Gene Symbol: Top2
Description: Topoisomerase 2
Alias: CG10223, CHRAC, Dmel\CG10223, TOP2, TOPO II, TOPOII, TopII, Topo II, TopoII, dCHRAC, dTopoII, suo, top2, topo II, topoII, topoisomerase 2, CG10223-PA, CG10223-PB, DNA topoisomerase II, DNA topoisomeriase II, Top 2, Top2-PA, Top2-PB, Topoisomerase2, solofuso, topoisomerase II, type II DNA topoisomerase, type II topoisomerase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hohl A, Thompson M, Soshnev A, Wu J, Morris J, Hsieh T, et al. Restoration of topoisomerase 2 function by complementation of defective monomers in Drosophila. Genetics. 2012;192:843-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a genetic screen that generated novel alleles of Drosophila Topoisomerase 2 (Top2). Fifteen alleles were obtained, resulting from nonsense and missense mutations...
  2. Ramos E, Torre E, Bushey A, Gurudatta B, Corces V. DNA topoisomerase II modulates insulator function in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16562 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that DNA Topoisomerase II modulates the activity of the Su(Hw) insulator...
  3. Williams B, Bateman J, Novikov N, Wu C. Disruption of topoisomerase II perturbs pairing in drosophila cell culture. Genetics. 2007;177:31-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data indicate that disrupting Drosophila topoisomerase II (Top2) gene function with RNAi and chemical inhibitors perturbs homolog pairing, suggesting Top2 to be a gene ..
  4. Savvidou E, Cobbe N, Steffensen S, Cotterill S, Heck M. Drosophila CAP-D2 is required for condensin complex stability and resolution of sister chromatids. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2529-43 pubmed
    ..of CAP-D2 after RNAi has additional downstream consequences on the stability of CAP-H, the localization of DNA topoisomerase II and other condensin subunits, and chromosome segregation...
  5. Buchenau P, Saumweber H, Arndt Jovin D. Consequences of topoisomerase II inhibition in early embryogenesis of Drosophila revealed by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy. J Cell Sci. 1993;104 ( Pt 4):1175-85 pubmed
    The regulation of DNA topology by topoisomerase II from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied extensively by biochemical methods but little is known about its roles in vivo...
  6. Palopoli M, Wu C. Rapid evolution of a coadapted gene complex: evidence from the Segregation Distorter (SD) system of meiotic drive in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1996;143:1675-88 pubmed
    ..Finally, the large genomic region hitchhiking with SD indicates that a multilocus, epistatically selected system could affect the levels of DNA polymorphism observed in regions of reduced recombination...
  7. Sander M, Hsieh T. Double strand DNA cleavage by type II DNA topoisomerase from Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:8421-8 pubmed
    The purified type II DNA topoisomerase from the embryos of Drosophila melanogaster exists in its native form as a dimer of 170,000-dalton polypeptides...
  8. Gemkow M, Dichter J, Arndt Jovin D. Developmental regulation of DNA-topoisomerases during Drosophila embryogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2001;262:114-21 pubmed
    ..Expression patterns for topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II during the embryogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster were compared with patterns of DNA replication and ..
  9. Powers P, Ganetzky B. On the components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster. V. Molecular analysis of the Sd locus. Genetics. 1991;129:133-44 pubmed
    ..This result, taken together with our analysis of the Sd cDNAs, suggests that the duplication is part of a much larger gene that encodes several different polypeptides. ..

More Information


  1. Coelho P, Queiroz Machado J, Sunkel C. Condensin-dependent localisation of topoisomerase II to an axial chromosomal structure is required for sister chromatid resolution during mitosis. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4763-76 pubmed
    ..b>Topoisomerase II, however, binds mitotic chromatin after depletion of DmSMC4 but it is no longer confined to a central axial ..
  2. Chang C, Goulding S, Earnshaw W, Carmena M. RNAi analysis reveals an unexpected role for topoisomerase II in chromosome arm congression to a metaphase plate. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4715-26 pubmed
    b>DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) is a major component of mitotic chromosomes and an important drug target in cancer chemotherapy, however, its role in chromosome structure and dynamics remains controversial...
  3. Lyttle T. Cheaters sometimes prosper: distortion of mendelian segregation by meiotic drive. Trends Genet. 1993;9:205-10 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, there is a small, but important, group of genetic systems that subvert the law of segregation, and show 'meiotic drive'. ..
