Gene Symbol: tll
Description: tailless
Alias: CG1378, Dmel\CG1378, NR2E2, TLL, Tll, dm-tll, tailless, CG1378-PA, tailles, tll-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     tll

Top Publications

  1. Liaw G, Rudolph K, Huang J, Dubnicoff T, Courey A, Lengyel J. The torso response element binds GAGA and NTF-1/Elf-1, and regulates tailless by relief of repression. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3163-76 pubmed
    ..poles of the embryo activates a phosphorylation cascade that leads to the spatially specific transcription of the tailless (tll) gene...
  2. Liaw G, Steingrimsson E, Pignoni F, Courey A, Lengyel J. Characterization of downstream elements in a Raf-1 pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:858-62 pubmed
    ..Activated Raf-1 then leads, by an undefined mechanism, to the transcriptional activation of the tailless (tll) gene; the tll gene product, itself a transcription factor, subsequently regulates the expression of an ..
  3. Casanova J, Llimargas M, Greenwood S, Struhl G. An oncogenic form of human raf can specify terminal body pattern in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1994;48:59-64 pubmed
    ..This ligand triggers the localized transcription of two gap segmentation genes, tailles (tll) and huckebein (hkb) through a signal transduction cascade involving the receptor tyrosine kinase torso (tor)..
  4. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  5. Pankratz M, Seifert E, Gerwin N, Billi B, Nauber U, Jackle H. Gradients of Krüppel and knirps gene products direct pair-rule gene stripe patterning in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. Cell. 1990;61:309-17 pubmed
    ..segmentation of the Drosophila embryo requires the activities of the gap genes Krüppel (Kr), knirps (kni), and tailless (tll)...
  6. Liaw G, Lengyel J. Control of tailless expression by bicoid, dorsal and synergistically interacting terminal system regulatory elements. Mech Dev. 1993;40:47-61 pubmed
    Three different maternal morphogen gradients regulate expression of the gap gene tailless (tll), which is required to establish the acron and telson of the Drosophila embryo...
  7. Klingler M, Soong J, Butler B, Gergen J. Disperse versus compact elements for the regulation of runt stripes in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1996;177:73-84 pubmed
    ..Such disperse elements mediating pair-rule gene interactions may have escaped detection in other segmentation genes and may involve molecular mechanisms different from those mediating regulation by gap genes. ..
  8. Hartmann B, Reichert H, Walldorf U. Interaction of gap genes in the Drosophila head: tailless regulates expression of empty spiracles in early embryonic patterning and brain development. Mech Dev. 2001;109:161-72 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that in tailless (tll) loss-of-function mutants the empty spiracles (ems) expression domain in the head expands, whereas it ..
  9. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...

More Information


  1. Hou X, Chou T, Melnick M, Perrimon N. The torso receptor tyrosine kinase can activate Raf in a Ras-independent pathway. Cell. 1995;81:63-71 pubmed
    ..the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) torso defines the spatial domains of expression of the transcription factors tailless and huckebein...
  2. Janody F, Reischl J, Dostatni N. Persistence of Hunchback in the terminal region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo impairs anterior development. Development. 2000;127:1573-82 pubmed
    ..They suggest that the repression of hunchback by torso is required to prevent this antagonism and to promote anterior terminal development, depending mostly on bicoid activity. ..
  3. Paroush Z, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Torso signalling regulates terminal patterning in Drosophila by antagonising Groucho-mediated repression. Development. 1997;124:3827-34 pubmed
    ..Activation of Torso at the poles of the embryo triggers restricted expression of the zygotic gap genes tailless (tll) and huckebein (hkb)...
  4. Klingler M, Erdelyi M, Szabad J, Nusslein Volhard C. Function of torso in determining the terminal anlagen of the Drosophila embryo. Nature. 1988;335:275-7 pubmed
    ..tor gain-of-function effect is neutralized, and segmentation is restored in double mutants with the zygotic gene tailless (tll), which has a phenotype similar (but not identical) to that of tor-...
