Gene Symbol: Tl
Description: Toll
Alias: CG5490, CT17414, Dmel\CG5490, EP(3)1051, EP1051, Fs(1)Tl, Fs(3)Tl, TOL, Toll-1, Toll1, dToll, dToll1, mat(3)9, mel(3)10, mel(3)9, toll, toll-1, toll, CG5490-PB, CG5490-PC, CG5490-PD, EP1051, Tl-PB, Tl-PC, Tl-PD, Toll-1, protein toll precursor, toll receptor
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Tl

Top Publications

  1. Ferrandon D, Jung A, Criqui M, Lemaitre B, Uttenweiler Joseph S, Michaut L, et al. A drosomycin-GFP reporter transgene reveals a local immune response in Drosophila that is not dependent on the Toll pathway. EMBO J. 1998;17:1217-27 pubmed
    ..We also show that, in contrast to the systemic antifungal response, this local immune response is independent of the Toll pathway.
  2. Buchon N, Poidevin M, Kwon H, Guillou A, Sottas V, Lee B, et al. A single modular serine protease integrates signals from pattern-recognition receptors upstream of the Drosophila Toll pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12442-7 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila Toll receptor does not interact directly with microbial determinants, but is instead activated by a cleaved form of the cytokine-like molecule Spätzle...
  3. Braun A, Hoffmann J, Meister M. Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14337-42 pubmed
    ..By working in synergy, they provide Drosophila a highly effective defense against injury and/or infection...
  4. Hashimoto Y, Tabuchi Y, Sakurai K, Kutsuna M, Kurokawa K, Awasaki T, et al. Identification of lipoteichoic acid as a ligand for draper in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by Drosophila hemocytes. J Immunol. 2009;183:7451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that lipoteichoic acid serves as a ligand for Draper in the phagocytosis of S. aureus by Drosophila hemocytes and that the phagocytic elimination of invading bacteria is required for flies to survive the infection. ..
  5. Narbonne Reveau K, Charroux B, Royet J. Lack of an antibacterial response defect in Drosophila Toll-9 mutant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17470 pubmed publisher
    b>Toll and Toll-like receptors represent families of receptors involved in mediating innate immunity response in insects and mammals...
  6. Cho Y, Stevens L, Stein D. Pipe-dependent ventral processing of Easter by Snake is the defining step in Drosophila embryo DV axis formation. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Snake, which processes and activates Easter, which cleaves Spätzle to form the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. Ventral restriction of ligand formation depends on the Pipe sulfotransferase, which is expressed in ventral ..
  7. Michel T, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Royet J. Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2001;414:756-9 pubmed
    ..Gram-positive bacteria and fungi predominantly induce the Toll signalling pathway, whereas Gram-negative bacteria activate the Imd pathway...
  8. Castillejo Lopez C, Hacker U. The serine protease Sp7 is expressed in blood cells and regulates the melanization reaction in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1075-82 pubmed
    ..up-regulation of Sp7 was observed after clean, septic injury and in flies expressing an activated form of Toll; however, mutations in the Toll or the IMD pathway did not abolish expression of Sp7, indicating the existence of ..
  9. Belvin M, Jin Y, Anderson K. Cactus protein degradation mediates Drosophila dorsal-ventral signaling. Genes Dev. 1995;9:783-93 pubmed

More Information


  1. Weber A, Tauszig Delamasure S, Hoffmann J, Lelievre E, Gascan H, Ray K, et al. Binding of the Drosophila cytokine Spätzle to Toll is direct and establishes signaling. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:794-800 pubmed
    The extracellular protein Spätzle is required for activation of the Toll signaling pathway in the embryonic development and innate immune defense of Drosophila...
  2. Gillespie S, Wasserman S. Dorsal, a Drosophila Rel-like protein, is phosphorylated upon activation of the transmembrane protein Toll. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3559-68 pubmed
    ..phosphorylation state is regulated by an intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the transmembrane receptor Toll. Immunoblot analysis of cytoplasm from precisely staged embryos revealed that the phosphorylation state of dorsal ..
