Gene Symbol: tra
Description: transformer
Alias: CG16724, Dmel\CG16724, Dmtra, TRA, Tra, transformer, CG16724-PA, CG16724-PB, tra-PA, tra-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Finley K, Edeen P, Foss M, Gross E, Ghbeish N, Palmer R, et al. Dissatisfaction encodes a tailless-like nuclear receptor expressed in a subset of CNS neurons controlling Drosophila sexual behavior. Neuron. 1998;21:1363-74 pubmed
    ..Expression of a female transformer cDNA under the control of a dsf enhancer in males leads to dsf-like bisexual behavior.
  2. Kido A, Ito K. Mushroom bodies are not required for courtship behavior by normal and sexually mosaic Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2002;52:302-11 pubmed
    ..we performed a large scale screening of expression drivers that can suppress male-specific behavior with transformer gene expression. Two drivers caused essentially total courtship suppression...
  3. Billeter J, Rideout E, Dornan A, Goodwin S. Control of male sexual behavior in Drosophila by the sex determination pathway. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R766-76 pubmed
  4. Tian M, Maniatis T. A splicing enhancer exhibits both constitutive and regulated activities. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1703-12 pubmed
    The Drosophila proteins Transformer (Tra) and Transformer2 (Tra2) regulate the sex-specific alternative splicing of Drosophila doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA by specifically binding to a splicing enhancer (dsx repeat element; dsxRE) located ..
  5. Finley K, Taylor B, Milstein M, McKeown M. dissatisfaction, a gene involved in sex-specific behavior and neural development of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:913-8 pubmed
    ..Epistasis experiments show that dsf acts in a tra-dependent and dsx-independent manner, placing dsf in the dsx-independent portion of the sex determination cascade.
  6. Marsh J, Wieschaus E. Is sex determination in germ line and soma controlled by separate genetic mechanisms?. Nature. 1978;272:249-51 pubmed
  7. Beye M. The dice of fate: the csd gene and how its allelic composition regulates sexual development in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Bioessays. 2004;26:1131-9 pubmed
    ..Comparison to hierarchies of dipteran insects suggests that SR-type protein has facilitated the differentiation of sex-determining systems and hierarchies. ..
  8. Hoshijima K, Inoue K, Higuchi I, Sakamoto H, Shimura Y. Control of doublesex alternative splicing by transformer and transformer-2 in Drosophila. Science. 1991;252:833-6 pubmed
    ..Cotransfection analyses in which the dsx gene and the female-specific transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra-2) complementary DNAs were expressed in Drosophila Kc cells revealed that female-..
  9. Granadino B, Penalva L, Sanchez L. The gene fl(2)d is needed for the sex-specific splicing of transformer pre-mRNA but not for double-sex pre-mRNA in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;253:26-31 pubmed
    ..The first gene is Sex-lethal(Sxl). The downstream target of Sxl is the gene transformer (tra): the Sxl protein controls the female-specific splicing of the Tra pre-mRNA...

More Information


  1. Salz H. Sex determination in insects: a binary decision based on alternative splicing. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011;21:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies exploring the mechanisms of sex-specific splicing have revealed the extent to which sex determination is integrated with other developmental regulatory networks. ..
  2. Nilsson E, Asztalos Z, Lukacsovich T, Awano W, Usui Aoki K, Yamamoto D. Fruitless is in the regulatory pathway by which ectopic mini-white and transformer induce bisexual courtship in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2000;13:213-32 pubmed
    ..These include ectopic expression of the transformer (tra) gene, ectopic expression of the mini-white (mw) gene, and the homozygous presence of mutant alleles of ..
  3. Billeter J, Villella A, Allendorfer J, Dornan A, Richardson M, Gailey D, et al. Isoform-specific control of male neuronal differentiation and behavior in Drosophila by the fruitless gene. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1063-76 pubmed
    ..This study exemplifies how complex behaviors can be controlled by a single locus through multiple isoforms regulating both developmental and physiological pathways in different neuronal substrates. ..
  4. McKeown M, Belote J, Baker B. A molecular analysis of transformer, a gene in Drosophila melanogaster that controls female sexual differentiation. Cell. 1987;48:489-99 pubmed
    The transformer (tra) gene regulates all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster females and has no function in males. We have isolated the tra gene as part of a 200 kb chromosomal walk...
