Tor

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tor
Description: Target of rapamycin
Alias: 5092, CG5092, CT16317, CT24745, CT24817, DmTOR, Dmel\CG5092, FRAP/TOR, TOR, TORC1, Torc1, Tor, TOR, dTOR, dTor, dtor, l(2)k17004, mTOR, mTor, tor, target of rapamycin, CG5092-PA, CG5092-PB, Target-of-rapamycin, Tor-PA, Tor-PB, target of rapamycin complex 1, target of rapamycin kinase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Berry D, Baehrecke E. Growth arrest and autophagy are required for salivary gland cell degradation in Drosophila. Cell. 2007;131:1137-48 pubmed
  2. Bjedov I, Toivonen J, Kerr F, Slack C, Jacobson J, Foley A, et al. Mechanisms of life span extension by rapamycin in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Metab. 2010;11:35-46 pubmed publisher
    The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway is a major nutrient-sensing pathway that, when genetically downregulated, increases life span in evolutionarily diverse organisms including mammals...
  3. Grewal S, Evans J, Edgar B. Drosophila TIF-IA is required for ribosome synthesis and cell growth and is regulated by the TOR pathway. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1105-13 pubmed
    ..We find that the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway regulates TIF-IA recruitment to rDNA...
  4. Katewa S, Kapahi P. Role of TOR signaling in aging and related biological processes in Drosophila melanogaster. Exp Gerontol. 2011;46:382-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The conserved nutrient sensing TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway is emerging as a key regulator of lifespan and healthspan in various species from yeast to mammals...
  5. LaFever L, Feoktistov A, Hsu H, Drummond Barbosa D. Specific roles of Target of rapamycin in the control of stem cells and their progeny in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2010;137:2117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Target of rapamycin, or TOR, is part of a highly conserved nutrient-sensing pathway affecting growth, proliferation, survival ..
  6. Nisoli I, Chauvin J, Napoletano F, Calamita P, Zanin V, Fanto M, et al. Neurodegeneration by polyglutamine Atrophin is not rescued by induction of autophagy. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1577-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus provide a crucial insight into the specific mechanism of a polyglutamine disease and reveal important differences in the role of autophagy with respect to other diseases of the same family. ..
  7. Kapahi P, Zid B, Harper T, Koslover D, Sapin V, Benzer S. Regulation of lifespan in Drosophila by modulation of genes in the TOR signaling pathway. Curr Biol. 2004;14:885-90 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the target of rapamycin (TOR) and the insulin pathways have emerged as major regulators of growth and size...
  8. Vargas M, Luo N, Yamaguchi A, Kapahi P. A role for S6 kinase and serotonin in postmating dietary switch and balance of nutrients in D. melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1006-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that TOR signaling and serotonin may play an important role in maintaining nutrient balance in D. melanogaster...
  9. Juhasz G, Hill J, Yan Y, Sass M, Baehrecke E, Backer J, et al. The class III PI(3)K Vps34 promotes autophagy and endocytosis but not TOR signaling in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Vps34 may also transduce activating nutrient signals to mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR), a negative regulator of autophagy...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Koike Kumagai M, Yasunaga K, Morikawa R, Kanamori T, Emoto K. The target of rapamycin complex 2 controls dendritic tiling of Drosophila sensory neurons through the Tricornered kinase signalling pathway. EMBO J. 2009;28:3879-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We here report that Sin1, Rictor, and target of rapamycin (TOR), components of the TOR complex 2 (TORC2), are required for dendritic tiling of class IV da neurons...
  2. Zhang Y, Billington C, Pan D, Neufeld T. Drosophila target of rapamycin kinase functions as a multimer. Genetics. 2006;172:355-62 pubmed
    b>Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a conserved regulator of cell growth and metabolism that integrates energy, growth factor, and nutrient signals...
  3. Jacinto E, Hall M. Tor signalling in bugs, brain and brawn. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003;4:117-26 pubmed
    TOR--a highly conserved atypical protein kinase and the 'target of rapamycin', an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug--controls cell growth...