  3. Valanne S, Wang J, Ramet M. The Drosophila Toll signaling pathway. J Immunol. 2011;186:649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The Toll receptor is activated when the proteolytically cleaved ligand Spatzle binds to the receptor, eventually leading to the ..
  4. Halfon M, Keshishian H. The Toll pathway is required in the epidermis for muscle development in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1998;199:164-74 pubmed
    The Toll signaling pathway functions in several Drosophila processes, including dorsal-ventral pattern formation and the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway is required in the epidermis for proper muscle development...
  5. Garver L, Wu J, Wu L. The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:660-5 pubmed
    ..PGRP-SC1a mutants also fail to activate the Toll/NF-kappaB signaling pathway and are compromised for survival after S. aureus infection...
  6. Meister M, Lemaitre B, Hoffmann J. Antimicrobial peptide defense in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1997;19:1019-26 pubmed
    ..The induction of the gene encoding the antifungal peptide relies on the spätzle/Toll/cactus gene cassette, which is involved in the control of dorsoventral patterning in the embryo, and shows ..
  7. Govind S, Brennan L, Steward R. Homeostatic balance between dorsal and cactus proteins in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1993;117:135-48 pubmed
    ..Based on these results we discuss how the ventral signal interacts with the dorsal-cactus complex, thus forming a gradient of nuclear dorsal protein. ..
  8. Zhu B, Pennack J, McQuilton P, Forero M, Mizuguchi K, Sutcliffe B, et al. Drosophila neurotrophins reveal a common mechanism for nervous system formation. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e284 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides a missing link between aspects of neuronal function in flies and vertebrates, and it opens the opportunity to use Drosophila to investigate further aspects of neurotrophin function and to model related diseases...
  9. Kambris Z, Hoffmann J, Imler J, Capovilla M. Tissue and stage-specific expression of the Tolls in Drosophila embryos. Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;2:311-7 pubmed
    The Drosophila transmembrane receptor Toll plays a key role in specifying the dorsoventral axis of the embryo. At later stages of development, it controls the immune response of the fly to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections...
  10. Goodman R, Smolik S. CBP/p300 in cell growth, transformation, and development. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1553-77 pubmed
  11. Lemaitre B, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14614-9 pubmed
    ..This response is mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway.
  12. Lund V, DeLotto Y, DeLotto R. Endocytosis is required for Toll signaling and shaping of the Dorsal/NF-kappaB morphogen gradient during Drosophila embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18028-33 pubmed publisher
    Dorsoventral cell fate in the Drosophila embryo is specified by activation of the Toll receptor, leading to a ventral-to-dorsal gradient across nuclei of the NF-?B transcription factor Dorsal...
  13. Gangloff M, Murali A, Xiong J, Arnot C, Weber A, Sandercock A, et al. Structural insight into the mechanism of activation of the Toll receptor by the dimeric ligand Spätzle. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14629-35 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila Toll receptor, which functions in both embryonic patterning and innate immunity to fungi and Gram-positive bacteria, is activated by a dimeric cytokine ligand, Spätzle (Spz)...
  14. Sun H, Towb P, Chiem D, Foster B, Wasserman S. Regulated assembly of the Toll signaling complex drives Drosophila dorsoventral patterning. EMBO J. 2004;23:100-10 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the Toll pathway establishes the embryonic dorsoventral axis and triggers innate immune responses to infection...
  15. Taylor K, Kimbrell D. Host immune response and differential survival of the sexes in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:197-204 pubmed, after a fungal or bacterial infection, varied according to the combination of signaling pathway (Toll and Imd) and sex tested...
  16. Huang H, Chen Z, Kunes S, Chang G, Maniatis T. Endocytic pathway is required for Drosophila Toll innate immune signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mop and Hrs, which are critical components of the ESCRT-0 endocytosis complex, colocalize with the Toll receptor in endosomes. We conclude that endocytosis is required for the activation of the Toll signaling pathway.
