
  16. Poux S, Melfi R, Pirrotta V. Establishment of Polycomb silencing requires a transient interaction between PC and ESC. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2509-14 pubmed
    ..In early embryonic extracts, we find PC transiently associated with ESC in a complex that includes EZ, PHO, PH, GAGA, and RPD3 but not PSC...
  17. Mahmoudi T, Zuijderduijn L, Mohd Sarip A, Verrijzer C. GAGA facilitates binding of Pleiohomeotic to a chromatinized Polycomb response element. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:4147-56 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies have indicated a synergistic requirement for the trxG protein GAGA and the PcG protein Pleiohomeotic (PHO) in silencing at several PREs...
  18. Hagstrom K, Muller M, Schedl P. A Polycomb and GAGA dependent silencer adjoins the Fab-7 boundary in the Drosophila bithorax complex. Genetics. 1997;146:1365-80 pubmed
    ..The iab-7 PRE silencer is contained within a 0.8-kb fragment that spans a nuclease hypersensitive site, and silencing appears to depend on the chromatin remodeling protein, the GAGA factor.
  19. Liaw G, Rudolph K, Huang J, Dubnicoff T, Courey A, Lengyel J. The torso response element binds GAGA and NTF-1/Elf-1, and regulates tailless by relief of repression. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3163-76 pubmed 11-bp sequence; using this sequence as the basis for protein purification, we have determined that the proteins GAGA and NTF-1 (also known as Elf-1, product of the grainyhead gene) bind to the tor-RE...
  20. Shimojima T, Okada M, Nakayama T, Ueda H, Okawa K, Iwamatsu A, et al. Drosophila FACT contributes to Hox gene expression through physical and functional interactions with GAGA factor. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1605-16 pubmed
    Chromatin structure plays a critical role in the regulation of transcription. Drosophila GAGA factor directs chromatin remodeling to its binding sites...
  21. Lagha M, Bothma J, Esposito E, Ng S, Stefanik L, Tsui C, et al. Paused Pol II coordinates tissue morphogenesis in the Drosophila embryo. Cell. 2013;153:976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that paused Pol II and transcriptional synchrony are essential for coordinating cell behavior during morphogenesis. ..
  22. Kosoy A, Pagans S, Espinas M, Azorin F, Bernues J. GAGA factor down-regulates its own promoter. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42280-8 pubmed
    b>GAGA factor is involved in many nuclear transactions, notably in transcription as an activator in Drosophila...
  23. Smith S, Petruk S, Sedkov Y, Cho E, Tillib S, Canaani E, et al. Modulation of heat shock gene expression by the TAC1 chromatin-modifying complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:162-7 pubmed
    ..Consistently, TAC1 is required for methylation and acetylation of nucleosomal histones in the 5'-coding region of hsp70 after induction, suggesting an unexpected role for TAC1 during transcriptional elongation. ..
  24. Espinás M, Canudas S, Fanti L, Pimpinelli S, Casanova J, Azorin F. The GAGA factor of Drosophila interacts with SAP18, a Sin3-associated polypeptide. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:253-9 pubmed complex, was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen as capable of interacting with the Drosophila GAGA factor. The interaction was confirmed in vitro by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays using recombinant ..
  25. Lee C, Li X, Hechmer A, Eisen M, Biggin M, Venters B, et al. NELF and GAGA factor are linked to promoter-proximal pausing at many genes in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3290-300 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP-chip experiments indicate that GAGA factor associates with 39% of the genes that have NELF...
  26. Benyajati C, Mueller L, Xu N, Pappano M, Gao J, Mosammaparast M, et al. Multiple isoforms of GAGA factor, a critical component of chromatin structure. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:3345-53 pubmed
    The GAGA transcription factor of Drosophila melanogaster is ubiquitous and plays multiple roles...
  27. Biggin M, Tjian R. Transcription factors that activate the Ultrabithorax promoter in developmentally staged extracts. Cell. 1988;53:699-711 pubmed
    ..One factor, which binds to multiple GAGA DNA sequence motifs in the Ubx promoter, has been purified and shown to activate transcription from this promoter ..
  28. Bernues J, Piñeyro D, Kosoy A. General, negative feedback mechanism for regulation of Trithorax-like gene expression in vivo: new roles for GAGA factor in flies. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:7150-9 pubmed
    ..An example of the latter is Trithorax-like (Trl) a member of the Trithorax group that encodes GAGA factor in Drosophila...
  29. Weber J, Taxman D, Lu Q, Gilmour D. Molecular architecture of the hsp70 promoter after deletion of the TATA box or the upstream regulation region. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3799-808 pubmed
    b>GAGA factor, TFIID, and paused polymerase are present on the hsp70 promoter in Drosophila melanogaster prior to transcriptional activation...