  5. Courey A, Jia S. Transcriptional repression: the long and the short of it. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2786-96 pubmed
  6. Rusch J, Levine M. Regulation of the dorsal morphogen by the Toll and torso signaling pathways: a receptor tyrosine kinase selectively masks transcriptional repression. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1247-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that RTK signaling pathways can control gene expression by antirepression, and that multiple pathways can fine-tune the activities of a single transcription factor. ..
  7. Strecker T, Kongsuwan K, Lengyel J, Merriam J. The zygotic mutant tailless affects the anterior and posterior ectodermal regions of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1986;113:64-76 pubmed
    The recessive zygotic lethal mutation tailless maps to region 100A5,6-B1,2 at the tip of the right arm of chromosome 3, and results in shortened pharyngeal ridges in the head skeleton of the mature embryo and the elimination of the eighth ..
  8. Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J. Efficient reverse-engineering of a developmental gene regulatory network. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002589 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the quantitative investigation of a large number of developmental gene regulatory networks will allow us to discover whether there are rules or regularities governing development and evolution of complex multi-cellular organisms. ..
  9. Pisarev A, Poustelnikova E, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. FlyEx, the quantitative atlas on segmentation gene expression at cellular resolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:D560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h of development. FlyEx supports the data downloads and construction of personal reference datasets, that makes it possible to more effectively use and analyze data. ..
  10. Perkins T, Jaeger J, Reinitz J, Glass L. Reverse engineering the gap gene network of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e51 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, some relationships in standard textbook models of gap gene regulation appear to be unnecessary for or even inconsistent with the details of gap gene expression during wild-type development. ..
  11. Bieler J, Pozzorini C, Naef F. Whole-embryo modeling of early segmentation in Drosophila identifies robust and fragile expression domains. Biophys J. 2011;101:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..giant, and knirps, taking as regulatory inputs the maternal Bicoid and Caudal gradients, plus the zygotic Tailless and Huckebein proteins...
  12. Pritchard D, Schubiger G. Activation of transcription in Drosophila embryos is a gradual process mediated by the nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1131-42 pubmed
  13. Fahrbach S, Smagghe G, Velarde R. Insect nuclear receptors. Annu Rev Entomol. 2012;57:83-106 pubmed publisher
    ..An exciting new technology allows EcR to be used in chimeric, ligand-inducible gene-switch systems with applications in pest management and medicine. ..
  14. Carroll S. Zebra patterns in fly embryos: activation of stripes or repression of interstripes?. Cell. 1990;60:9-16 pubmed
    ..Different gap proteins control different subsets of stripes and interstripes. Combinations of gap proteins regulate transcription by binding to far upstream elements that contain different numbers and types of binding sites. ..
  15. Niessing D, Rivera Pomar R, La Rosée A, Hader T, Schock F, Purnell B, et al. A cascade of transcriptional control leading to axis determination in Drosophila. J Cell Physiol. 1997;173:162-7 pubmed
  16. King Jones K, Thummel C. Nuclear receptors--a perspective from Drosophila. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:311-23 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent breakthroughs in our understanding of D. melanogaster nuclear receptors, and interpret these results in light of findings from their evolutionarily conserved vertebrate homologues. ..
  17. Weigel D, Jurgens G, Klingler M, Jackle H. Two gap genes mediate maternal terminal pattern information in Drosophila. Science. 1990;248:495-8 pubmed
    ..The activities of tailless (tll) and the newly identified gap gene huckebein (hkb) are specifically involved in mediating the maternal ..
  18. Cinnamon E, Helman A, Ben Haroush Schyr R, Orian A, Jiménez G, Paroush Z. Multiple RTK pathways downregulate Groucho-mediated repression in Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2008;135:829-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that phosphorylation of Groucho provides a widespread, long-term mechanism by which RTK signals control target gene expression. ..
  19. TURKI JUDEH W, Courey A. The unconserved groucho central region is essential for viability and modulates target gene specificity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30610 pubmed publisher
    ..We suspect that disorder in the Gro central domains may provide the flexibility that allows this region to mediate multiple interactions required for repression. ..
  20. Goltsev Y, Hsiong W, Lanzaro G, Levine M. Different combinations of gap repressors for common stripes in Anopheles and Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;275:435-46 pubmed
    ..hunchback and giant display inverted patterns of expression in posterior regions of Anopheles embryos, while tailless exhibits an expanded pattern as compared with Drosophila...
