Gene Symbol: Tom
Description: Twin of m4
Alias: Bbu, CG5185, DmelCG5185, Dmel\CG5185, anon-EST:fe1F6, barbu, bbu/tom, tom, twin of m4, CG5185-PA, Tom-PA, anon-fast-evolving-1F6, barbu
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Bardin A, Schweisguth F. Bearded family members inhibit Neuralized-mediated endocytosis and signaling activity of Delta in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2006;10:245-55 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identify proteins of the Bearded (Brd) family as interactors of Neur. We show that Tom, a prototypic Brd family member, inhibits Neur-dependent Notch signaling...
  2. Song Y, Lu B. Interaction of Notch signaling modulator Numb with ?-Adaptin regulates endocytosis of Notch pathway components and cell fate determination of neural stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17716-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are likely to have important implications for cancer biology. ..
  3. Lai E, Bodner R, Posakony J. The enhancer of split complex of Drosophila includes four Notch-regulated members of the bearded gene family. Development. 2000;127:3441-55 pubmed
    ..Finally, we present our initial studies of the structure, expression and regulation of the newest member of the Brd gene family, Ocho, which is located in the recently identified Bearded Complex. ..
  4. Lai E. Micro RNAs are complementary to 3' UTR sequence motifs that mediate negative post-transcriptional regulation. Nat Genet. 2002;30:363-4 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a more general role for micro RNAs in gene regulation through the formation of RNA duplexes. ..
  5. Lai E, Tam B, Rubin G. Pervasive regulation of Drosophila Notch target genes by GY-box-, Brd-box-, and K-box-class microRNAs. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1067-80 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data establish insights into miRNA target recognition and demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway is a major target of miRNA-mediated regulation in Drosophila. ..
  6. de Renzis S, Yu J, Zinzen R, Wieschaus E. Dorsal-ventral pattern of Delta trafficking is established by a Snail-Tom-Neuralized pathway. Dev Cell. 2006;10:257-64 pubmed
    ..We developed a protocol based on chromosomal deletion and microarray analysis that led to the identification of tom as the target of snail regulating Delta trafficking...
  7. Apidianakis Y, Nagel A, Chalkiadaki A, Preiss A, Delidakis C. Overexpression of the m4 and malpha genes of the E(spl)-complex antagonizes notch mediated lateral inhibition. Mech Dev. 1999;86:39-50 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, negative regulation of the Notch pathway by overexpression of E(spl) m4 and malpha is specific to the process of sensory organ precursor singularization and does not impinge on other instances of Notch signalling. ..
  8. Chanet S, Schweisguth F. Regulation of epithelial polarity by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized and the Bearded inhibitors in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This function of Neuralized was independent of its known role in Notch signalling. Thus, Neuralized has two distinct functions in epithelial cell polarity and Notch signalling. ..
  9. Egger B, Gold K, Brand A. Notch regulates the switch from symmetric to asymmetric neural stem cell division in the Drosophila optic lobe. Development. 2010;137:2981-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the proneural wave transiently suppresses Notch activity in neuroepithelial cells, and that inhibition of Notch triggers the switch from symmetric, proliferative division, to asymmetric, differentiative division. ..

More Information


  1. He F, Saito K, Kobayashi N, Harada T, Watanabe S, Kigawa T, et al. Structural and functional characterization of the NHR1 domain of the Drosophila neuralized E3 ligase in the notch signaling pathway. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:478-95 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tom, a Bearded protein family member, inhibits the Neur-mediated endocytosis through interactions with the NHR1 domain...
  2. Thomas G, van Meyel D. The glycosyltransferase Fringe promotes Delta-Notch signaling between neurons and glia, and is required for subtype-specific glial gene expression. Development. 2007;134:591-600 pubmed
  3. Hamel S, Fantini J, Schweisguth F. Notch ligand activity is modulated by glycosphingolipid membrane composition in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:581-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data indicate that specific GSLs modulate the signaling activity of Notch ligands. ..
