trailer hitch


Gene Symbol: trailer hitch
Description: trailer hitch
Alias: BEST:GH08269, CG10686, DmLSm15, Dmel\CG10686, LSm15, Lsm15, Scd6p, TRAL, Tral, anon-EST:Posey139, anon-WO0172774.89, anon-WO02059370.24, p67, p70, trailer hitch, CG10686-PA, CG10686-PB, CG10686-PC, CG10686-PD, CG10686-PE, CG10686-PF, CG10686-PG, CG10686-PH, CG10686-PI, Trailer-Hitch, trailerhitch, tral-PA, tral-PB, tral-PC, tral-PD, tral-PE, tral-PF, tral-PG, tral-PH, tral-PI
Species: fruit fly
Products:     trailer hitch

Top Publications

  1. D Avino P, Savoian M, Glover D. Mutations in sticky lead to defective organization of the contractile ring during cytokinesis and are enhanced by Rho and suppressed by Rac. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:61-71 pubmed
    ..Similar genetic evidence indicates that RacGAP50C inhibits Rac during cytokinesis. We discuss that antagonism between Rho and Rac pathways may control contractile ring dynamics during cytokinesis. ..
  2. Lighthouse D, Buszczak M, Spradling A. New components of the Drosophila fusome suggest it plays novel roles in signaling and transport. Dev Biol. 2008;317:59-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, rab11 is required to maintain the germline stem cells, and to maintain the vesicle content of the spectrosome, suggesting that the fusome mediates intercellular signals that depend on the recycling endosome. ..
  3. Kugler J, Chicoine J, Lasko P. Bicaudal-C associates with a Trailer Hitch/Me31B complex and is required for efficient Gurken secretion. Dev Biol. 2009;328:160-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenotype is strikingly similar to that of trailer hitch (tral) mutants...
  4. Snee M, Macdonald P. Dynamic organization and plasticity of sponge bodies. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:918-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these and other results we propose a model for the relationship between P bodies and the various cytoplasmic bodies containing P body proteins in the Drosophila ovary. ..
  5. Snee M, Macdonald P. Bicaudal C and trailer hitch have similar roles in gurken mRNA localization and cytoskeletal organization. Dev Biol. 2009;328:434-44 pubmed publisher
    Bicaudal C and trailer hitch are both required for dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila oocyte...
  6. Tritschler F, Eulalio A, Helms S, Schmidt S, Coles M, Weichenrieder O, et al. Similar modes of interaction enable Trailer Hitch and EDC3 to associate with DCP1 and Me31B in distinct protein complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6695-708 pubmed publisher
    b>Trailer Hitch (Tral or LSm15) and enhancer of decapping-3 (EDC3 or LSm16) are conserved eukaryotic members of the (L)Sm (Sm and Like-Sm) protein family...
  7. Jinek M, Eulalio A, Lingel A, Helms S, Conti E, Izaurralde E. The C-terminal region of Ge-1 presents conserved structural features required for P-body localization. RNA. 2008;14:1991-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of critical surface and structural residues suggests that the C-terminal region adopts a similar fold with conserved functions in all members of the Ge-1 protein family. ..
  8. Tritschler F, Eulalio A, Truffault V, Hartmann M, Helms S, Schmidt S, et al. A divergent Sm fold in EDC3 proteins mediates DCP1 binding and P-body targeting. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8600-11 pubmed
    ..The conservation of surface and of critical structural residues indicates that LSm domains in EDC3 proteins adopt a similar fold that has separable novel functions that are absent in canonical (L)Sm proteins...
  9. Wilhelm J, Buszczak M, Sayles S. Efficient protein trafficking requires trailer hitch, a component of a ribonucleoprotein complex localized to the ER in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2005;9:675-85 pubmed
    ..We have identified Drosophila trailer hitch (tral) as a gene that is required for the proper secretion of the dorsal-ventral patterning factor Gurken, as ..