  17. Tauszig S, Jouanguy E, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Toll-related receptors and the control of antimicrobial peptide expression in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10520-5 pubmed
    ..of the regulation of the antifungal peptide drosomycin has demonstrated a key role for the transmembrane receptor Toll, which prompted the search for mammalian homologs...
  18. Weber A, Gangloff M, Moncrieffe M, Hyvert Y, Imler J, Gay N. Role of the Spatzle Pro-domain in the generation of an active toll receptor ligand. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13522-31 pubmed
    ..A dimeric precursor of Spätzle is processed by an endoprotease to produce a form (C-106) that cross-links Toll receptor ectodomains and establishes signaling...
  19. Anderson K, Nusslein Volhard C. Information for the dorsal--ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is stored as maternal mRNA. Nature. 1984;311:223-7 pubmed
    ..Injection of RNA isolated from wild-type embryos into mutants at six loci partially restores dorsal-ventral polarity. For the mutant snake, injection of poly(A)+ RNA restores a complete dorsal-ventral pattern. ..
  20. Zambon R, Nandakumar M, Vakharia V, Wu L. The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7257-62 pubmed
    ..this system to screen flies with mutations in genes with known or suggested immune activity, we identified the Toll pathway as a vital part of the Drosophila antiviral response...
  21. Meng X, Khanuja B, Ip Y. Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factor. Genes Dev. 1999;13:792-7 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that Dif is a downstream component of the Toll signaling pathway in activating the drosomycin expression...
  22. Reach M, Galindo R, Towb P, Allen J, Karin M, Wasserman S. A gradient of cactus protein degradation establishes dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1996;180:353-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that dorsoventral signaling results in a Cactus concentration gradient and propose that signal-dependent phosphorylation directs the spatially regulated proteolysis of Cactus protein. ..
  23. Wang Z, Flax L, Kemp M, Linhardt R, Baron M. Host and pathogen glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins modulate antimicrobial peptide responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Infect Immun. 2011;79:606-16 pubmed publisher
  24. Nakamoto M, Moy R, Xu J, Bambina S, Yasunaga A, Shelly S, et al. Virus recognition by Toll-7 activates antiviral autophagy in Drosophila. Immunity. 2012;36:658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover an evolutionarily conserved role for a second Drosophila Toll receptor that links viral recognition to autophagy and defense and suggest that other Drosophila Tolls may restrict ..
  25. Arnot C, Gay N, Gangloff M. Molecular mechanism that induces activation of Spätzle, the ligand for the Drosophila Toll receptor. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:19502-9 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by an endogenous cytokine ligand Spätzle. Active ligand is generated in response to positional cues in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and microbial pathogens in the insect immune response...
  26. Chiu H, Ring B, Sorrentino R, Kalamarz M, Garza D, Govind S. dUbc9 negatively regulates the Toll-NF-kappa B pathways in larval hematopoiesis and drosomycin activation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;288:60-72 pubmed
    ..dUbc9-mediated drosomycin expression requires Dorsal and Dif. Together, our results support a role for dUbc9 in the negative regulation of the Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways in larval hematopoiesis and humoral immunity. ..
  27. Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed
    ..the activation of the morphogen dorsal in Drosophila embryos show striking structural and functional similarities (Toll/IL-1, Cactus/I-kappaB, and dorsal/NF-kappaB)...
  28. Araujo H, Bier E. sog and dpp exert opposing maternal functions to modify toll signaling and pattern the dorsoventral axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2000;127:3631-44 pubmed
    ..Epistasis experiments reveal that sog and dpp act downstream of, or in parallel to, the Toll receptor to reduce translocation of Dorsal protein into the nucleus...