  21. Riddihough G, Ish Horowicz D. Individual stripe regulatory elements in the Drosophila hairy promoter respond to maternal, gap, and pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1991;5:840-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different but overlapping subsets of gap genes regulate each stripe and that activation and repression are both important in generating the stripe pattern. ..
  22. Zinzen R, Papatsenko D. Enhancer responses to similarly distributed antagonistic gradients in development. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e84 pubmed
  23. Ashyraliyev M, Siggens K, Janssens H, Blom J, Akam M, Jaeger J. Gene circuit analysis of the terminal gap gene huckebein. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000548 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. ..
  24. Goff D, Nilson L, Morisato D. Establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity of the Drosophila egg requires capicua action in ovarian follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:4553-62 pubmed
    ..Our experiments reveal that cic controls dorsal-ventral patterning by regulating pipe expression in ovarian follicle cells, before its previously described role in interpreting the Dorsal gradient. ..
  25. Schroder C, Tautz D, Seifert E, Jackle H. Differential regulation of the two transcripts from the Drosophila gap segmentation gene hunchback. EMBO J. 1988;7:2881-7 pubmed
    ..9-kb transcript to approximately 300 bp upstream of the site of transcription initiation and show that this region is sufficient to confer the full regulation by bcd. ..
  26. Jimenez G, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Casanova J. Relief of gene repression by torso RTK signaling: role of capicua in Drosophila terminal and dorsoventral patterning. Genes Dev. 2000;14:224-31 pubmed
    ..cic has been evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that Cic-like proteins may act as repressors regulated by RTK signaling in other organisms. ..
  27. Ghiglione C, Perrimon N, Perkins L. Quantitative variations in the level of MAPK activity control patterning of the embryonic termini in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1999;205:181-93 pubmed
    ..Activation of Tor at the embryonic termini leads to differential expression of the genes tailless and huckebein...
  28. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  29. Laudet V, Hanni C, Coll J, Catzeflis F, Stehelin D. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily. EMBO J. 1992;11:1003-13 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a complex evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place. ..
  30. Rivera Pomar R, Lu X, Perrimon N, Taubert H, Jackle H. Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Nature. 1995;376:253-6 pubmed
  31. Moran E, Jiménez G. The tailless nuclear receptor acts as a dedicated repressor in the early Drosophila embryo. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3446-54 pubmed
    b>Tailless is an orphan nuclear receptor that controls terminal body patterning in Drosophila...
  32. Mishra S, Smolik S, Forte M, Stork P. Ras-independent activation of ERK signaling via the torso receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated by Rap1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:366-70 pubmed
    ..expression decreased both Torso-dependent ERK activation and the ERK-dependent expression of the zygotic genes tailless and huckebein to levels similar to those achieved in D-Ras1 null embryos...
  33. Kosman D, Small S, Reinitz J. Rapid preparation of a panel of polyclonal antibodies to Drosophila segmentation proteins. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:290-4 pubmed
    ..Antigenicity of the purified recombinant proteins may be increased by precipitation in double-distilled water. The results of using the serums obtained for fluorescent staining of Drosophila embryos are shown. ..
  34. Strecker T, Merriam J, Lengyel J. Graded requirement for the zygotic terminal gene, tailless, in the brain and tail region of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1988;102:721-34 pubmed
    We have used hypomorphic and null tailless (tll) alleles to carry out a detailed analysis of the effects of the lack of tll gene activity on anterior and posterior regions of the embryo...
  35. Ajuria L, Nieva C, Winkler C, Kuo D, Samper N, Andreu M, et al. Capicua DNA-binding sites are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:915-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Capicua octamers are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila. ..
  36. Jaeger J, Blagov M, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, et al. Dynamical analysis of regulatory interactions in the gap gene system of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1721-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, our models suggest a correlation between timing of gap domain boundary formation and regulatory contributions from the terminal maternal system...
  37. Bronner G, Jackle H. Control and function of terminal gap gene activity in the posterior pole region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1991;35:205-11 pubmed
    We have studied the genetic requirement for the normal expression of the terminal gap genes huckebein (hkb) and tailless (tll) and their possible function in the posterior pole region of the Drosophila embryo...