  4. Wyckoff E, Hsieh T. Functional expression of a Drosophila gene in yeast: genetic complementation of DNA topoisomerase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:6272-6 pubmed
    Since DNA topoisomerase II (EC 5.99.1...
  5. Lupo R, Breiling A, Bianchi M, Orlando V. Drosophila chromosome condensation proteins Topoisomerase II and Barren colocalize with Polycomb and maintain Fab-7 PRE silencing. Mol Cell. 2001;7:127-36 pubmed
    ..We show that Topoisomerase II (TOPOII) and Barren (BARR) interact in vivo with Polycomb group (PcG) target sequences in the bithorax ..
  6. Wyckoff E, Natalie D, Nolan J, Lee M, Hsieh T. Structure of the Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II gene. Nucleotide sequence and homology among topoisomerases II. J Mol Biol. 1989;205:1-13 pubmed
    ..into three domains: (1) an N-terminal region with homology to the B (ATPase) subunit of the bacterial type II topoisomerase, DNA gyrase; (2) a central region with homology to the A (breaking and rejoining) subunit of DNA gyrase; (..
  7. Udvardy A, Schedl P. Chromatin structure, not DNA sequence specificity, is the primary determinant of topoisomerase II sites of action in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:4973-84 pubmed
    In the studies reported here we have used topoisomerase II as a model system for analyzing the factors that determine the sites of action for DNA-binding proteins in vivo...
  8. Blattes R, Monod C, Susbielle G, Cuvier O, Wu J, Hsieh T, et al. Displacement of D1, HP1 and topoisomerase II from satellite heterochromatin by a specific polyamide. EMBO J. 2006;25:2397-408 pubmed
    ..This displacement in turn results in a selective loss of HP1 and topoisomerase II from SAT III, while these proteins remain bound to the adjacent rDNA repeats and to other regions not ..
  9. Varga Weisz P, Wilm M, Bonte E, Dumas K, Mann M, Becker P. Chromatin-remodelling factor CHRAC contains the ATPases ISWI and topoisomerase II. Nature. 1997;388:598-602 pubmed
    ..we identified two of the five CHRAC subunits as the ATPase ISWI, which is also part of NURF, and topoisomerase II. The presence of ISWI in different contexts suggests that chromatin remodelling machines have a modular ..
  10. Bhat M, Philp A, Glover D, Bellen H. Chromatid segregation at anaphase requires the barren product, a novel chromosome-associated protein that interacts with Topoisomerase II. Cell. 1996;87:1103-14 pubmed
    ..Colocalization and biochemical experiments indicate that Barren associates with Topoisomerase II throughout mitosis and alters the activity of Topoisomerase II...
  11. Hsieh T, Brutlag D. ATP-dependent DNA topoisonmerase from D. melanogaster reversibly catenates duplex DNA rings. Cell. 1980;21:115-25 pubmed
    ..The presence of an enzyme that allows one DNA helix to pass freely through another could not only be useful in relaxation of topological constraints, but also may be involved in the folding and unfolding of eucaryotic chromosomes. ..
  12. Swedlow J, Sedat J, Agard D. Multiple chromosomal populations of topoisomerase II detected in vivo by time-lapse, three-dimensional wide-field microscopy. Cell. 1993;73:97-108 pubmed
    The localization of topoisomerase II (topo II) in vivo was studied by recording time-lapse, three-dimensional data sets of living Drosophila melanogaster embryos injected with rhodamine-labeled topo II...
  13. Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila mutants fusolo and solofuso are severely defective in chromosome segregation and produce secondary spermatocytes that are devoid of ..
  14. Meller V, Fisher P, Berrios M. Intranuclear distribution of DNA topoisomerase II and chromatin. Chromosome Res. 1995;3:255-60 pubmed
    Domain-specific anti-Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II antibodies were generated, affinity purified and used for confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy...
  15. Coelho P, Queiroz Machado J, Carmo A, Moutinho Pereira S, Maiato H, Sunkel C. Dual role of topoisomerase II in centromere resolution and aurora B activity. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e207 pubmed publisher
    ..Condensins are essential for this process since they organize an axial structure where topoisomerase II can work...