  4. Grewal S. Controlling animal growth and body size - does fruit fly physiology point the way?. F1000 Biol Rep. 2012;4:12 pubmed publisher
    ..While this concept is obviously not new, these fly studies now open up the possibility of using a genetically tractable system to dissect in detail how organ-to-organ communication dictates body size. ..
  5. Harvey K, Mattila J, Sofer A, Bennett F, Ramsey M, Ellisen L, et al. FOXO-regulated transcription restricts overgrowth of Tsc mutant organs. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, a growth-suppressive role for FOXO under conditions of increased target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity was described. Here, we further characterize this phenomenon...
  6. Khurana V, Lu Y, Steinhilb M, Oldham S, Shulman J, Feany M. TOR-mediated cell-cycle activation causes neurodegeneration in a Drosophila tauopathy model. Curr Biol. 2006;16:230-41 pubmed
    ..As in AD, TOR (target of rapamycin kinase) activity is increased in our model and is required for neurodegeneration...
  7. Findlay G, Yan L, Procter J, Mieulet V, Lamb R. A MAP4 kinase related to Ste20 is a nutrient-sensitive regulator of mTOR signalling. Biochem J. 2007;403:13-20 pubmed
    The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is a key regulator of cell growth and is controlled by growth factors and nutrients such as amino acids...
  8. Kim E, Goraksha Hicks P, Li L, Neufeld T, Guan K. Regulation of TORC1 by Rag GTPases in nutrient response. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:935-45 pubmed publisher
    TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1) has a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth and size. A wide range of signals, including amino acids, is known to activate TORC1...
  9. Kenyon C. The plasticity of aging: insights from long-lived mutants. Cell. 2005;120:449-60 pubmed
    ..Many mutations affecting longevity pathways delay age-related disease, and the molecular analysis of these pathways is leading to a mechanistic understanding of how these two processes--aging and disease susceptibility--are linked. ..
  10. Yang Q, Inoki K, Kim E, Guan K. TSC1/TSC2 and Rheb have different effects on TORC1 and TORC2 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6811-6 pubmed
    b>Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a central role in cell growth regulation by integrating signals from growth factors, nutrients, and cellular energy levels...
  11. Kim M, Park H, Park H, Ro S, Nam S, Reed J, et al. Drosophila Fip200 is an essential regulator of autophagy that attenuates both growth and aging. Autophagy. 2013;9:1201-13 pubmed publisher
    ..moderate downregulation of Fip200 accelerated both developmental growth and aging, accompanied by target of rapamycin (Tor) signaling upregulation...
  12. Ribeiro C, Dickson B. Sex peptide receptor and neuronal TOR/S6K signaling modulate nutrient balancing in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal TOR/S6K function is another critical input to this decision, possibly signaling the fly's current nutritional status...
  13. Rusten T, Lindmo K, Juhasz G, Sass M, Seglen P, Brech A, et al. Programmed autophagy in the Drosophila fat body is induced by ecdysone through regulation of the PI3K pathway. Dev Cell. 2004;7:179-92 pubmed
    ..The Tor and PI3K signaling pathways have been shown to negatively control autophagy in eukaryotes, but the mechanisms that ..
  14. Luong N, Davies C, Wessells R, Graham S, King M, Veech R, et al. Activated FOXO-mediated insulin resistance is blocked by reduction of TOR activity. Cell Metab. 2006;4:133-42 pubmed
    ..The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) responds to changes in growth factors, amino acids, oxygen tension, and energy status; however, it is ..
  15. Teleman A. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation by insulin in Drosophila. Biochem J. 2009;425:13-26 pubmed publisher
    ..I discuss both the intracellular signalling network, as well as the communication between organs in the fly. ..
  16. Kaplan D, Zimmermann G, Suyama K, Meyer T, Scott M. A nucleostemin family GTPase, NS3, acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and control body size. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1877-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral insulin pathway activation rescues the growth defects of ns3 mutants. The findings suggest that NS3 acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and thus exert global growth control. ..
  17. Manning B, Cantley L. Rheb fills a GAP between TSC and TOR. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003;28:573-6 pubmed
    ..these genetic, biochemical and cell-biological studies have demonstrated that the tuberin-hamartin complex inhibits target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling by acting as a GTPase-activating protein for the Ras-related small G protein Rheb.