  30. Bhat K, Farkas G, Karch F, Gyurkovics H, Gausz J, Schedl P. The GAGA factor is required in the early Drosophila embryo not only for transcriptional regulation but also for nuclear division. Development. 1996;122:1113-24 pubmed
    ..Subsequent studies have suggested that the GAGA factor promotes transcription by blocking the repressive effects of histones; moreover, it has been shown to function ..
  31. Dos Santos N, Rubin T, Chalvet F, Gandille P, Cremazy F, Leroy J, et al. Drosophila retinal pigment cell death is regulated in a position-dependent manner by a cell memory gene. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:21-31 pubmed
    ..We show that mutations in Trithorax-like (Trl) and lola-like/batman specifically block IOC death during eye morphogenesis...
  32. Poux S, McCabe D, Pirrotta V. Recruitment of components of Polycomb Group chromatin complexes in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:75-85 pubmed
    ..Analysis of pho mutant embryos and of PRE constructs whose PHO-binding sites are mutated suggests that, while PHO is important for silencing in imaginal discs, it is not necessary for embryonic PcG silencing. ..
  33. Lee H, Kraus K, Wolfner M, Lis J. DNA sequence requirements for generating paused polymerase at the start of hsp70. Genes Dev. 1992;6:284-95 pubmed
    ..Within this region are multiple copies of the GAGA element, which is known to bind a constitutively expressed factor...
  34. Golovnin A, Mazur A, Kopantseva M, Kurshakova M, Gulak P, Gilmore B, et al. Integrity of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain is critical to insulator function in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:963-74 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, replacement of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain with the GAF BTB domain produced a nonfunctional protein. Taken together, these data suggest that the Mod(mdg4)-67...
  35. Wilkins R, Lis J. GAGA factor binding to DNA via a single trinucleotide sequence element. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2672-8 pubmed
    b>GAGA transcription factor (GAF) is an essential protein in Drosophila , important for the transcriptional regulation of numerous genes...
  36. Schweinsberg S, Hagstrom K, Gohl D, Schedl P, Kumar R, Mishra R, et al. The enhancer-blocking activity of the Fab-7 boundary from the Drosophila bithorax complex requires GAGA-factor-binding sites. Genetics. 2004;168:1371-84 pubmed
    In the work reported here we have analyzed the role of the GAGA factor [encoded by the Trithorax-like (Trl) gene] in the enhancer-blocking activity of Frontabdominal-7 (Fab-7), a domain boundary element from the Drosophila melanogaster ..
  37. Fujioka M, Yusibova G, Zhou J, Jaynes J. The DNA-binding Polycomb-group protein Pleiohomeotic maintains both active and repressed transcriptional states through a single site. Development. 2008;135:4131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding sites for the trithorax-group protein GAGA factor also contribute, whereas sites for the known Polycomb response element binding factors Zeste and Dsp1 are ..
  38. Negre N, Brown C, Shah P, Kheradpour P, Morrison C, Henikoff J, et al. A comprehensive map of insulator elements for the Drosophila genome. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000814 pubmed publisher
    ..the genome-wide binding sites of 6 insulator-associated proteins-dCTCF, CP190, BEAF-32, Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4), and GAF-to obtain the first comprehensive map of insulator elements in Drosophila embryos...
  39. Schwendemann A, Lehmann M. Pipsqueak and GAGA factor act in concert as partners at homeotic and many other loci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12883-8 pubmed
    The Drosophila GAGA factor (GAF) controls transcription and other chromosome functions by altering chromatin structure...
  40. Strutt H, Cavalli G, Paro R. Co-localization of Polycomb protein and GAGA factor on regulatory elements responsible for the maintenance of homeotic gene expression. EMBO J. 1997;16:3621-32 pubmed
    ..b>GAGA factor/Trithorax-like, a member of the trithorax group, is also bound at those PREs which contain GAGA consensus-..
  41. Wallrath L, Elgin S. Position effect variegation in Drosophila is associated with an altered chromatin structure. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1263-77 pubmed
    ..Micrococcal nuclease digests showed that pericentric inserts were packaged in a more regular nucleosome array than that observed for euchromatic inserts. These data suggest that altered chromatin packaging plays a role in PEV. ..
  42. Bejarano F, Busturia A. Function of the Trithorax-like gene during Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2004;268:327-41 pubmed
    ..One of those is the Drosophila Trithorax-like gene that codes for the GAGA factor. To investigate its dual activator/repressor role, we have studied the function of the Trithorax-like ..