More Information


  1. Tritschler F, Braun J, Eulalio A, Truffault V, Izaurralde E, Weichenrieder O. Structural basis for the mutually exclusive anchoring of P body components EDC3 and Tral to the DEAD box protein DDX6/Me31B. Mol Cell. 2009;33:661-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The translational repressor Tral contains a similar FDF motif...
  2. Eulalio A, Rehwinkel J, Stricker M, Huntzinger E, Yang S, Doerks T, et al. Target-specific requirements for enhancers of decapping in miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2558-70 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that miRNAs mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by more than one mechanism. ..
  3. Weil T, Parton R, Herpers B, Soetaert J, Veenendaal T, Xanthakis D, et al. Drosophila patterning is established by differential association of mRNAs with P bodies. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1305-13 pubmed publisher
  4. Liu J, Gall J. U bodies are cytoplasmic structures that contain uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and associate with P bodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11655-9 pubmed
    ..The identification of U bodies provides an opportunity to correlate specific biochemical steps of snRNP biogenesis with structural features of the cytoplasm. ..
  5. Röper K. Rtnl1 is enriched in a specialized germline ER that associates with ribonucleoprotein granule components. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1081-92 pubmed
    ..As the ER is actively transported into the oocyte, this colocalization suggests a role for the Rtnl1-containing subdomain in anchoring the ribonucleoprotein complexes within and/or transporting them into the oocyte. ..
  6. Snee M, Benz D, Jen J, Macdonald P. Two distinct domains of Bruno bind specifically to the oskar mRNA. RNA Biol. 2008;5:1-9 pubmed
    ..A similar mislocalization of endogenous Bruno occurs when mRNA export is blocked. Thus, Bruno shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and may first bind oskar mRNA in the nucleus. ..
  7. Igreja C, Izaurralde E. CUP promotes deadenylation and inhibits decapping of mRNA targets. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1955-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the mode of action of CUP is more complex than previously thought and provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of mRNA expression by 4E-BPs. ..
  8. Braun J, Truffault V, Boland A, Huntzinger E, Chang C, Haas G, et al. A direct interaction between DCP1 and XRN1 couples mRNA decapping to 5' exonucleolytic degradation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:1324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a role for XRN1 in decapping and provide a molecular basis for the coupling of decapping to 5'?3' mRNA degradation. ..
  9. Decker C, Parker R. CAR-1 and trailer hitch: driving mRNP granule function at the ER?. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:159-63 pubmed
    ..Depletion or mutation of members of the Scd6 family, Caenorhabditis elegans CAR-1 and Drosophila melanogaster trailer hitch, lead to a variety of developmental phenotypes, which in some cases can be linked to alterations in the ..
  10. Aumiller V, Graebsch A, Kremmer E, Niessing D, Forstemann K. Drosophila Pur-? binds to trinucleotide-repeat containing cellular RNAs and translocates to the early oocyte. RNA Biol. 2012;9:633-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Related sequences, such as r(CAG) 4 and the consensus sequence of the opa-repeat r(CAG) 3CAA, can also associate with Pur-? in vitro and in vivo. The mRNA target spectrum of Pur-? may therefore be larger than previously anticipated. ..
  11. Eulalio A, Helms S, Fritzsch C, Fauser M, Izaurralde E. A C-terminal silencing domain in GW182 is essential for miRNA function. RNA. 2009;15:1067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results indicate that miRNA silencing in animal cells is mediated by AGO1 in complex with GW182, and that P-body localization is not required for silencing. ..
  12. Liu L, Qi H, Wang J, Lin H. PAPI, a novel TUDOR-domain protein, complexes with AGO3, ME31B and TRAL in the nuage to silence transposition. Development. 2011;138:1863-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, AGO3 and PAPI associate with the P body component TRAL/ME31B complex in the nuage and transposon activation is observed in tral mutant ovaries...
  13. Lee L, Davies S, Liu J. The spinal muscular atrophy protein SMN affects Drosophila germline nuclear organization through the U body-P body pathway. Dev Biol. 2009;332:142-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that SMN is required for the functional integrity of the U body-P body pathway, which in turn is important for maintaining proper nuclear architecture. ..
  14. Gamberi C, Lasko P. The Bic-C family of developmental translational regulators. Comp Funct Genomics. 2012;2012:141386 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss recent advances towards understanding the functions of these proteins in the context of the cellular and developmental biology of many model organisms and their connection to human disease. ..
  15. Jeske M, Moritz B, Anders A, Wahle E. Smaug assembles an ATP-dependent stable complex repressing nanos mRNA translation at multiple levels. EMBO J. 2011;30:90-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Repression can be virtually complete. Smaug and its co-repressor Cup as well as Trailer hitch and the DEAD box protein Me31B are part of the repressed RNP...