  18. Lanet E, Gould A, Maurange C. Protection of neuronal diversity at the expense of neuronal numbers during nutrient restriction in the Drosophila visual system. Cell Rep. 2013;3:587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..During early larval stages, nutrients regulate the size of the neural progenitor pool via insulin/PI3K/TOR-dependent symmetric neuroepithelial divisions...
  19. Oldham S, Hafen E. Insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signaling: a TOR de force in growth control. Trends Cell Biol. 2003;13:79-85 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes current studies primarily from Drosophila regarding the function of the insulin/IGF system in the control of growth. ..
  20. Liu S, Lu B. Reduction of protein translation and activation of autophagy protect against PINK1 pathogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001237 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal complex cellular responses to PINK1 inactivation and suggest novel therapeutic strategies through manipulation of the compensatory responses. ..
  21. Wu Q, Brown M. Signaling and function of insulin-like peptides in insects. Annu Rev Entomol. 2006;51:1-24 pubmed
  22. Robinson B, Huang J, Hong Y, Moberg K. Crumbs regulates Salvador/Warts/Hippo signaling in Drosophila via the FERM-domain protein Expanded. Curr Biol. 2010;20:582-90 pubmed publisher
  23. Rajan A, Perrimon N. Of flies and men: insights on organismal metabolism from fruit flies. BMC Biol. 2013;11:38 pubmed publisher
  24. Sun P, Quan Z, Zhang B, Wu T, Xi R. TSC1/2 tumour suppressor complex maintains Drosophila germline stem cells by preventing differentiation. Development. 2010;137:2461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..complex human disease gene products TSC1 and TSC2 form a functional complex that negatively regulates target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionarily conserved kinase that plays a central role in cell growth and metabolism...
  25. Hennig K, Neufeld T. Inhibition of cellular growth and proliferation by dTOR overexpression in Drosophila. Genesis. 2002;34:107-10 pubmed
  26. Rehmann H, Bruning M, Berghaus C, Schwarten M, Kohler K, Stocker H, et al. Biochemical characterisation of TCTP questions its function as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rheb. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Rheb functions in the PI3 kinase/mTOR pathway. The study presented here was initiated to characterise the interaction between TCTP and Rheb biochemically...
  27. Lizcano J, Alrubaie S, Kieloch A, Deak M, Leevers S, Alessi D. Insulin-induced Drosophila S6 kinase activation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B. Biochem J. 2003;374:297-306 pubmed
    ..amino-acid-induced activation of dS6K in the absence of insulin, thought to be mediated by dTOR (Drosophila target of rapamycin), which is unaffected by the inhibition of dPI3K by wortmannin...
  28. Lee S, Kim S, Lee J, Park J, Lee G, Kim Y, et al. ATG1, an autophagy regulator, inhibits cell growth by negatively regulating S6 kinase. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:360-5 pubmed
    ..gene 1 (ATG1), an autophagy-regulating kinase, and found that ATG1 is a negative regulator of the target of rapamycin (TOR)/S6 kinase (S6K) pathway...
  29. Tang H, Smith Caldas M, Driscoll M, Salhadar S, Shingleton A. FOXO regulates organ-specific phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002373 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the extent of phenotypic plasticity may be modified by changes in the expression of genes involved in signaling environmental information to developmental processes. ..
  30. Penney J, Tsurudome K, Liao E, Elazzouzi F, Livingstone M, González M, et al. TOR is required for the retrograde regulation of synaptic homeostasis at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2012;74:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Exploiting Drosophila genetics, we have uncovered a critical role for the target of rapamycin (TOR) in the regulation of synaptic homeostasis at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction...
  31. Sarbassov D, Guertin D, Ali S, Sabatini D. Phosphorylation and regulation of Akt/PKB by the rictor-mTOR complex. Science. 2005;307:1098-101 pubmed
    ..We show that in Drosophila and human cells the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase and its associated protein rictor are necessary for Ser473 phosphorylation and that a ..