  43. Kahn T, Schwartz Y, Dellino G, Pirrotta V. Polycomb complexes and the propagation of the methylation mark at the Drosophila ubx gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29064-75 pubmed
    ..Both the spread of methylation from the Polycomb response elements, and the silencing effect can be blocked by the gypsy insulator. ..
  44. Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Minoda A, Riddle N, Ernst J, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2011;471:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function. ..
  45. Okada M, Hirose S. Chromatin remodeling mediated by Drosophila GAGA factor and ISWI activates fushi tarazu gene transcription in vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:2455-61 pubmed
    b>GAGA factor is known to remodel the chromatin structure in concert with nucleosome-remodeling factor NURF in a Drosophila embryonic S150 extract...
  46. Ohtsuki S, Levine M. GAGA mediates the enhancer blocking activity of the eve promoter in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3325-30 pubmed
    ..The eve promoter contains an optimal TATA element and a GAGA sequence...
  47. Huang D, Chang Y, Yang C, Pan I, King B. pipsqueak encodes a factor essential for sequence-specific targeting of a polycomb group protein complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6261-71 pubmed
    ..primarily to the large protein isoform encoded by pipsqueak (psq) instead of to the well-characterized GAGA factor. The functional relevance of psq to the silencing mechanism is strongly supported by its synergistic ..
  48. Pedone P, Ghirlando R, Clore G, Gronenborn A, Felsenfeld G, Omichinski J. The single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain of the GAGA protein flanked by basic residues is sufficient for high-affinity specific DNA binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2822-6 pubmed
    ..GAGAGAG has been shown with an 82-residue peptide (residues 310-391) taken from the Drosophila transcription factor GAGA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was demonstrated that the minimal domain required for specific binding (..
  49. Xiao H, Sandaltzopoulos R, Wang H, Hamiche A, Ranallo R, Lee K, et al. Dual functions of largest NURF subunit NURF301 in nucleosome sliding and transcription factor interactions. Mol Cell. 2001;8:531-43 pubmed
    ..NURF301 also shows interactions with sequence-specific transcription factors, providing a basis for targeted recruitment of the NURF complex to specific genes. ..
  50. TenHarmsel A, Austin R, Savenelli N, Biggin M. Cooperative binding at a distance by even-skipped protein correlates with repression and suggests a mechanism of silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:2742-52 pubmed
    ..Cooperative binding of further repressor molecules to distant low-affinity sites, and competition with activators bound at these sites lead to repression at a distance. ..
  51. Granok H, Leibovitch B, Shaffer C, Elgin S. Chromatin. Ga-ga over GAGA factor. Curr Biol. 1995;5:238-41 pubmed
    Recent results suggest that the Drosophila transcriptional activator known as GAGA factor functions by influencing chromatin structure.
  52. Tolhuis B, de Wit E, Muijrers I, Teunissen H, Talhout W, van Steensel B, et al. Genome-wide profiling of PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb chromatin binding in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:694-9 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the extensive involvement of PcG proteins in the coordination of development through the formation of large repressive chromatin domains. ..
  53. Melnikova L, Juge F, Gruzdeva N, Mazur A, Cavalli G, Georgiev P. Interaction between the GAGA factor and Mod(mdg4) proteins promotes insulator bypass in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14806-11 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show that the insertion of binding sites for the GAGA factor (GAF) between an enhancer and the Su(Hw) insulator allows bypassing of the insulator...
  54. Tsukiyama T, Wu C. Purification and properties of an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. Cell. 1995;83:1011-20 pubmed
    ..NURF is composed of at least four polypeptides that act in concert with the GAGA transcription factor to alter chromatin structure at the hsp70 promoter...
  55. Orlando V, Jane E, Chinwalla V, Harte P, Paro R. Binding of trithorax and Polycomb proteins to the bithorax complex: dynamic changes during early Drosophila embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1998;17:5141-50 pubmed
    ..Some of the trxG proteins characterized so far are members of chromatin opening complexes (e.g. SWI/SNF and GAGA/NURF) which facilitate binding of transcription factors and components of the basal transcriptional machinery...
  56. Tsukiyama T, Becker P, Wu C. ATP-dependent nucleosome disruption at a heat-shock promoter mediated by binding of GAGA transcription factor. Nature. 1994;367:525-32 pubmed
    ..Binding of the GAGA transcription factor on existing nucleosomes leads to nucleosome disruption, DNase I hypersensitivity at the TATA box and ..
  57. Salvaing J, Lopez A, Boivin A, Deutsch J, Peronnet F. The Drosophila Corto protein interacts with Polycomb-group proteins and the GAGA factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2873-82 pubmed
    ..PcG complexes are thought to be recruited to DNA through interaction with DNA binding proteins such as the GAGA factor, but no direct interactions between the constituents of PcG complexes and the GAGA factor have been reported so ..