  38. Janssens H, Hou S, Jaeger J, Kim A, Myasnikova E, Sharp D, et al. Quantitative and predictive model of transcriptional control of the Drosophila melanogaster even skipped gene. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1159-65 pubmed
    ..It also shows that the nonclassical expression of stripe 7 driven by this fragment is activated by the protein Caudal (Cad), and repressed by the proteins Tailless (Tll) and Giant (Gt).
  39. Wang L, Rajan H, Pitman J, McKeown M, Tsai C. Histone deacetylase-associating Atrophin proteins are nuclear receptor corepressors. Genes Dev. 2006;20:525-30 pubmed
    Drosophila Tailless (Tll) is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in embryonic segmentation and neurogenesis. Although Tll exerts potent transcriptional repressive effects, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been determined...
  40. Hooper K, Parkhurst S, Ish Horowicz D. Spatial control of hairy protein expression during embryogenesis. Development. 1989;107:489-504 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that pair-rule striping may be under redundant control, and we discuss possible implications for hierarchical models of pair-rule gene action. ..
  41. Hengenius J, Gribskov M, Rundell A, Fowlkes C, Umulis D. Analysis of gap gene regulation in a 3D organism-scale model of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26797 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we find that incorporation of 3D data in simulation and optimization does not constrain the search space or improve optimization results. ..
  42. Li J, Li W. Drosophila gain-of-function mutant RTK torso triggers ectopic Dpp and STAT signaling. Genetics. 2003;164:247-58 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an essential requirement of noncanonical signaling pathways for a persistently activated RTK to cause pathological defects in an organism. ..
  43. Cohen S, Jurgens G. Drosophila headlines. Trends Genet. 1991;7:267-72 pubmed
    ..Organization of the cephalic segments uses a mechanism distinct from the familiar bierarchical cascade of segmentation genes that subdivides the trunk of the embryo. ..
  44. Costas J, Casares F, Vieira J. Turnover of binding sites for transcription factors involved in early Drosophila development. Gene. 2003;310:215-20 pubmed
    ..Finally, we detected a significant decrease in mean PWM scores for the D. virilis binding sites in the case of Hunchback. Possible explanations for this fact are discussed. ..
  45. Li W, Skoulakis E, Davis R, Perrimon N. The Drosophila 14-3-3 protein Leonardo enhances Torso signaling through D-Raf in a Ras 1-dependent manner. Development. 1997;124:4163-71 pubmed
    ..blastoderm embryo, activation of Tor triggers the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway that controls the transcription of tailless (tll). We find that, in the absence of Tor, overexpression of leo is sufficient to activate tll expression...
  46. Strecker T, Halsell S, Fisher W, Lipshitz H. Reciprocal effects of hyper- and hypoactivity mutations in the Drosophila pattern gene torso. Science. 1989;243:1062-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the tailless terminal gene act as dominant maternal suppressors of the hyperactive torso allele, indicating that the torso ..
  47. Jaeger J, Reinitz J. On the dynamic nature of positional information. Bioessays. 2006;28:1102-11 pubmed
    ..Based on this analysis, we propose a revised French Flag, which incorporates the dynamic, feedback-driven nature of pattern formation in the Drosophila blastoderm. ..
  48. Kraut R, Levine M. Spatial regulation of the gap gene giant during Drosophila development. Development. 1991;111:601-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that gt is a bona fide gap gene, which acts with hb, Krüppel and kni to initiate striped patterns of gene expression in the early embryo. ..
  49. Cockerill K, Billin A, Poole S. Regulation of expression domains and effects of ectopic expression reveal gap gene-like properties of the linked pdm genes of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1993;41:139-53 pubmed
    ..The borders of pdm-1 expression are set by the terminal system genes torso and tailless, and the gradient morphogen encoded by hunchback...
  50. Pignoni F, Baldarelli R, Steingrimsson E, Diaz R, Patapoutian A, Merriam J, et al. The Drosophila gene tailless is expressed at the embryonic termini and is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. Cell. 1990;62:151-63 pubmed
    The zygotically active tailless (tll) gene plays a key role in the establishment of nonmetameric domains at the anterior and posterior poles of the Drosophila embryo...