  4. Fontana J, Posakony J. Both inhibition and activation of Notch signaling rely on a conserved Neuralized-binding motif in Bearded proteins and the Notch ligand Delta. Dev Biol. 2009;333:373-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illuminate the mechanism of an important regulatory event in Notch signaling that appears to be conserved between insects and crustaceans. ..
  5. Coumailleau F, Fürthauer M, Knoblich J, Gonzalez Gaitan M. Directional Delta and Notch trafficking in Sara endosomes during asymmetric cell division. Nature. 2009;458:1051-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Singson A, Leviten M, Bang A, Hua X, Posakony J. Direct downstream targets of proneural activators in the imaginal disc include genes involved in lateral inhibitory signaling. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2058-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, one of the earliest steps in adult peripheral neurogenesis is the direct activation by proneural proteins of genes involved in restricting the expression of the SOP cell fate. ..
  7. Zaffran S, Frasch M. Barbu: an E(spl) m4/m(alpha)-related gene that antagonizes Notch signaling and is required for the establishment of ommatidial polarity. Development. 2000;127:1115-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a new gene, Barbu, whose product can antagonize Notch signaling activity during Drosophila development...
  8. Chanet S, Vodovar N, Mayau V, Schweisguth F. Genome engineering-based analysis of Bearded family genes reveals both functional redundancy and a nonessential function in lateral inhibition in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;182:1101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that inhibition of Neur-Delta interaction by Brd family members is part of the feedback loop that underlies lateral inhibition in Drosophila...
  9. Jensen H, Scott I, Sims S, Trudeau V, Arnason J. The effect of a synergistic concentration of a Piper nigrum extract used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2006;15:329-39 pubmed
    ..melanogaster treated with at least two of the following treatments: P. nigrum, pyrethrum or P. nigrum plus pyrethrum. These are likely implicated in Drosophila defence responses to toxins...
  10. Dawes Hoang R, Wieschaus E. Cell and developmental biology--a shared past, an intertwined future. Dev Cell. 2001;1:27-36 pubmed
    ..Our goal in this commentary is to examine the common origin of cell and developmental biology, to explore ways in which they currently interact, and to consider the connections and differences that exist between these two fields. ..
  11. Duncan E, Dearden P. Evolution of a genomic regulatory domain: the role of gene co-option and gene duplication in the Enhancer of split complex. Genome Res. 2010;20:917-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the consequence of this conserved domain for the recruitment of novel genes into the Notch signaling cascade. ..
  12. Nagel A, Apidianakis Y, Wech I, Maier D, Delidakis C, Preiss A. Neural hyperplasia induced by RNA interference with m4/malpha gene activity. Mech Dev. 2000;98:19-28 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a third member of the m4/malpha gene family, named bbu/tom, behaves differently with respect to RNA expression patterns, its regulation by Notch signaling and loss of ..
  13. Ulvklo C, Macdonald R, Bivik C, Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Thor S. Control of neuronal cell fate and number by integration of distinct daughter cell proliferation modes with temporal progression. Development. 2012;139:678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that different daughter cell proliferation modes can be integrated with temporal competence changes, and suggests a novel mechanism for coordinately controlling neuronal subtype numbers. ..
  14. Lai E, Bodner R, Kavaler J, Freschi G, Posakony J. Antagonism of notch signaling activity by members of a novel protein family encoded by the bearded and enhancer of split gene complexes. Development. 2000;127:291-306 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Bearded family genes encode a novel class of effectors or modulators of Notch signaling. ..
  15. Bivik C, MacDonald R, Gunnar E, Mazouni K, Schweisguth F, Thor S. Control of Neural Daughter Cell Proliferation by Multi-level Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH Signaling. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005984 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to a multi-level signaling model and may help shed light on the dichotomous proliferative role of Notch signaling in many other systems. ..