  58. Busturia A, Lloyd A, Bejarano F, Zavortink M, Xin H, Sakonju S. The MCP silencer of the Drosophila Abd-B gene requires both Pleiohomeotic and GAGA factor for the maintenance of repression. Development. 2001;128:2163-73 pubmed
    ..MCP138 fragment, there are four binding sites for the Pleiohomeotic protein (PHO) and two binding sites for the GAGA factor (GAF), encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. PHO and the GAF proteins bind to these sites in vitro...
  59. Vaquero A, Blanch M, Espinàs M, Bernues J. Activation properties of GAGA transcription factor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1779:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that GAGA factor enhances transcription by stabilizing pre-initiation complex (PIC) and promoting reinitiation...
  60. Nakayama T, Nishioka K, Dong Y, Shimojima T, Hirose S. Drosophila GAGA factor directs histone H3.3 replacement that prevents the heterochromatin spreading. Genes Dev. 2007;21:552-61 pubmed
    Epigenetic maintenance of the expression state of the genome is critical for development. Drosophila GAGA factor interacts with FACT and modulates chromatin structure for the maintenance of gene expression...
  61. Mishra R, Mihaly J, Barges S, Spierer A, Karch F, Hagstrom K, et al. The iab-7 polycomb response element maps to a nucleosome-free region of chromatin and requires both GAGA and pleiohomeotic for silencing activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1311-8 pubmed
    ..The HS3 sequence contains consensus binding sites for the GAGA factor, a protein implicated in the formation of nucleosome-free regions of chromatin, and Pleiohomeotic (Pho), a ..
  62. Schuettengruber B, Ganapathi M, Leblanc B, Portoso M, Jaschek R, Tolhuis B, et al. Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, several DNA sequence features discriminate between PcG- and TRX-N-bound regions, indicating that underlying DNA sequence contains critical information to drive PREs and TREs towards silencing or activation. ..
  63. Vaquero A, Espinás M, Azorin F, Bernues J. Functional mapping of the GAGA factor assigns its transcriptional activity to the C-terminal glutamine-rich domain. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:19461-8 pubmed
    b>GAGA is a nuclear protein encoded by the Trithorax-like gene in Drosophila that is expressed in at least two isoforms generated by alternative splicing...
  64. Vasanthi D, Anant M, Srivastava S, Mishra R. A functionally conserved boundary element from the mouse HoxD locus requires GAGA factor in Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:4239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..species including a GA repeat motif and that the Evx2-Hoxd13 boundary activity in Drosophila is dependent on GAGA factor that binds to the GA repeat motif...
  65. O BRIEN T, Wilkins R, Giardina C, Lis J. Distribution of GAGA protein on Drosophila genes in vivo. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1098-110 pubmed
    b>GAGA protein binds specific CT.GA-rich DNA sequences in vitro, and many of these sequences are required for transcription in vivo...
  66. Kellum R, Raff J, Alberts B. Heterochromatin protein 1 distribution during development and during the cell cycle in Drosophila embryos. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 4):1407-18 pubmed
    ..The GAGA transcription factor was recently shown to be localized at sequences within alpha-heterochromatin in pre-cycle 14 embryos, ..
  67. Weiler K, Wakimoto B. Heterochromatin and gene expression in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1995;29:577-605 pubmed
  68. Deal R, Henikoff J, Henikoff S. Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones. Science. 2010;328:1161-4 pubmed publisher
  69. Sass G, Henikoff S. Comparative analysis of position-effect variegation mutations in Drosophila melanogaster delineates the targets of modifiers. Genetics. 1998;148:733-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, our observations support a model in which there are different constraints on the process of heterochromatin-induced silencing in classical vs. nonclassical PEV mutations. ..
  70. Faucheux M, Roignant J, Netter S, Charollais J, Antoniewski C, Theodore L. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1181-95 pubmed
    ..We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene...
  71. Adkins N, Hagerman T, Georgel P. GAGA protein: a multi-faceted transcription factor. Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;84:559-67 pubmed
    ..The GAGA factor (GAF) is one of a few transcription factors that can regulate gene expression at multiple levels...
  72. Americo J, Whiteley M, Brown J, Fujioka M, Jaynes J, Kassis J. A complex array of DNA-binding proteins required for pairing-sensitive silencing by a polycomb group response element from the Drosophila engrailed gene. Genetics. 2002;160:1561-71 pubmed
    ..sites is for the Polycomb group protein Pleiohomeotic and another is GAGAG, a sequence bound by the proteins GAGA factor and Pipsqueak. The identity of the other proteins is unknown...
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    b>GAGA factor (GAF) is an essential protein in Drosophila melanogaster, important for the transcriptional regulation of numerous genes...
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