  51. Papatsenko D, Levine M. The Drosophila gap gene network is composed of two parallel toggle switches. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21145 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified model solutions (parameter combinations) reproduced major dynamic features of the gap gradient system and explained gap expression in a variety of segmentation mutants. ..
  52. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  53. Ronchi E, Treisman J, Dostatni N, Struhl G, Desplan C. Down-regulation of the Drosophila morphogen bicoid by the torso receptor-mediated signal transduction cascade. Cell. 1993;74:347-55 pubmed
    ..Repression does not require either tailless or huckebein, which were previously thought to constitute the sole zygotic output of the tor signaling system...
  54. Li W, Agaisse H, Mathey Prevot B, Perrimon N. Differential requirement for STAT by gain-of-function and wild-type receptor tyrosine kinase Torso in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:4241-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK signaling pathway is sufficient to mediate the normal functions of wild-type RTK, whereas the effects of gain-of-function mutant RTK additionally require STAT activation. ..
  55. Löhr U, Chung H, Beller M, Jackle H. Antagonistic action of Bicoid and the repressor Capicua determines the spatial limits of Drosophila head gene expression domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the spatial domains of head gene expression are determined by Bcd in concert with Tor-dependent repressors. ..
  56. Reuter R, Leptin M. Interacting functions of snail, twist and huckebein during the early development of germ layers in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1137-50 pubmed
    ..We suggest that mesodermal fate is determined where sna and twi but not hkb are expressed. Anteriorly hkb together with sna determines endodermal fate, and hkb together with sna and twi are required for foregut development. ..
  57. Chen Y, Chiang C, Weng L, Lengyel J, Liaw G. Tramtrack69 is required for the early repression of tailless expression. Mech Dev. 2002;116:75-83 pubmed
    During embryogenesis, the activated Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (TOR RTK) pathway activates tailless (tll) expression by a relief-of-repression mechanism...
  58. Tautz D. Segmentation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:301-12 pubmed
    ..An old concept of comparative anatomy, the enterocoele theory, is compatible with a single origin of segmentation mechanisms and could therefore provide a conceptual framework for assessing these molecular similarities. ..
  59. Reinitz J, Levine M. Control of the initiation of homeotic gene expression by the gap genes giant and tailless in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1990;140:57-72 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the pattern of expression of a variety of homeotic, pair-rule, and gap genes in tailless and giant gap mutants. tailless acts in two domains, one anterodorsal and one posterior...
  60. Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  61. Janssens H, Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Surkova S, Lim C, et al. Lack of tailless leads to an increase in expression variability in Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2013;377:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..a quantitative characterisation of segmentation gene expression patterns in mutants of the terminal gap gene tailless (tll) in Drosophila melanogaster...
  62. Ingham P, Martinez Arias A. Boundaries and fields in early embryos. Cell. 1992;68:221-35 pubmed
  63. Sanchez L, Thieffry D. A logical analysis of the Drosophila gap-gene system. J Theor Biol. 2001;211:115-41 pubmed
    ..The proposed model allows not only the qualitative reproduction of the patterns of gene expression characterized experimentally, but also the simulation and prediction of single and multiple mutant phenotypes. ..
  64. Eldon E, Pirrotta V. Interactions of the Drosophila gap gene giant with maternal and zygotic pattern-forming genes. Development. 1991;111:367-78 pubmed
    ..Expression is never detected in the labial or thoracic segment primordia but persists in certain head structures, including the ring gland, until the end of embryonic development. ..
  65. Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J, Blom J. Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits. BMC Syst Biol. 2008;2:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous. ..
  66. Furriols M, Sprenger F, Casanova J. Variation in the number of activated torso receptors correlates with differential gene expression. Development. 1996;122:2313-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that variation in the number of activated receptors at the cell surface is a general mechanism that leads to differential gene expression and thus the generation of different cell responses. ..
  67. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  68. Fujioka M, Emi Sarker Y, Yusibova G, Goto T, Jaynes J. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development. 1999;126:2527-38 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a strong pairing-sensitive repression element was localized to the 3' end of the locus, but was not found to contribute to efficient functional rescue. ..