  5. Gempe T, Beye M. Function and evolution of sex determination mechanisms, genes and pathways in insects. Bioessays. 2011;33:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarises recent findings in insects, surveys evidence of how and why sex determination mechanisms can change rapidly and suggests fruitful areas of future research. ..
  6. Saccone G, Salvemini M, Pane A, Polito L. Masculinization of XX Drosophila transgenic flies expressing the Ceratitis capitata DoublesexM isoform. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:1051-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Dankert H, Wang L, Hoopfer E, Anderson D, Perona P. Automated monitoring and analysis of social behavior in Drosophila. Nat Methods. 2009;6:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethograms may be constructed automatically from these measurements, saving considerable time and effort. This technology should enable large-scale screens for genes and neural circuits controlling courtship and aggression. ..
  8. Boggs R, Gregor P, Idriss S, Belote J, McKeown M. Regulation of sexual differentiation in D. melanogaster via alternative splicing of RNA from the transformer gene. Cell. 1987;50:739-47 pubmed
    The transformer (tra) gene regulates female somatic sexual differentiation and has no known function in males. It gives rise to two sizes of RNA, one non-sex-specific and one female-specific...
  9. Ryner L, Baker B. Regulation of doublesex pre-mRNA processing occurs by 3'-splice site activation. Genes Dev. 1991;5:2071-85 pubmed
    ..pattern results from the utilization of an upstream 3'-terminal exon and requires the activities of both the transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes...
  10. Christiansen A, Keisman E, Ahmad S, Baker B. Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern. Trends Genet. 2002;18:510-6 pubmed
  11. Cline T, Meyer B. Vive la différence: males vs females in flies vs worms. Annu Rev Genet. 1996;30:637-702 pubmed
    ..Although no overlap has been found among the molecules used by flies and worms to achieve sex determination, striking similarities have been found in the genetic strategies used by these two species to differentiate their sexes. ..
  12. Bray S, Amrein H. A putative Drosophila pheromone receptor expressed in male-specific taste neurons is required for efficient courtship. Neuron. 2003;39:1019-29 pubmed
  13. Heimbeck G, Bugnon V, Gendre N, Keller A, Stocker R. A central neural circuit for experience-independent olfactory and courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:15336-41 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the involvement of an olfactory pathway in male courtship suggests a role of volatile attractive female pheromones in Drosophila. ..
  14. Smith C, Valcarcel J. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing: the logic of combinatorial control. Trends Biochem Sci. 2000;25:381-8 pubmed
    ..Its modulation is achieved through the combinatorial interplay of positive and negative regulatory signals present in the RNA, which are recognized by complexes composed of members of the hnRNP and SR protein families. ..
  15. Ferveur J, Störtkuhl K, Stocker R, Greenspan R. Genetic feminization of brain structures and changed sexual orientation in male Drosophila. Science. 1995;267:902-5 pubmed
    ..Such flies express the female form of the sex determination gene transformer in a limited number of neurons under the control of GAL4 enhancer trap inserts...
  16. Wilkins A. Moving up the hierarchy: a hypothesis on the evolution of a genetic sex determination pathway. Bioessays. 1995;17:71-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, the specific molecular and population genetic questions that the model raises are described and some tests are proposed. ..
  17. Siera S, Cline T. Sexual back talk with evolutionary implications: stimulation of the Drosophila sex-determination gene sex-lethal by its target transformer. Genetics. 2008;180:1963-81 pubmed publisher
    ..relationship between two key genes of the Drosophila sex-determination gene hierarchy, Sex-lethal (Sxl) and transformer (tra)...
  18. Lam B, Bakshi A, Ekinci F, Webb J, Graveley B, Hertel K. Enhancer-dependent 5'-splice site control of fruitless pre-mRNA splicing. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22740-7 pubmed
    ..Alternative splicing of fru is regulated by TRA and TRA2 and depends on an exonic splicing enhancer (fruRE) consisting of three 13-nucleotide repeat elements, ..
  19. Lee G, Hall J, Park J. Doublesex gene expression in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 2002;16:229-48 pubmed
  20. Keisman E, Christiansen A, Baker B. The sex determination gene doublesex regulates the A/P organizer to direct sex-specific patterns of growth in the Drosophila genital imaginal disc. Dev Cell. 2001;1:215-25 pubmed
    ..Instead, we show that dsx regulates the A/P organizer to control growth of each genital primordium, and then directs each genital primordium to differentiate defined adult structures in both sexes. ..
