Gene Symbol: Trh
Description: Tryptophan hydroxylase
Alias: CG9122, CT9937, DTRH, DTRHn, Dmel\CG9122, TRH, TRHn, dTrh, tryptophan hydroxylase, CG9122-PA, Trh-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Coleman C, Neckameyer W. Serotonin synthesis by two distinct enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;59:12-31 pubmed
    ..Drosophila genome suggested the presence of an additional enzyme with extensive homology to mammalian tryptophan hydroxylase, which we have termed DTRH...
  2. Chiang A, Lin C, Chuang C, Chang H, Hsieh C, Yeh C, et al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain-wide wiring networks in Drosophila at single-cell resolution. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Drosophila brain is assembled from families of multiple LPUs and their interconnections. This provides an essential first step in the analysis of information processing within and between neurons in a complete brain. ..
  3. Neckameyer W. A trophic role for serotonin in the development of a simple feeding circuit. Dev Neurosci. 2010;32:217-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that 5-HT is tightly regulated during CNS development to direct the normal architecture and mature function of this neural circuit. ..
  4. Dierick H, Greenspan R. Serotonin and neuropeptide F have opposite modulatory effects on fly aggression. Nat Genet. 2007;39:678-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this neuropeptide F effect seems to be independent of 5-HT. The implication of these two modulatory systems in fly and mouse aggression suggest a marked degree of conservation and a deep molecular root for this behavior. ..
  5. Yuan Q, Joiner W, Sehgal A. A sleep-promoting role for the Drosophila serotonin receptor 1A. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1051-62 pubmed
    ..These data show that serotonin promotes baseline sleep in Drosophila. They also link the regulation of sleep behavior by serotonin to a specific receptor in a distinct region of the fly brain. ..
  6. Neckameyer W, Coleman C, Eadie S, Goodwin S. Compartmentalization of neuronal and peripheral serotonin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:756-69 pubmed
    ..of the sequenced Drosophila genome identified an additional enzyme with extensive homology to mammalian tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), which we have termed DTRHn...
  7. Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Role of serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila larval response to light. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the function of 5-HT neurons in Drosophila larval behavior as well as into the mechanisms underlying regulation of larval response to light. ..
  8. Bao X, Wang B, Zhang J, Yan T, Yang W, Jiao F, et al. Localization of serotonin/tryptophan-hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:51-9 pubmed publisher
    We previously demonstrated that tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, was commonly present in the brains of some insects...
  9. Alekseyenko O, Lee C, Kravitz E. Targeted manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission affects the escalation of aggression in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10806 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative morphological examination demonstrated that our newly generated tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH)-Gal4 driver line was highly selective for 5HT-containing neurons...

More Information


  1. Albin S, Kaun K, Knapp J, Chung P, Heberlein U, Simpson J. A Subset of Serotonergic Neurons Evokes Hunger in Adult Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend our understanding of the neural circuitry that drives feeding and enable future exploration of how state influences neural activity within this circuit. ..
  2. Alekseyenko O, Chan Y, Fernández M, Bülow T, Pankratz M, Kravitz E. Single serotonergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2014;24:2700-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies, therefore, suggest that aggression may be held in check, at least in part, by inhibitory input from 5HT1A receptor-bearing neurons, which can be released by activation of the 5HT-PLP neurons. ..
  3. Neckameyer W, Bhatt P. Neurotrophic actions of dopamine on the development of a serotonergic feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:26 pubmed publisher
  4. Chin A, Lin C, Fu T, Dickson B, Chiang A. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:3795-816 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. ..
  5. Curran K, Chalasani S. Serotonin circuits and anxiety: what can invertebrates teach us?. Invert Neurosci. 2012;12:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These model systems possess well-defined neuroanatomies and robust serotonin-mediated behavior and should reveal insights into how serotonin can modulate human cognitive functions...
  6. Riemensperger T, Issa A, Pech U, Coulom H, Nguyễn M, Cassar M, et al. A single dopamine pathway underlies progressive locomotor deficits in a Drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Cell Rep. 2013;5:952-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that modulation of the mushroom body ?' lobes by this dopaminergic pathway is specifically required for an efficient control of startle-induced locomotion in flies. ..
  7. Shearin H, Dvarishkis A, Kozeluh C, Stowers R. Expansion of the gateway multisite recombination cloning toolkit. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77724 pubmed publisher
    ..each novel component are presented and include neuronal LexA drivers, LexAop2 red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle reporters, TDC2 and TRH LexA, GAL4, and QF drivers, and LexAop2, UAS, and QUAS channelrhodopsin2 T159C reporters.
  8. Grifoni D, Sollazzo M, Fontana E, Froldi F, Pession A. Multiple strategies of oxygen supply in Drosophila malignancies identify tracheogenesis as a novel cancer hallmark. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9061 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our findings identify tracheogenesis as a novel cancer hallmark in Drosophila, further expanding the power of the fly model in cancer research. ..