  16. Borgnetto M, Zunino F, Tinelli S, Kas E, Capranico G. Drug-specific sites of topoisomerase II DNA cleavage in Drosophila chromatin: heterogeneous localization and reversibility. Cancer Res. 1996;56:1855-62 pubmed
    DNA cleavage stimulated by different topoisomerase II inhibitors shows in vitro a characteristic sequence specificity...
  17. Crenshaw D, Hsieh T. Function of the hydrophilic carboxyl terminus of type II DNA topoisomerase from Drosophila melanogaster. II. In vivo studies. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:21335-43 pubmed
    ..the ability of the enzyme to substitute for a conditional lethal, or null mutation, of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae top2 gene...
  18. Ferree P, Barbash D. Species-specific heterochromatin prevents mitotic chromosome segregation to cause hybrid lethality in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000234 pubmed publisher
    ..produced from wild-type parents, the 359-bp satellite block was highly stretched and abnormally enriched with Topoisomerase II throughout mitosis. The 359-bp satellite block is not present in D...
  19. Corona D, Eberharter A, Budde A, Deuring R, Ferrari S, Varga Weisz P, et al. Two histone fold proteins, CHRAC-14 and CHRAC-16, are developmentally regulated subunits of chromatin accessibility complex (CHRAC). EMBO J. 2000;19:3049-59 pubmed
    ..The chromatin accessibility complex (CHRAC) is a biochemical entity containing ISWI in association with several other proteins...
  20. Gregory P, Hörz W. Chromatin and transcription--how transcription factors battle with a repressive chromatin environment. Eur J Biochem. 1998;251:9-18 pubmed
    ..These data provide the latest and potentially most significant demonstration of the importance of the nucleosome in the regulation of transcription. ..
  21. Burden D, Kingma P, Froelich Ammon S, Bjornsti M, Patchan M, Thompson R, et al. Topoisomerase II.etoposide interactions direct the formation of drug-induced enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:29238-44 pubmed
    b>Topoisomerase II is the target for several highly active anticancer drugs that induce cell death by enhancing enzyme-mediated DNA scission...
  22. Kroeger P, Rowe T. Analysis of topoisomerase I and II cleavage sites on the Drosophila actin and Hsp70 heat shock genes. Biochemistry. 1992;31:2492-501 pubmed
    ..hsp70 genes in Drosophila Kc cells using the inhibitors camptothecin (topoisomerase I specific) and VM-26 (topoisomerase II specific) to assess the role of these enzymes in transcriptional regulation...
  23. Hsieh T, Lee M, Nolan J, Wyckoff E. Molecular genetic analysis of topoisomerase II gene from Drosophila melanogaster. NCI Monogr. 1987;:7-10 pubmed
    The gene encoding the Drosophila type II DNA topoisomerase has been isolated and characterized...
  24. Jongens T, Fowler T, Shermoen A, Beckendorf S. Functional redundancy in the tissue-specific enhancer of the Drosophila Sgs-4 gene. EMBO J. 1988;7:2559-67 pubmed
    ..For at least this regulatory activity the enhancer is internally redundant. Any pairwise combination of the three elements is sufficient to direct salivary gland expression, although none of the three can act alone. ..
  25. Lee M, Hsieh T. Incomplete reversion of double stranded DNA cleavage mediated by Drosophila topoisomerase II: formation of single stranded DNA cleavage complex in the presence of an anti-tumor drug VM26. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5027-33 pubmed
    Anti-tumor drug VM26 greatly stimulates topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage by stabilizing the cleavable complex. Addition of a strong detergent such as SDS to the cleavable complex induces the double stranded DNA cleavage...
  26. Eder J, Chan V, Niemierko E, Teicher B, Schnipper L. Conditional expression of wild-type topoisomerase II complements a mutant enzyme in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13844-9 pubmed
    Alterations in the amino acid composition, phosphorylation pattern, or intracellular levels of topoisomerase II have been associated with resistance to antineoplastic agents whose effects are mediated through interactions with this enzyme...
  27. Kobayashi M, Hirose S. Functional dissection of DNA supercoiling factor: EF-hand domains and C-terminal HDEF motif are essential for its activity. Genes Cells. 1999;4:33-40 pubmed a protein capable of generating negative supercoils into a relaxed DNA in conjunction with eukaryotic topoisomerase II. Drosophila melanogaster SCF localizes to puffs on polytene chromosomes, implicating its role in gene ..