  21. Waterbury J, Jackson L, Schedl P. Analysis of the doublesex female protein in Drosophila melanogaster: role on sexual differentiation and behavior and dependence on intersex. Genetics. 1999;152:1653-67 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that intersex is required for the feminizing activities of Dsx(F) and that it is not regulated by the sex-specific splicing cascade. ..
  22. Chang P, Dunham J, Nuzhdin S, Arbeitman M. Somatic sex-specific transcriptome differences in Drosophila revealed by whole transcriptome sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:364 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we find 512 genes not regulated downstream of transformer that are significantly more highly expressed in males than females...
  23. Graham P, Penn J, Schedl P. Masters change, slaves remain. Bioessays. 2003;25:1-4 pubmed
    ..DmSxl controls the alternative splicing of a downstream gene, transformer (tra), which acts with tra2 to control alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx)...
  24. Casper A, Van Doren M. The control of sexual identity in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2006;133:2783-91 pubmed
    ..Here, we explore how sexual identity is established in the Drosophila germline, how this affects other aspects of germ cell development and what studies in Drosophila can teach us about mammalian germ cells. ..
  25. McKeown M, Belote J, Boggs R. Ectopic expression of the female transformer gene product leads to female differentiation of chromosomally male Drosophila. Cell. 1988;53:887-95 pubmed
    The transformer (tra) gene of Drosophila is necessary for all aspects of female somatic sexual differentiation. tra uses a single set of precursor RNAs to produce female- and non-sex-specific RNAs by alternative splicing...
  26. Stockinger P, Kvitsiani D, Rotkopf S, Tirián L, Dickson B. Neural circuitry that governs Drosophila male courtship behavior. Cell. 2005;121:795-807 pubmed
    ..This circuit includes olfactory neurons required for the behavioral response to sex pheromones. Anatomical differences in this circuit that might account for the dramatic differences in male and female sexual behavior are not apparent. ..
  27. Ng C, Kopp A. Sex combs are important for male mating success in Drosophila melanogaster. Behav Genet. 2008;38:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..we genetically ablated the sex comb by expressing the female-specific isoform of the sex determination gene transformer in the tarsal segments of male legs...
  28. Hall J. The mating of a fly. Science. 1994;264:1702-14 pubmed
    ..Further behavioral mutations seemed originally to be courtship-specific, turned out not to have that property, and have led to a broadened perspective on the nature and action of Drosophila's sex-determination genes. ..
  29. Bell L, Horabin J, Schedl P, Cline T. Positive autoregulation of sex-lethal by alternative splicing maintains the female determined state in Drosophila. Cell. 1991;65:229-39 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the female determined state is maintained by Sxl through positive autoregulation, while the male determined state is maintained by default. ..
  30. Samuels M, Bopp D, Colvin R, Roscigno R, Garcia Blanco M, Schedl P. RNA binding by Sxl proteins in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:4975-90 pubmed
    ..MBP-Sxl formed two shifted complexes on a tra regulated acceptor site RNA; the doubly shifted form may have been stabilized by protein-protein interactions...
  31. Inoue K, Hoshijima K, Sakamoto H, Shimura Y. Binding of the Drosophila sex-lethal gene product to the alternative splice site of transformer primary transcript. Nature. 1990;344:461-3 pubmed
    ..for the functional female-specific splicing of the transcripts of the immediately downstream regulatory gene, transformer (tra). The first exon of the tra primary transcript is spliced to one of two acceptor sites...
  32. Pomiankowski A, Nöthiger R, Wilkins A. The evolution of the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2004;166:1761-73 pubmed
    ..Our hypothesis is built on the available data from Drosophila and other insect species, and we point out where it is amenable to further experimental and comparative tests. ..
  33. Ruiz M, Sanchez L. Effect of the gene transformer of Anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:627-33 pubmed publisher
    The gene transformer (tra) is the key regulatory memory device for sex determination in tephritid insects...
  34. Hodgkin J. The remarkable ubiquity of DM domain factors as regulators of sexual phenotype: ancestry or aptitude?. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2322-6 pubmed
  35. Manoli D, Baker B. Median bundle neurons coordinate behaviours during Drosophila male courtship. Nature. 2004;430:564-9 pubmed
    ..Our results identify a small group of median bundle neurons, that in wild-type Drosophila appropriately trigger the sequential execution of the component behaviours that constitute the Drosophila courtship ritual. ..