  9. Zwarts L, Versteven M, Callaerts P. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2012;6:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. ..
  10. Haynes P, Christmann B, Griffith L. A single pair of neurons links sleep to memory consolidation in Drosophila melanogaster. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the mechanistic relationship between sleep and memory consolidation, arguing for a significant role of inhibitory neurotransmission in regulating these processes. ..
  11. Sadaf S, Hasan G. Serotonergic neurons of the Drosophila air-puff-stimulated flight circuit. J Biosci. 2014;39:575-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover ectopic activation of the entire serotonergic system by TrpA1, a heat activated cation channel, induces flight, even in the absence of an air-puff stimulus. ..
  12. Sadaf S, Birman S, Hasan G. Synaptic activity in serotonergic neurons is required for air-puff stimulated flight in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46405 pubmed publisher
    ..serotonergic neurons specifically, a Drosophila strain that contains regulatory regions from the TRH (Tryptophan Hydroxylase) gene linked to the yeast transcription factor GAL4 was used...
  13. Araújo S, Casanova J. Sequoia establishes tip-cell number in Drosophila trachea by regulating FGF levels. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that becoming a tip cell does not prevent others in the branch taking the same position, suggesting that leader choice does not depend only on sensing relative amounts of FGF receptor activity...
  14. Fang H, Vickrey T, Venton B. Analysis of biogenic amines in a single Drosophila larva brain by capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection. Anal Chem. 2011;83:2258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..When the Ddc-GAL4 line was used to produce flies overexpressing the serotonin synthesis enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (Ddc-GAL4;UAS-Trh), the serotonin tissue content was greater than for Ddc-GAL4 but not significantly ..
  15. Pech U, Pooryasin A, Birman S, Fiala A. Localization of the contacts between Kenyon cells and aminergic neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster brain using SplitGFP reconstitution. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3992-4026 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the technique enables us to localize precisely a segmentation of the mushroom body by differential contacts with aminergic neurons...
  16. Buti E, Mesquita D, Araújo S. Hedgehog is a positive regulator of FGF signalling during embryonic tracheal cell migration. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92682 pubmed publisher
    ..By doing so, we provide a molecular link between the activation of Hh signalling and increased chemotactic responses during cell migration. ..
  17. Lee P, Lin H, Chang Y, Fu T, Dubnau J, Hirsh J, et al. Serotonin-mushroom body circuit modulating the formation of anesthesia-resistant memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the Amnesiac peptide required for anesthesia-sensitive memory formation, the two DPM neurons also release 5HT acting on MB neurons for ARM formation...
  18. Cassar M, Issa A, Riemensperger T, Petitgas C, Rival T, Coulom H, et al. A dopamine receptor contributes to paraquat-induced neurotoxicity in Drosophila. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:197-212 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a model for DA receptor-mediated potentiation of PQ-induced neurotoxicity. Further studies of DAMB signaling in Drosophila could have implications for better understanding DA-related neurodegenerative disorders in humans. ..
  19. Alekseyenko O, Kravitz E. Serotonin and the search for the anatomical substrate of aggression. Fly (Austin). 2014;8:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Extra View article, we offer an extended discussion of these recent findings and elaborate on how they can link a cellular and functional mapping of an aggression-regulating circuit at a single-cell resolution level. ..
  20. Wei H, Shu H, Price J. Functional genomic analysis of the 61D-61F region of the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2003;46:1049-58 pubmed
    ..AC005847). Six essential complementation groups were assigned to specific genes, including genes encoding a porphobilinogen deaminase and a Sac1-like protein. ..
  21. Daubert E, Heffron D, Mandell J, Condron B. Serotonergic dystrophy induced by excess serotonin. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here support a model in which excess cytoplasmic neurotransmitter triggers a cell-specific pathway inducing aberrant morphology in fly serotonergic neurons that may be shared in certain mammalian pathologies. ..
  22. Norville K, Sweeney S, Elliott C. Postmating change in physiology of male Drosophila mediated by serotonin (5-HT). J Neurogenet. 2010;24:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..As serotonin is linked with attentiveness in both flies and mammals, this bioassay suggests reduced behavioral sensitivity of the male fly after mating. ..
  23. Majeed Z, Abdeljaber E, Soveland R, Cornwell K, Bankemper A, Koch F, et al. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:7291438 pubmed publisher
    ..5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development...
  24. Chen A, Ng F, Lebestky T, Grygoruk A, Djapri C, Lawal H, et al. Dispensable, redundant, complementary, and cooperative roles of dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2013;193:159-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also highlight potential differences between behaviors regulated by standard exocytotic release and those regulated by other mechanisms...