  28. Meller V, McConnell M, Fisher P. An RNase-sensitive particle containing Drosophila melanogaster DNA topoisomerase II. J Cell Biol. 1994;126:1331-40 pubmed
    Most DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) in cell-free extracts of 0-2-h old Drosophila embryos appears to be nonnuclear and remains in the supernatant after low-speed centrifugation (10,000 g)...
  29. Schuldiner O, Berdnik D, Levy J, Wu J, Luginbuhl D, Gontang A, et al. piggyBac-based mosaic screen identifies a postmitotic function for cohesin in regulating developmental axon pruning. Dev Cell. 2008;14:227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate a postmitotic role for SMC1 in dendrite targeting of olfactory projection neurons. We suggest that cohesin regulates diverse aspects of neuronal morphogenesis...
  30. Chang S, Hu T, Hsieh T. Analysis of a core domain in Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II. Targeting of an antitumor agent ICRF-159. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19822-8 pubmed of individual domains of eukaryotic topoisomerase (topo) II, two truncation mutants of Drosophila topo II were generated, ND406 and core domain...
  31. Ito T, Bulger M, Pazin M, Kobayashi R, Kadonaga J. ACF, an ISWI-containing and ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor. Cell. 1997;90:145-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ACF acts catalytically both in chromatin assembly and in the remodeling of nucleosomes that occurs during transcriptional activation. ..
  32. Pimenta Marques A, Tostões R, Marty T, Barbosa V, Lehmann R, Martinho R. Differential requirements of a mitotic acetyltransferase in somatic and germ line cells. Dev Biol. 2008;323:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, during oogenesis we cannot detect mitotic defects in germ line cells mutant for san. We hypothesize the female germ line stem cells have differential requirements for mitotic sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  33. Corbett A, Hong D, Osheroff N. Exploiting mechanistic differences between drug classes to define functional drug interaction domains on topoisomerase II. Evidence that several diverse DNA cleavage-enhancing agents share a common site of action on the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:14394-8 pubmed
    To fully understand the mechanism of action of topoisomerase II-targeted agents, the effects of these drugs on the catalytic cycle of the enzyme must be well characterized...
  34. Yu J, Fleming S, Williams B, Williams E, Li Z, Somma P, et al. Greatwall kinase: a nuclear protein required for proper chromosome condensation and mitotic progression in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:487-92 pubmed
    ..particularly in the euchromatin, but nevertheless contain phosphorylated histone H3, condensin, and topoisomerase II. Cells take much longer to transit the period of chromosome condensation from late G2 through nuclear ..
  35. Glikin G, Jovin T, Arndt Jovin D. Interactions of Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II with left-handed Z-DNA in supercoiled minicircles. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:7139-44 pubmed
    The native form of Drosophila melanogaster DNA topoisomerase II was purified from Schneider's S3 tissue culture cells and studied with two supercoiled minicircle preparations, mini and mini-CG, 354 bp and 370 bp in length, respectively...
  36. Gale K, Osheroff N. Intrinsic intermolecular DNA ligation activity of eukaryotic topoisomerase II. Potential roles in recombination. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:12090-7 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster topoisomerase II is capable of joining phi X174 (+) strand DNA that it has cleaved to duplex oligonucleotide acceptor molecules by an intermolecular ligation reaction (Gale, K. C. and Osheroff, N...
  37. Udvardy A, Schedl P, Sander M, Hsieh T. Novel partitioning of DNA cleavage sites for Drosophila topoisomerase II. Cell. 1985;40:933-41 pubmed
    We have examined the long-range distribution of double-stranded DNA cleavage sites for Drosophila melanogaster topoisomerase II. These studies reveal a novel partitioning of preferred topoisomerase II cleavage sites...
  38. Marshall W, Straight A, Marko J, Swedlow J, Dernburg A, Belmont A, et al. Interphase chromosomes undergo constrained diffusional motion in living cells. Curr Biol. 1997;7:930-9 pubmed
    ..These results lead to a model for the regulation of chromosome interactions by nuclear architecture. ..
  39. Lee M, Sander M, Hsieh T. Single strand DNA cleavage reaction of duplex DNA by Drosophila topoisomerase II. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:13510-8 pubmed
    A unique reaction for type II DNA topoisomerase is its cleavage of a pair of DNA strands in concert...