  36. Kimura K, Hachiya T, Koganezawa M, Tazawa T, Yamamoto D. Fruitless and doublesex coordinate to generate male-specific neurons that can initiate courtship. Neuron. 2008;59:759-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the coordinated actions of two sex determination genes, dsx and fru, confer the unique ability to initiate male-typical sexual behavior on P1 neurons. ..
  37. Tian M, Maniatis T. Positive control of pre-mRNA splicing in vitro. Science. 1992;256:237-40 pubmed Drosophila melanogaster involves the activation of a female-specific 3' splice site by the products of the transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes...
  38. Savarit F, Sureau G, Cobb M, Ferveur J. Genetic elimination of known pheromones reveals the fundamental chemical bases of mating and isolation in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9015-20 pubmed
    Overexpression of the UAS-tra transgene in Drosophila melanogaster females led to the complete elimination of their cuticular pheromones. According to current models of Drosophila behavior, these flies should induce no courtship...
  39. Rideout E, Billeter J, Goodwin S. The sex-determination genes fruitless and doublesex specify a neural substrate required for courtship song. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1473-8 pubmed
  40. Rideout E, Dornan A, Neville M, Eadie S, Goodwin S. Control of sexual differentiation and behavior by the doublesex gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that disrupting dsx neuronal function had profound effects on male sexual behavior. Furthermore, our results suggest that dsx-positive neurons are involved in pre- to post-copulatory female reproductive behaviors. ..
  41. McAllister B, McVean G. Neutral evolution of the sex-determining gene transformer in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;154:1711-20 pubmed
    The amino acid sequence of the transformer (tra) gene exhibits an extremely rapid rate of evolution among Drosophila species, although the gene performs a critical step in sex determination...
  42. Vincent S, Perkins L, Perrimon N. Doublesex surprises. Cell. 2001;106:399-402 pubmed
  43. Manoli D, Foss M, Villella A, Taylor B, Hall J, Baker B. Male-specific fruitless specifies the neural substrates of Drosophila courtship behaviour. Nature. 2005;436:395-400 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that FruM proteins specify the neural substrates of male courtship. ..
  44. Siwicki K, Riccio P, Ladewski L, Marcillac F, Dartevelle L, Cross S, et al. The role of cuticular pheromones in courtship conditioning of Drosophila males. Learn Mem. 2005;12:636-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, 9-P can contribute significantly to the conditioned suppression of male courtship toward targets that express this pheromone. ..
  45. Heinrichs V, Ryner L, Baker B. Regulation of sex-specific selection of fruitless 5' splice sites by transformer and transformer-2. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:450-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the Drosophila sex determination genes transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra-2) switch fru splicing from the male-specific pattern to the female-specific ..
  46. Mundiyanapurath S, Chan Y, Leung A, Kravitz E. Feminizing cholinergic neurons in a male Drosophila nervous system enhances aggression. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:179-84 pubmed
    ..that changing the sex of cholinergic neurons in male fruit fly nervous systems via expression of the transformer gene increases the levels of aggression shown by the flies without altering the way the flies fight...
  47. Kulathinal R, Skwarek L, Morton R, Singh R. Rapid evolution of the sex-determining gene, transformer: structural diversity and rate heterogeneity among sibling species of Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:441-52 pubmed publisher
    While developmentally regulated genes are generally conserved, transformer (tra), a key locus involved in the regulation of sexual differentiation, is highly diverged between species of Drosophila...
  48. Mullon C, Pomiankowski A, Reuter M. Molecular evolution of Drosophila Sex-lethal and related sex determining genes. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:5 pubmed publisher the master switch and cellular memory of sexual identity, a role performed in other insects by the gene transformer. Here we investigate the evolutionary change in the coding sequences of sex determining genes associated with ..
  49. Fernández M, Chan Y, Yew J, Billeter J, Dreisewerd K, Levine J, et al. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000541 pubmed publisher
    ..To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR) was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes...
  50. Valcarcel J, Singh R, Zamore P, Green M. The protein Sex-lethal antagonizes the splicing factor U2AF to regulate alternative splicing of transformer pre-mRNA. Nature. 1993;362:171-5 pubmed
    ..The protein Sex-lethal (Sxl) activates a female-specific 3' splice site in the first intron of transformer (tra) pre-mRNA while repressing an alternative non-sex-specific site...