  29. Gordon M, Ayres J, Schneider D, Nusse R. Pathogenesis of listeria-infected Drosophila wntD mutants is associated with elevated levels of the novel immunity gene edin. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000111 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in wntD cause susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection, apparently through the derepression of Toll-Dorsal target genes, some of which are deleterious to survival...
  30. Vidal S, Khush R, Leulier F, Tzou P, Nakamura M, Lemaitre B. Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1900-12 pubmed
    ..Our genetic demonstration of dTAK1's role in the regulation of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide gene expression suggests an evolutionary conserved role for TAK1 in the activation of Rel/NF-kappaB-mediated host defense reactions. ..
  31. Agaisse H, Perrimon N. The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2004;198:72-82 pubmed
  32. Thisse C, Perrin Schmitt F, Stoetzel C, Thisse B. Sequence-specific transactivation of the Drosophila twist gene by the dorsal gene product. Cell. 1991;65:1191-201 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that dorsal is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that recognizes a motif similar to that recognized by the mammalian transcriptional activator NF-kappa B. ..
  33. Packman L, Kubota K, Parker J, Gay N. Casein kinase II phosphorylates Ser468 in the PEST domain of the Drosophila IkappaB homologue cactus. FEBS Lett. 1997;400:45-50 pubmed
  34. Lionakis M, Kontoyiannis D. The growing promise of Toll-deficient Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying Aspergillus pathogenesis and treatment. Virulence. 2010;1:488-99 pubmed
    ..ingestion) that introduce Aspergillus either directly into the hemolymph or at different epithelial surfaces of Toll-deficient Drosophila flies...
  35. Maxton KuchenmeisterMaxton Kü -, Handel K, Schmidt Ott U, Roth S, JackleJäckle H. Toll homologue expression in the beetle tribolium suggests a different mode of dorsoventral patterning than in drosophila embryos. Mech Dev. 1999;83:107-14 pubmed
    The gene Toll (Tl) encodes a maternally supplied interleukin 1 receptor-related transmembrane protein, a key component required to establish dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo...
  36. Liu Z, Galindo R, Wasserman S. A role for CKII phosphorylation of the cactus PEST domain in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3413-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that wild-type axis formation requires CKII-catalyzed phosphorylation of the Cactus PEST domain. ..
  37. Luo C, Zheng L. Independent evolution of Toll and related genes in insects and mammals. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:92-8 pubmed
    b>Toll and Toll-related proteins play an important role in antibacterial innate immunity in insect, plants, and mammals. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Toll-related genes from both insects and mammals...
  38. Whalen A, Steward R. Dissociation of the dorsal-cactus complex and phosphorylation of the dorsal protein correlate with the nuclear localization of dorsal. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:523-34 pubmed
    ..This differential phosphorylation event is regulated by the dorsal group pathway. ..
  39. Rusch J, Levine M. Regulation of the dorsal morphogen by the Toll and torso signaling pathways: a receptor tyrosine kinase selectively masks transcriptional repression. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1247-57 pubmed
    ..This gradient is organized by a Toll signaling pathway that shares many common features with the mammalian IL-1 cytokine pathway...
  40. Huang A, Rusch J, Levine M. An anteroposterior Dorsal gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1963-73 pubmed a broad Dorsal (Dl) nuclear gradient, which is regulated by a conserved signaling pathway that includes the Toll receptor and Pelle kinase...
  41. Morisato D, Anderson K. The spätzle gene encodes a component of the extracellular signaling pathway establishing the dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo. Cell. 1994;76:677-88 pubmed
    ..spätzle acts immediately upstream of the membrane protein Toll in the genetic pathway, suggesting that spätzle could encode the ventrally localized ligand that activates the ..
  42. Tanji T, Hu X, Weber A, Ip Y. Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4578-88 pubmed
    The inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by the conserved Toll and peptidoglycan recognition protein LC/immune deficiency (PGRP-LC/IMD) signaling pathways...