  40. Oliveira R, Hamilton R, Pauli A, Davis I, Nasmyth K. Cohesin cleavage and Cdk inhibition trigger formation of daughter nuclei. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that only two key events, opening of cohesin rings and downregulation of Cdk1, are sufficient to drive proper segregation of chromosomes in anaphase. ..
  41. Schulte J, Sepp K, Wu C, Hong P, Littleton J. High-content chemical and RNAi screens for suppressors of neurotoxicity in a Huntington's disease model. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23841 pubmed publisher
    ..Huntingtin neurotoxicity suppressors identified through our screen also restored viability in an in vivo Drosophila Huntington's Disease model, making them attractive candidates for further therapeutic evaluation. ..
  42. Lassota P, Singh G, Kramer R. Mechanism of topoisomerase II inhibition by staurosporine and other protein kinase inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26418-23 pubmed
    b>Topoisomerase II is an essential enzyme for proliferation of eukaryotic cells. It is also a target for many antineoplastic drugs that promote stabilization of covalent complexes between topoisomerase II and DNA...
  43. Lipinszki Z, Lefevre S, Savoian M, Singleton M, Glover D, Przewloka M. Centromeric binding and activity of Protein Phosphatase 4. Nat Commun. 2015;6:5894 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that binding of Flfl to CENP-C is required to bring PP4 activity to centromeres to maintain CENP-C and attached core kinetochore proteins at chromosomes during mitosis. ..
  44. Sander M, Hsieh T. Drosophila topoisomerase II double-strand DNA cleavage: analysis of DNA sequence homology at the cleavage site. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:1057-72 pubmed
    In order to study the sequence specificity of double-strand DNA cleavage by Drosophila topoisomerase II, we have mapped and sequenced 16 strong and 47 weak cleavage sites in the recombinant plasmid p pi 25.1...
  45. Robinson M, Corbett A, Osheroff N. Effects of topoisomerase II-targeted drugs on enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage and ATP hydrolysis: evidence for distinct drug interaction domains on topoisomerase II. Biochemistry. 1993;32:3638-43 pubmed
    b>Topoisomerase II is the target for two broad groups of clinically relevant drugs...
  46. Smith A, King J, Orr Weaver T. Identification of genomic regions required for DNA replication during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genetics. 1993;135:817-29 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our analysis identified a gene, pimples, that is required for the proper completion of mitosis in the post-blastoderm divisions of the embryo. ..
  47. Ferree P, Prasad S. How can satellite DNA divergence cause reproductive isolation? Let us count the chromosomal ways. Genet Res Int. 2012;2012:430136 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for how loci that cause postzygotic reproductive isolation are viewed. ..
  48. Robinson M, Osheroff N. Effects of antineoplastic drugs on the post-strand-passage DNA cleavage/religation equilibrium of topoisomerase II. Biochemistry. 1991;30:1807-13 pubmed
    The post-strand-passage DNA cleavage/religation equilibrium of Drosophila melanogaster topoisomerase II was examined...
  49. Kroeger P, Osheroff N, Rowe T. Analysis of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage in the 5'-region of the Drosophila hsp70 gene. Identification of a novel half-site DNA substrate for topoisomerase II cleavage. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:16449-57 pubmed
    ..4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin-9-(4,6-O-thionylidine-beta-D-g lucopyranoside) (VM-26)-induced double-stranded topoisomerase II cleavage site at approximately +80 relative to the start of Drosophila hsp70 transcription (Kroeger, P. E...
  50. Sander M, Nolan J, Hsieh T. A protein kinase activity tightly associated with Drosophila type II DNA topoisomerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:6938-42 pubmed
    A protein kinase activity has been identified that is tightly associated with the purified Drosophila type II DNA topoisomerase. The kinase and topoisomerase activities are not separated when the enzyme is subjected to analytical ..
  51. Berrios M, Avilion A. Nuclear formation in a Drosophila cell-free system. Exp Cell Res. 1990;191:64-70 pubmed
    ..Indirect immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate the association of Drosophila lamins and DNA topoisomerase II with newly assembled nuclei.