  32. Bryk B, Hahn K, Cohen S, Teleman A. MAP4K3 regulates body size and metabolism in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2010;344:150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the physiological characterization of MAP4K3 mutant flies. Flies lacking MAP4K3 have reduced TORC1 activity detected by phosphorylation of S6K and 4EBP...
  33. Partridge L, Alic N, Bjedov I, Piper M. Ageing in Drosophila: the role of the insulin/Igf and TOR signalling network. Exp Gerontol. 2011;46:376-81 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor and Target of Rapamycin signalling network has proved to play a function in ageing, from yeast to mammals, seemingly including ..
  34. Wang T, Lao U, Edgar B. TOR-mediated autophagy regulates cell death in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:703-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a regulator of cell growth. TOR activity can also enhance cell death, and the TOR inhibitor rapamycin protects cells against proapoptotic stimuli...
  35. Layalle S, Arquier N, Leopold P. The TOR pathway couples nutrition and developmental timing in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..When activity of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR), a core component of the nutrient-responsive pathway, is reduced in the PG, the ecdysone peak that ..
  36. Stanfel M, Shamieh L, Kaeberlein M, Kennedy B. The TOR pathway comes of age. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..on nutrient-responsive signal transduction pathways including insulin/IGF-1, AMP kinase, protein kinase A and the TOR pathway. Here we describe the increasingly prominent links between TOR signaling and aging in invertebrates...
  37. Chang Y, Neufeld T. An Atg1/Atg13 complex with multiple roles in TOR-mediated autophagy regulation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2004-14 pubmed publisher
    The TOR kinases are conserved negative regulators of autophagy in response to nutrient conditions, but the signaling mechanisms are poorly understood...
  38. Goberdhan D, Meredith D, Boyd C, Wilson C. PAT-related amino acid transporters regulate growth via a novel mechanism that does not require bulk transport of amino acids. Development. 2005;132:2365-75 pubmed
    ..Both signals modulate activity of the intracellular TOR kinase, with nutrients at least partly acting through changes in intracellular amino acid levels mediated by amino ..
  39. Marshall L, Rideout E, Grewal S. Nutrient/TOR-dependent regulation of RNA polymerase III controls tissue and organismal growth in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2012;31:1916-30 pubmed publisher
    The nutrient/target-of-rapamycin (TOR) pathway has emerged as a key regulator of tissue and organismal growth in metazoans...
  40. Mosimann C, Hausmann G, Basler K. Parafibromin/Hyrax activates Wnt/Wg target gene transcription by direct association with beta-catenin/Armadillo. Cell. 2006;125:327-41 pubmed
  41. Colombani J, Raisin S, Pantalacci S, Radimerski T, Montagne J, Leopold P. A nutrient sensor mechanism controls Drosophila growth. Cell. 2003;114:739-49 pubmed
    ..This involves TSC/TOR signaling in the fat body, and a remote inhibition of organismal growth via local repression of PI3-kinase ..
  42. Stocker H, Radimerski T, Schindelholz B, Wittwer F, Belawat P, Daram P, et al. Rheb is an essential regulator of S6K in controlling cell growth in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:559-65 pubmed
    ..that Rheb functions downstream of the tumour suppressors Tsc1 (tuberous sclerosis 1)-Tsc2 in the TOR (target of rapamycin) signalling pathway to control growth, and that a major effector of Rheb function is ribosomal S6 kinase (..
  43. Dekanty A, Lavista Llanos S, Irisarri M, Oldham S, Wappner P. The insulin-PI3K/TOR pathway induces a HIF-dependent transcriptional response in Drosophila by promoting nuclear localization of HIF-alpha/Sima. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5431-41 pubmed
    ..we determined that the effect of insulin on HIF-dependent transcriptional induction is mediated by PI3K-AKT and TOR pathways...
  44. Sarbassov D, Ali S, Kim D, Guertin D, Latek R, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. Rictor, a novel binding partner of mTOR, defines a rapamycin-insensitive and raptor-independent pathway that regulates the cytoskeleton. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1296-302 pubmed
    ..mTOR is a large protein kinase and the target of rapamycin, an immunosuppressant that also blocks vessel restenosis and has potential anticancer applications...