  51. Yanowitz J, Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Schedl P. An N-terminal truncation uncouples the sex-transforming and dosage compensation functions of sex-lethal. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3018-28 pubmed
    ..This negative autoregulatory activity may be a homeostasis mechanism. ..
  52. Hertel K, Lynch K, Hsiao E, Liu E, Maniatis T. Structural and functional conservation of the Drosophila doublesex splicing enhancer repeat elements. RNA. 1996;2:969-81 pubmed
    ..sequence conservation was demonstrated by showing that the two enhancers are functionally interchangeable in Tra-/Tra2-dependent in vitro splicing...
  53. Belgacem Y, Martin J. Neuroendocrine control of a sexually dimorphic behavior by a few neurons of the pars intercerebralis in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15154-8 pubmed
  54. Arthur B, Jallon J, Caflisch B, Choffat Y, Nothiger R. Sexual behaviour in Drosophila is irreversibly programmed during a critical period. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1187-90 pubmed
    ..One sex-determining gene is transformer (tra), the activity of which is needed for female development...
  55. Kimura K, Ote M, Tazawa T, Yamamoto D. Fruitless specifies sexually dimorphic neural circuitry in the Drosophila brain. Nature. 2005;438:229-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, Fru expression can produce a male-specific neural circuit, probably used during heterosexual courtship, by preventing cell death in identifiable neurons. ..
  56. Butler B, Pirrotta V, Irminger Finger I, Nothiger R. The sex-determining gene tra of Drosophila: molecular cloning and transformation studies. EMBO J. 1986;5:3607-13 pubmed read by a key gene (Sxl) and transmitted down to the differentiation genes by the subordinate control genes tra, tra-2, ix and dsx. Mutations in tra transform chromosomal females (X/X; tra/tra) into sterile males (pseudomales)...
  57. O Dell K, Armstrong J, Yang M, Kaiser K. Functional dissection of the Drosophila mushroom bodies by selective feminization of genetically defined subcompartments. Neuron. 1995;15:55-61 pubmed
    ..We have expressed the feminizing gene transformer in genetically defined subregions of the brain of male Drosophila, and in particular within different domains ..
  58. Nagoshi R, McKeown M, Burtis K, Belote J, Baker B. The control of alternative splicing at genes regulating sexual differentiation in D. melanogaster. Cell. 1988;53:229-36 pubmed
    The transformer (tra) and doublesex (dsx) genes produce sex-specific transcripts that are generated by differential RNA processing...
  59. Gatti S, Ferveur J, Martin J. Genetic identification of neurons controlling a sexually dimorphic behaviour. Curr Biol. 2000;10:667-70 pubmed
    ..Nor does it control male courtship behaviour, because feminisation of courtship was not correlated with the feminisation of locomotor activity. ..
  60. Demir E, Dickson B. fruitless splicing specifies male courtship behavior in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;121:785-94 pubmed
    ..These females direct their courtship toward other females (or males engineered to produce female pheromones). The splicing of a single neuronal gene thus specifies essentially all aspects of a complex innate behavior. ..
  61. Samuels M, Deshpande G, Schedl P. Activities of the Sex-lethal protein in RNA binding and protein:protein interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2625-37 pubmed
    ..gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls its own expression, and the expression of downstream target genes such as transformer , by regulating pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation...
  62. Hertel K, Maniatis T. The function of multisite splicing enhancers. Mol Cell. 1998;1:449-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, the function of multisite enhancer elements to increase the probability of an interaction between the enhancer complex and the splicing machinery rather than to promote functional synergy. ..
  63. Baker B, Taylor B, Hall J. Are complex behaviors specified by dedicated regulatory genes? Reasoning from Drosophila. Cell. 2001;105:13-24 pubmed
  64. Cachero S, Ostrovsky A, Yu J, Dickson B, Jefferis G. Sexual dimorphism in the fly brain. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1589-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Reciprocal connection differences in the lateral horn offer a plausible explanation for opposing responses to sex pheromones in male and female flies. ..
  65. Lynch K, Maniatis T. Assembly of specific SR protein complexes on distinct regulatory elements of the Drosophila doublesex splicing enhancer. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2089-101 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the Drosophila regulatory proteins Transformer (Tra) and Transformer 2 (Tra2) recruit different members of the SR family of splicing factors to the repeats ..