  52. Corbett A, Fernald A, Osheroff N. Protein kinase C modulates the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II by enhancing the rate of ATP hydrolysis: evidence for a common mechanism of regulation by phosphorylation. Biochemistry. 1993;32:2090-7 pubmed
    The catalytic activity of topoisomerase II is stimulated approximately 2-3-fold following phosphorylation by either casein kinase II or protein kinase C. A previous study [Corbett, A. H., DeVore, R. F., & Osheroff, N. (1992) J. Biol...
  53. Zechiedrich E, Osheroff N. Eukaryotic topoisomerases recognize nucleic acid topology by preferentially interacting with DNA crossovers. EMBO J. 1990;9:4555-62 pubmed
    ..This may represent a general mechanism for the recognition of DNA topology by proteins. ..
  54. Zhang C, Chen A, Gettel N, Hsieh T. Essential functions of DNA topoisomerase I in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2000;222:27-40 pubmed
    ..The cytological and genetic analysis of the top1 mutant demonstrates that in Drosophila, topo I plays critical roles in many developmental stages active in cell proliferation. ..
  55. Osheroff N, Shelton E, Brutlag D. DNA topoisomerase II from Drosophila melanogaster. Relaxation of supercoiled DNA. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:9536-43 pubmed
    ..Under conditions of maximal activity, relaxation catalyzed by the Drosophila melanogaster topoisomerase II was processive and the energy of activation was 14.3 kcal . mol-1...
  56. Kwok Y, Zeng Q, Hurley L. Topoisomerase II-mediated site-directed alkylation of DNA by psorospermin and its use in mapping other topoisomerase II poison binding sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13531-6 pubmed
    ..the alkylation reactivity of psorospermin at specific sites on DNA increased 25-fold in the presence of topoisomerase II. In addition, psorospermin trapped the topoisomerase II-cleaved complex formation at the same site...
  57. Cugusi S, Ramos E, Ling H, Yokoyama R, Luk K, Lucchesi J. Topoisomerase II plays a role in dosage compensation in Drosophila. Transcription. 2013;4:238-50 pubmed
    ..We have determined that topoisomerase II (Topo II) is enriched on dosage compensated genes, to which it is recruited by association with the MSL ..
  58. Gale K, Osheroff N. Uncoupling the DNA cleavage and religation activities of topoisomerase II with a single-stranded nucleic acid substrate: evidence for an active enzyme-cleaved DNA intermediate. Biochemistry. 1990;29:9538-45 pubmed
    Following its cleavage of double-stranded DNA, topoisomerase II is covalently bound to the 5'-termini of both nucleic acid strands...
  59. Kwok Y, Zeng Q, Hurley L. Structural insight into a quinolone-topoisomerase II-DNA complex. Further evidence for a 2:2 quinobenzoxazine-mg2+ self-assembly model formed in the presence of topoisomerase ii. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17226-35 pubmed
    ..It has been previously claimed that A-62176 is a catalytic inhibitor of mammalian topoisomerase II that does not stabilize the cleaved complex...
  60. Kingma P, Osheroff N. Spontaneous DNA damage stimulates topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:7488-93 pubmed
    Apurinic sites are position-specific poisons of topoisomerase II and stimulate DNA scission approximately 10-18-fold when they are located within the 4-base overhang generated by enzyme-mediated cleavage (Kingma, P. S., and Osheroff, N...
  61. Apte M, Meller V. Sex Differences in Drosophila melanogaster Heterochromatin Are Regulated by Non-Sex Specific Factors. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128114 pubmed publisher
    ..In XX flies mutation of Topoisomerase II (Top2), a gene involved in chromatin organization and homolog pairing, made heterochromatic silencing ..
  62. Meller V, Fisher P. Nuclear distribution of Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II is sensitive to both RNase and DNase. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 4):1651-7 pubmed
    The nuclear distribution of Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II was determined by immunoblot analysis after nuclease digestion and cell fractionation...
  63. Chelouah S, Monod Wissler C, Bailly C, Barret J, Guilbaud N, Vispé S, et al. An integrated Drosophila model system reveals unique properties for F14512, a novel polyamine-containing anticancer drug that targets topoisomerase II. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23597 pubmed publisher
    ..the preferential uptake of F14512 by cancer cells, strong interaction with DNA and potent inhibition of topoisomerase II (Topo II)...