  45. Radimerski T, Montagne J, Hemmings Mieszczak M, Thomas G. Lethality of Drosophila lacking TSC tumor suppressor function rescued by reducing dS6K signaling. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2627-32 pubmed
    ..More importantly, we demonstrate that reducing dS6K signaling rescues early larval lethality associated with loss of dTsc1/2 function, arguing that the S6K pathway is a promising target for the treatment of TSC. ..
  46. Knox S, Ge H, Dimitroff B, Ren Y, Howe K, Arsham A, et al. Mechanisms of TSC-mediated control of synapse assembly and axon guidance. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e375 pubmed
    ..TSC2 deregulate a conserved growth control pathway that includes Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) and Target of Rapamycin (TOR)...
  47. Hennig K, Colombani J, Neufeld T. TOR coordinates bulk and targeted endocytosis in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body to regulate cell growth. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:963-74 pubmed
    b>Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a central regulator of cellular and organismal growth in response to nutrient conditions...
  48. Cheng L, Bailey A, Leevers S, Ragan T, Driscoll P, Gould A. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase spares organ growth during nutrient restriction in Drosophila. Cell. 2011;146:435-47 pubmed publisher
    ..First, Alk suppresses the growth requirement for amino acid sensing via Slimfast/Rheb/TOR complex 1. And second, Alk, rather than insulin-like receptor, primarily activates PI3-kinase...
  49. Gingras A, Raught B, Sonenberg N. Regulation of translation initiation by FRAP/mTOR. Genes Dev. 2001;15:807-26 pubmed
  50. Birse R, Choi J, Reardon K, Rodriguez J, Graham S, Diop S, et al. High-fat-diet-induced obesity and heart dysfunction are regulated by the TOR pathway in Drosophila. Cell Metab. 2010;12:533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, these metabolic and cardiotoxic phenotypes elicited by HFD are blocked by inhibiting insulin-TOR signaling...
  51. Kockel L, Kerr K, Melnick M, Brückner K, Hebrok M, Perrimon N. Dynamic switch of negative feedback regulation in Drosophila Akt-TOR signaling. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000990 pubmed publisher
    ..dAkt activation under wild-type conditions is defined by feedback inhibition that depends on TOR Complex 1 (TORC1), but is S6K-independent...
  52. Hariharan I. Growth regulation: a beginning for the hippo pathway. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R1037-9 pubmed
    ..A signaling pathway involving two protein kinases, Hippo and Warts, restricts the growth of imaginal discs in Drosophila. Four recent studies taken together show that the protocadherin Fat can regulate Warts in two different ways. ..
  53. Gao X, Zhang Y, Arrazola P, Hino O, Kobayashi T, Yeung R, et al. Tsc tumour suppressor proteins antagonize amino-acid-TOR signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:699-704 pubmed
    b>Target of Rapamycin (TOR) mediates a signalling pathway that couples amino acid availability to S6 kinase (S6K) activation, translational initiation and cell growth...
  54. Tapon N, Moberg K, Hariharan I. The coupling of cell growth to the cell cycle. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:731-7 pubmed
    ..This work has revealed interesting and unexpected relationships between mechanisms that regulate growth and the cell cycle machinery. ..
  55. Pan D, Dong J, Zhang Y, Gao X. Tuberous sclerosis complex: from Drosophila to human disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:78-85 pubmed
    ..complex functions as GTPase activating protein against Rheb - a Ras-like small GTPase, which in turn regulates TOR signaling in nutrient-stimulated cell growth...
  56. Oldham S, Bohni R, Stocker H, Brogiolo W, Hafen E. Genetic control of size in Drosophila. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000;355:945-52 pubmed
    ..In this article we will review recent evidence from vertebrates and particularly from Drosophila that implicates insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I and other growth pathways in the control of cell, organ and body size. ..
  57. Li L, Edgar B, Grewal S. Nutritional control of gene expression in Drosophila larvae via TOR, Myc and a novel cis-regulatory element. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:7 pubmed publisher
    ..The conserved insulin/PI3K and TOR signaling pathways mediate nutrition-dependent growth in Drosophila and other animals...
