Gene Symbol: TpnC4
Description: Troponin C isoform 4
Alias: BcDNA:RH03361, CG12408, DmTnC4, DmTpnC41F, DmTpnCIIIb, Dmel\CG12408, TNC41F6, TnC, TnC4, Tnc4, TpnC IIIb, TpnC41F, TpnCIIIb, tnC4, troponin C , CG12408-PA, CG12408-PB, TpnC4-PA, TpnC4-PB, troponin C, troponin C 41F, troponin C4, troponin-C
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Nongthomba U, Ansari M, Thimmaiya D, Stark M, Sparrow J. Aberrant splicing of an alternative exon in the Drosophila troponin-T gene affects flight muscle development. Genetics. 2007;177:295-306 pubmed
    ..mRNA in up1 IFM reduces mRNA levels of an IFM-specific troponin I (TnI) isoform, but not actin, tropomyosin, or troponin C, suggesting a mechanism controlling expression of TnT and TnI genes may exist that must be examined in the ..
  2. Schönbauer C, Distler J, Jährling N, Radolf M, Dodt H, Frasch M, et al. Spalt mediates an evolutionarily conserved switch to fibrillar muscle fate in insects. Nature. 2011;479:406-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Spalt proteins switch myofibres from tubular to fibrillar fate during development, a function potentially conserved in the vertebrate heart--a stretch-activated muscle sharing features with insect flight muscle. ..
  3. Bryantsev A, Duong S, Brunetti T, Chechenova M, Lovato T, Nelson C, et al. Extradenticle and homothorax control adult muscle fiber identity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2012;23:664-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Because mammalian orthologs of exd and hth also contribute to muscle gene regulation, our studies suggest that an evolutionarily conserved genetic pathway determines muscle fiber differentiation. ..
  4. Qiu F, Lakey A, Agianian B, Hutchings A, Butcher G, Labeit S, et al. Troponin C in different insect muscle types: identification of two isoforms in Lethocerus, Drosophila and Anopheles that are specific to asynchronous flight muscle in the adult insect. Biochem J. 2003;371:811-21 pubmed
    ..Lethocerus and Drosophila have an unusual isoform of the Ca(2+)-binding subunit of troponin, troponin C (TnC), with a single Ca(2+)-binding site near the C-terminus (domain IV); this isoform is only in IFMs, together ..
  5. Herranz R, Díaz Castillo C, Nguyen T, Lovato T, Cripps R, Marco R. Expression patterns of the whole troponin C gene repertoire during Drosophila development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:183-90 pubmed
    ..This is the case of the Troponin C gene repertoire in Drosophila melanogaster...
  6. Díaz Castillo C, Golic K. Evolution of gene sequence in response to chromosomal location. Genetics. 2007;177:359-74 pubmed
    ..Consequently, such sequences are subject to rapid evolutionary change. By examining the Troponin C gene family of Drosophila melanogaster, which has euchromatic and heterochromatic members, we find that protein-..
  7. Singh S, Kumar P, Ramachandra N, Nongthomba U. Roles of the troponin isoforms during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila. J Genet. 2014;93:379-88 pubmed
    ..Moreover, rescue experiments conducted with troponin-I embryonic isoform in the IFMs, where flies were rendered flightless, show developmental and functional differences of TnI isoforms and importance of maintaining the right isoform. ..
  8. Nongthomba U, Clark S, Cummins M, Ansari M, Stark M, Sparrow J. Troponin I is required for myofibrillogenesis and sarcomere formation in Drosophila flight muscle. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1795-805 pubmed
  9. Herranz R, Mateos J, Marco R. Diversification and independent evolution of troponin C genes in insects. J Mol Evol. 2005;60:31-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Troponin C (TpnC), the calcium-binding subunit of the troponin regulatory complex in the muscle thin filament, is encoded by multiple genes in insects...

More Information


  1. Vikhorev P, Vikhoreva N, Cammarato A, Sparrow J. In vitro motility of native thin filaments from Drosophila indirect flight muscles reveals that the held-up 2 TnI mutation affects calcium activation. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2010;31:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is discussed with respect to calcium dependent regulation of held-up-2 thin filaments in in vitro motility. ..
  2. Spletter M, Schnorrer F. Transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing cooperate in muscle fiber-type specification in flies and mammals. Exp Cell Res. 2014;321:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, research in Drosophila can provide important mechanistic insight into muscle fiber specification, which is relevant to homologous processes in mammals and to the pathology of muscle diseases. ..
  3. Eldred C, Katzemich A, Patel M, Bullard B, Swank D. The roles of troponin C isoforms in the mechanical function of Drosophila indirect flight muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2014;35:211-23 pubmed publisher
    ..TnC1 (TnC-F2 in Lethocerus IFM) has two calcium binding sites, while an unusual isoform, TnC4 (TnC-F1 in Lethocerus IFM), has only one binding site...
  4. Firdaus H, Mohan J, Naz S, Arathi P, Ramesh S, Nongthomba U. A cis-regulatory mutation in troponin-I of Drosophila reveals the importance of proper stoichiometry of structural proteins during muscle assembly. Genetics. 2015;200:149-65 pubmed publisher
  5. Sridharan V, Heimiller J, Robida M, Singh R. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies Misregulated Genes in the Drosophila Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein (hephaestus) Mutant Defective in Spermatogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150768 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first comprehensive list of genes misregulated in vivo in the heph2 mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during spermatogenesis. ..
  6. Adame V, Chapapas H, Cisneros M, Deaton C, Deichmann S, Gadek C, et al. An undergraduate laboratory class using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to mutate drosophila genes. Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2016;44:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:263-275, 2016. ..