  64. Corbett A, Devore R, Osheroff N. Effect of casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation on the catalytic cycle of topoisomerase II. Regulation of enzyme activity by enhancement of ATP hydrolysis. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:20513-8 pubmed
    The catalytic activity of topoisomerase II is stimulated approximately 2-3-fold following phosphorylation by casein kinase II (Ackerman, P., Glover, C. V. C., and Osheroff, N. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 82, 3164-3168)...
  65. Cakouros D, Mills K, Denton D, Paterson A, Daish T, Kumar S. dLKR/SDH regulates hormone-mediated histone arginine methylation and transcription of cell death genes. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:481-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with these observations, the loss of dLKR/SDH in Drosophila enhances hormone-regulated gene expression, affecting the developmental timing of gene activation. ..
  66. Hossain M, Kurokawa K, Akimitsu N, Sekimizu K. DNA topoisomerase II is required for the G0-to-S phase transition in Drosophila Schneider cells, but not in yeast. Genes Cells. 2004;9:905-17 pubmed
    We previously reported that DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) is required for the G(0)-to-S phase transition in mammalian cells [Hossain et al...
  67. Honore B, Vorum H. The CREC family, a novel family of multiple EF-hand, low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins localised to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells. FEBS Lett. 2000;466:11-8 pubmed
  68. Rybenkov V, Ullsperger C, Vologodskii A, Cozzarelli N. Simplification of DNA topology below equilibrium values by type II topoisomerases. Science. 1997;277:690-3 pubmed
    ..The results imply that type II topoisomerases use the energy of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to preferentially remove the topological links that provide barriers to DNA segregation. ..
  69. Corbett A, Zechiedrich E, Osheroff N. A role for the passage helix in the DNA cleavage reaction of eukaryotic topoisomerase II. A two-site model for enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:683-6 pubmed
    Eukaryotic topoisomerase II is capable of binding two separate nucleic acid helices prior to its DNA cleavage and strand passage events (Zechiedrich, E. L., and Osheroff, N (1990) EMBO J. 9, 4555-4562)...
  70. Palopoli M, Doshi P, Wu C. Characterization of two Segregation distorter revertants: evidence that the tandem duplication is necessary for Sd activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;136:209-15 pubmed
    ..Further, we examined testes-specific levels of both RNA and protein for the nearby Topoisomerase 2 gene. Neither revealed a consistent difference between SD and SD+ strains...
  71. Gasser S. Visualizing chromatin dynamics in interphase nuclei. Science. 2002;296:1412-6 pubmed
    ..Determining the distribution and regulation of mobile domains in interphase chromosomes, and characterizing sites of anchorage, will undoubtedly shed new light on the function of nuclear order. ..
  72. Ackerman P, Glover C, Osheroff N. Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II by casein kinase II: modulation of eukaryotic topoisomerase II activity in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:3164-8 pubmed
    The phosphorylation of Drosophila melanogaster DNA topoisomerase II by purified casein kinase II was characterized in vitro...
  73. Shapiro P, Whalen A, Tolwinski N, Wilsbacher J, Froelich Ammon S, Garcia M, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activates topoisomerase IIalpha through a mechanism independent of phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3551-60 pubmed
    ..However, activation of topoisomerase II was also observed with diphosphorylated inactive mutant ERK2, suggesting a mechanism of activation that ..
  74. Kingma P, Corbett A, Burcham P, Marnett L, Osheroff N. Abasic sites stimulate double-stranded DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase II. DNA lesions as endogenous topoisomerase II poisons. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21441-4 pubmed
    Several clinically relevant anticancer drugs induce genomic mutations and cell death by increasing topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breakage...
  75. Hu T, Sage H, Hsieh T. ATPase domain of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II. Inhibition of ATPase activity by the anti-cancer drug bisdioxopiperazine and ATP/ADP-induced dimerization. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5944-51 pubmed
    We have prepared full-length Drosophila and human topoisomerase II and truncation constructs containing the amino-terminal ATPase domain, and we have analyzed their biochemical properties...
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    ..Condensin and topoisomerase II are the most studied factors in chromosome condensation...
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    ..identified in silkworm as a protein that generates negative supercoils in DNA in conjunction with eukaryotic topoisomerase II. To analyze the in vivo role of the factor, we cloned a cDNA encoding Drosophila melanogaster SCF...