  58. Radimerski T, Montagne J, Rintelen F, Stocker H, van der Kaay J, Downes C, et al. dS6K-regulated cell growth is dPKB/dPI(3)K-independent, but requires dPDK1. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:251-5 pubmed
    ..consistent with arguments that dS6K is a distal effector in the signalling pathway, directly controlled by dTOR, a downstream effector of dPI(3)K and dPKB...
  59. Wessells R, Fitzgerald E, Piazza N, Ocorr K, Morley S, Davies C, et al. d4eBP acts downstream of both dTOR and dFoxo to modulate cardiac functional aging in Drosophila. Aging Cell. 2009;8:542-52 pubmed publisher
    dTOR (target of rapamycin) and dFoxo respond to changes in the nutritional environment to induce a broad range of responses in multiple tissue types...
  60. Teleman A, Chen Y, Cohen S. 4E-BP functions as a metabolic brake used under stress conditions but not during normal growth. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1844-8 pubmed
    ..4E-BP activity is controlled by TOR (Target of Rapamycin)...
  61. Nuzhdin S, Brisson J, Pickering A, Wayne M, Harshman L, McIntyre L. Natural genetic variation in transcriptome reflects network structure inferred with major effect mutations: insulin/TOR and associated phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:124 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus on the latter problem by describing genetic variation in transcript levels of genes in the InR/TOR pathway among 72 Drosophila melanogaster genotypes...
  62. Hall D, Grewal S, de la Cruz A, Edgar B. Rheb-TOR signaling promotes protein synthesis, but not glucose or amino acid import, in Drosophila. BMC Biol. 2007;5:10 pubmed
    ..Genetic and biochemical tests place Rheb upstream of the target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase, and downstream of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1/TSC2) and the insulin-..
  63. Scott R, Juhasz G, Neufeld T. Direct induction of autophagy by Atg1 inhibits cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1-11 pubmed
    ..in these processes is lacking, resulting in part from the pleiotropic effects of signaling molecules such as TOR that regulate autophagy...
  64. Teleman A, Chen Y, Cohen S. Drosophila Melted modulates FOXO and TOR activity. Dev Cell. 2005;9:271-81 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that in the melted mutant, TOR activity is reduced and FOXO is activated...
  65. McNeill H, Craig G, Bateman J. Regulation of neurogenesis and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling by the insulin receptor/target of rapamycin pathway in Drosophila. Genetics. 2008;179:843-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that growth and neuronal differentiation are coordinated by the insulin receptor/target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase (InR/TOR) pathway...
  66. Scott R, Schuldiner O, Neufeld T. Role and regulation of starvation-induced autophagy in the Drosophila fat body. Dev Cell. 2004;7:167-78 pubmed
    ..Autophagy is known to be inhibited by TOR signaling, but the mechanisms of autophagy regulation and its role in TOR-mediated cell growth are unclear...
  67. Sousa Nunes R, Yee L, Gould A. Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in Drosophila. Nature. 2011;471:508-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide in vivo evidence that Slimfast amino-acid sensing and Target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling activate a fat-body-derived signal (FDS) required for neuroblast reactivation...
  68. Saucedo L, Gao X, Chiarelli D, Li L, Pan D, Edgar B. Rheb promotes cell growth as a component of the insulin/TOR signalling network. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:566-71 pubmed
    ..cell growth and has been proposed to function, at least in part, through the conserved protein kinase TOR (target of rapamycin) [corrected]...
  69. Lee J, Budanov A, Park E, Birse R, Kim T, Perkins G, et al. Sestrin as a feedback inhibitor of TOR that prevents age-related pathologies. Science. 2010;327:1223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to stress, potentiate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibit activation of target of rapamycin (TOR)...
  70. Oldham S, Montagne J, Radimerski T, Thomas G, Hafen E. Genetic and biochemical characterization of dTOR, the Drosophila homolog of the target of rapamycin. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2689-94 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the identification of the Drosophila homolog of the target of rapamycin (TOR), a candidate effector for nutritional sensing...