  66. Kondoh Y, Kaneshiro K, Kimura K, Yamamoto D. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the olfactory brain of Hawaiian Drosophila. Proc Biol Sci. 2003;270:1005-13 pubmed
    ..The formation of glomeruli of male size is prevented by the ectopic expression of female-type transformer (tra) cDNA in males, indicating that the glomerular sexual dimorphism is under the control of the sex-..
  67. Dierick H, Greenspan R. Serotonin and neuropeptide F have opposite modulatory effects on fly aggression. Nat Genet. 2007;39:678-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this neuropeptide F effect seems to be independent of 5-HT. The implication of these two modulatory systems in fly and mouse aggression suggest a marked degree of conservation and a deep molecular root for this behavior. ..
  68. Dauwalder B, Tsujimoto S, Moss J, Mattox W. The Drosophila takeout gene is regulated by the somatic sex-determination pathway and affects male courtship behavior. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2879-92 pubmed
    ..When cells that normally express takeout are feminized by expression of the Transformer-F protein, male courtship behavior is dramatically reduced, suggesting that male identity in these cells is ..
  69. Chan Y, Kravitz E. Specific subgroups of FruM neurons control sexually dimorphic patterns of aggression in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19577-82 pubmed
    ..Using the GAL4/UAS system to manipulate transformer expression, we feminized or masculinized different populations of neurons in fly nervous systems...
  70. Lazareva A, Roman G, Mattox W, Hardin P, Dauwalder B. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e16 pubmed
    ..In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein. ..
  71. Mar n I, Baker B. The evolutionary dynamics of sex determination. Science. 1998;281:1990-4 pubmed
  72. Dauwalder B, Mattox W. Analysis of the functional specificity of RS domains in vivo. EMBO J. 1998;17:6049-60 pubmed from several proteins to substitute in vivo for an essential RS domain in the Drosophila splicing regulator TRA-2...
  73. Sosnowski B, Belote J, McKeown M. Sex-specific alternative splicing of RNA from the transformer gene results from sequence-dependent splice site blockage. Cell. 1989;58:449-59 pubmed
    Sex-specific alternative splicing of RNA from the Drosophila transformer gene involves competition between two 3' splice sites...
  74. Keisman E, Baker B. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy modulates wingless and decapentaplegic signaling to deploy dachshund sex-specifically in the genital imaginal disc. Development. 2001;128:1643-56 pubmed
    ..We find that the sex determination pathway acts cell-autonomously to determine whether dac is activated by wg signaling, as in females, or by dpp signaling, as in males. ..
  75. Taylor B, Truman J. Commitment of abdominal neuroblasts in Drosophila to a male or female fate is dependent on genes of the sex-determining hierarchy. Development. 1992;114:625-42 pubmed
    ..The time when neuroblasts become committed to generate their sex-specific divisions were identified by shifting tra-2ts flies between the male- and female-specifying temperatures at various times during larval development...
  76. Ferveur J, Savarit F, O Kane C, Sureau G, Greenspan R, Jallon J. Genetic feminization of pheromones and its behavioral consequences in Drosophila males. Science. 1997;276:1555-8 pubmed
    ..Complete feminization of the pheromone mixture produced by males was induced by targeted expression of the transformer gene in adult oenocytes (subcuticular abdominal cells) or by ubiquitous expression during early imaginal life...
  77. Ryner L, Goodwin S, Castrillon D, Anand A, Villella A, Baker B, et al. Control of male sexual behavior and sexual orientation in Drosophila by the fruitless gene. Cell. 1996;87:1079-89 pubmed
  78. Baker B, Ridge K. Sex and the single cell. I. On the action of major loci affecting sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1980;94:383-423 pubmed
    ..melanogaster is under the control of the X chromosome:autosome ratio and at least four major regulatory genes: transformer (tra), transformer-2 (tra-2), doublesex (dsx) and intersex (ix)...
  79. Broughton S, Kitamoto T, Greenspan R. Excitatory and inhibitory switches for courtship in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2004;14:538-47 pubmed
    ..These cells are likely to be an integration center for the multiple sensory inputs that trigger male courtship. ..
  80. Hilfiker A, Amrein H, Dübendorfer A, Schneiter R, Nothiger R. The gene virilizer is required for female-specific splicing controlled by Sxl, the master gene for sexual development in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:4017-26 pubmed
    ..They have male-specifically spliced mRNA of tra, and when rescued by msl, also of Sxl...