  16. Monzo K, Papoulas O, Cantin G, Wang Y, Yates J, Sisson J. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls trailer hitch expression and cleavage furrow formation in Drosophila embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18160-5 pubmed observed to colocalize with the cytoplasmic RNP body components Maternal expression at 31B (ME31B) and Trailer Hitch (TRAL) in a punctate pattern throughout the cytoplasm of cleavage-stage embryos...
  17. Lim C, Allada R. ATAXIN-2 activates PERIOD translation to sustain circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Science. 2013;340:875-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ATX2 coordinates an active translation complex important for PER expression and circadian rhythms. ..
  18. Ryu Y, Macdonald P. RNA sequences required for the noncoding function of oskar RNA also mediate regulation of Oskar protein expression by Bicoid Stability Factor. Dev Biol. 2015;407:211-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the C region of the osk 3' UTR is required for the noncoding function, BSF binding does not appear to be essential for that function. ..
  19. Fan S, Marchand V, Ephrussi A. Drosophila Ge-1 promotes P body formation and oskar mRNA localization. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20612 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest an important role of dGe-1 in optimization of the osk mRNA localization process required for patterning the Drosophila embryo. ..
  20. Götze M, Dufourt J, Ihling C, Rammelt C, Pierson S, Sambrani N, et al. Translational repression of the Drosophila nanos mRNA involves the RNA helicase Belle and RNA coating by Me31B and Trailer hitch. RNA. 2017;23:1552-1568 pubmed publisher
    ..mass spectrometric analysis of the SRE-dependent repressor complex, we identified Smaug, Cup, Me31B, Trailer hitch, eIF4E, and PABPC, in agreement with earlier data...
  21. Lim C, Lee J, Choi C, Kilman V, Kim J, Park S, et al. The novel gene twenty-four defines a critical translational step in the Drosophila clock. Nature. 2011;470:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that TYF potently activates PER translation in pacemaker neurons to sustain robust rhythms, revealing a new and important role for translational control in the Drosophila circadian clock. ..
  22. Temme C, Zhang L, Kremmer E, Ihling C, Chartier A, Sinz A, et al. Subunits of the Drosophila CCR4-NOT complex and their roles in mRNA deadenylation. RNA. 2010;16:1356-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Nocturnin may also be involved in mRNA deadenylation, whereas there is no evidence for a similar role of Angel and 3635. ..
  23. Haas G, Braun J, Igreja C, Tritschler F, Nishihara T, Izaurralde E. HPat provides a link between deadenylation and decapping in metazoa. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:289-302 pubmed publisher
  24. Gouw J, Pinkse M, Vos H, Moshkin Y, Verrijzer C, Heck A, et al. In vivo stable isotope labeling of fruit flies reveals post-transcriptional regulation in the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:1566-78 pubmed publisher
  25. Quiñones Coello A, Petrella L, Ayers K, Melillo A, Mazzalupo S, Hudson A, et al. Exploring strategies for protein trapping in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;175:1089-104 pubmed
    ..We report a total of 335 genes associated with protein or enhancer traps and a web-accessible database for viewing molecular information and expression data for these genes. ..
  26. Graindorge A, Carré C, Gebauer F. Sex-lethal promotes nuclear retention of msl2 mRNA via interactions with the STAR protein HOW. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Cooperation with SXL confers a sex-specific role to HOW. Our results uncover a novel function of SXL in nuclear mRNA retention and identify HOW as a mediator of this function. ..
  27. Ivshina M, Lasko P, Richter J. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding proteins in development, health, and disease. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:393-415 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the biochemical features of the CPEB proteins, discuss their activities in several biological systems, and illustrate how understanding CPEB activity in model organisms has an important impact on neurological disease. ..
  28. Zacharogianni M, Aguilera Gomez A, Veenendaal T, Smout J, Rabouille C. A stress assembly that confers cell viability by preserving ERES components during amino-acid starvation. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we propose that the formation of these structures is a novel stress response mechanism to provide cell viability during and after nutrient stress. ..
  29. Barbee S, Estes P, Cziko A, Hillebrand J, Luedeman R, Coller J, et al. Staufen- and FMRP-containing neuronal RNPs are structurally and functionally related to somatic P bodies. Neuron. 2006;52:997-1009 pubmed
    ..Drosophila Me31B is shown to participate (1) with an FMRP-associated, P body protein (Scd6p/trailer hitch) in FMRP-driven, argonaute-dependent translational repression in developing eye imaginal discs; (2) in ..
  30. Carré C, Szymczak D, Pidoux J, Antoniewski C. The histone H3 acetylase dGcn5 is a key player in Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8228-38 pubmed
    ..Our results establish dGcn5 as a major histone H3 acetylase in Drosophila which plays a key role in the control of specific morphogenetic cascades during developmental transitions. ..
  31. Eulalio A, Tritschler F, Büttner R, Weichenrieder O, Izaurralde E, Truffault V. The RRM domain in GW182 proteins contributes to miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of structural and surface residues suggests that the RRM domain adopts a similar fold with a related function in insect and vertebrate GW182 family members. ..