  69. Jennings B, Pickles L, Wainwright S, Roe S, Pearl L, Ish Horowicz D. Molecular recognition of transcriptional repressor motifs by the WD domain of the Groucho/TLE corepressor. Mol Cell. 2006;22:645-55 pubmed
    ..Our structural and functional analysis explains the rigid conservation of the WRPW motif, the sequence flexibility of eh1 motifs, and other aspects of repressor recognition by Gro in vivo. ..
  70. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  71. Casanova J. Pattern formation under the control of the terminal system in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1990;110:621-8 pubmed
    ..terminal signal in the posterior end of the embryo is likely to be the activation of the gap genes huckebein and tailless. Here I address the question of how the graded maternal signal generates different elements of the pattern at the ..
  72. Kim A, Martinez C, Ionides J, Ramos A, Ludwig M, Ogawa N, et al. Rearrangements of 2.5 kilobases of noncoding DNA from the Drosophila even-skipped locus define predictive rules of genomic cis-regulatory logic. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003243 pubmed publisher
  73. Manu -, Surkova S, Spirov A, Gursky V, Janssens H, Kim A, et al. Canalization of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm by gap gene cross regulation. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000049 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, we show that the complex multigenic phenomenon of canalization can be understood at a quantitative and predictive level by the application of a precise dynamical model...
  74. Bronner G, Jackle H. Regulation and function of the terminal gap gene huckebein in the Drosophila blastoderm. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:157-65 pubmed
    ..Conversely, ectopic expression of hkb inhibits the formation of the major gastrulation fold which gives rise to the mesoderm and prevents normal segmentation in the ectoderm of the trunk region. ..
  75. Pankratz M, Busch M, Hoch M, Seifert E, Jackle H. Spatial control of the gap gene knirps in the Drosophila embryo by posterior morphogen system. Science. 1992;255:986-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide direct molecular evidence that the posterior morphogen system interacts in a fundamentally different manner than do hunchback and bicoid, which are responsible for anterior pattern formation. ..
  76. Papatsenko D, Makeev V, Lifanov A, Regnier M, Nazina A, Desplan C. Extraction of functional binding sites from unique regulatory regions: the Drosophila early developmental enhancers. Genome Res. 2002;12:470-81 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the definition of true binding sites and the possible biological principles that govern patterning of regulatory regions and the distribution of transcriptional signals. ..
  77. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  78. Kühnlein R, Bronner G, Taubert H, Schuh R. Regulation of Drosophila spalt gene expression. Mech Dev. 1997;66:107-18 pubmed
    ..In addition, we provide evidence that a zygotic gene product of the terminal system, Tailless, cooperates with the maternal gene product Caudal and thereby activates gene expression in the terminal region of ..
  79. La Rosée A, Hader T, Taubert H, Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. Mechanism and Bicoid-dependent control of hairy stripe 7 expression in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1997;16:4403-11 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the gradients of Bicoid and Caudal combine their activities to activate segmentation genes along the entire axis of the embryo. ..
  80. de Las Heras J, Casanova J. Spatially distinct downregulation of Capicua repression and tailless activation by the Torso RTK pathway in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2006;123:481-6 pubmed
    ..regions of the Drosophila embryo depends on the Torso RTK pathway, which triggers expression of the zygotic genes tailless and huckebein at the embryonic poles...
  81. Surkova S, Myasnikova E, Janssens H, Kozlov K, Samsonova A, Reinitz J, et al. Pipeline for acquisition of quantitative data on segmentation gene expression from confocal images. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:58-66 pubmed
    ..5-minute resolution in time, as well as to construct a spatiotemporal atlas of segmentation gene expression. Each data pipeline step can be easily adapted to process a wide range of images of gene expression patterns. ..
  82. Astigarraga S, Grossman R, Diaz Delfin J, Caelles C, Paroush Z, Jiménez G. A MAPK docking site is critical for downregulation of Capicua by Torso and EGFR RTK signaling. EMBO J. 2007;26:668-77 pubmed
    ..Finally, we describe differences in the modes of Capicua downregulation by Torso and EGFR signaling, raising the possibility that such differences contribute to the tissue specificity of both signals. ..
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