  43. Hedengren Olcott M, Olcott M, Mooney D, Ekengren S, Geller B, Taylor B. Differential activation of the NF-kappaB-like factors Relish and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21121-7 pubmed
    ..of immune activation in Drosophila melanogaster suggests that fungi and Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria activate the Toll/Dif pathway and that Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria activate the Imd/Relish pathway...
  44. Mellroth P, Karlsson J, Håkansson J, Schultz N, Goldman W, Steiner H. Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6455-60 pubmed
    ..PGRP-SA and PGRP-LCx are bona fide pattern recognition receptors, and PGRP-SA, the peptidoglycan receptor of the Toll/Dif pathway, has selective affinity for different peptidoglycans...
  45. Gobert V, Gottar M, Matskevich A, Rutschmann S, Royet J, Belvin M, et al. Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors. Science. 2003;302:2126-30 pubmed
    The Toll-dependent defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
  46. Tzou P, Ohresser S, Ferrandon D, Capovilla M, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B, et al. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Immunity. 2000;13:737-48 pubmed
    ..In particular, drosomycin expression, which is regulated by the Toll pathway during the systemic response, is regulated by imd in the respiratory tract, thus demonstrating the ..
  47. Cowden J, Levine M. Ventral dominance governs sequential patterns of gene expression across the dorsal-ventral axis of the neuroectoderm in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2003;262:335-49 pubmed
  48. Meister M. Blood cells of Drosophila: cell lineages and role in host defence. Curr Opin Immunol. 2004;16:10-5 pubmed
    ..Crystal cells and lamellocytes have no clear mammalian homologues. Research into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the various immune functions of Drosophila blood cells, such as non-self recognition, is now taking wing. ..
  49. Morisato D. Spätzle regulates the shape of the Dorsal gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:2309-19 pubmed
    ..embryo is established by a nuclear gradient of Dorsal protein, generated by successive gurken-Egfr and spätzle-Toll signaling...
  50. Lanot R, Zachary D, Holder F, Meister M. Postembryonic hematopoiesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2001;230:243-57 pubmed
    ..Cells within all lymph gland lobes, including prohemocytes from posterior lobes, massively differentiate into a new cell type specifically devoted to encapsulation, the lamellocyte. ..
  51. Jang I, Chosa N, Kim S, Nam H, Lemaitre B, Ochiai M, et al. A Spätzle-processing enzyme required for toll signaling activation in Drosophila innate immunity. Dev Cell. 2006;10:45-55 pubmed publisher
    The Toll receptor was originally identified as an indispensable molecule for Drosophila embryonic development and subsequently as an essential component of innate immunity from insects to humans...
  52. Roth S, Hiromi Y, Godt D, Nusslein Volhard C. cactus, a maternal gene required for proper formation of the dorsoventral morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1991;112:371-88 pubmed
    ..We discuss models of how the action of the dorsal group genes might counteract the cactus function ventrally. ..
  53. Lemaitre B, Meister M, Govind S, Georgel P, Steward R, Reichhart J, et al. Functional analysis and regulation of nuclear import of dorsal during the immune response in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1995;14:536-45 pubmed which strongly suggest that the nuclear localization of dl during the immune response is controlled by the Toll signaling pathway, comprising gene products that participate in the intracellular part of the embryonic ..
  54. Bergmann A, Stein D, Geisler R, Hagenmaier S, Schmid B, Fernandez N, et al. A gradient of cytoplasmic Cactus degradation establishes the nuclear localization gradient of the dorsal morphogen in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;60:109-23 pubmed
    ..Genetic evidence indicates that degradation of Cactus is required, but not sufficient to translocates Dorsal completely into the nucleus. ..
  55. Flores Saaib R, Jia S, Courey A. Activation and repression by the C-terminal domain of Dorsal. Development. 2001;128:1869-79 pubmed
    ..As has previously been shown for repression by Dorsal, we find that activation by Dorsal, in particular by the C-terminal domain, is modulated by the maternal terminal pattern-forming system. ..
  56. Tanji T, Yun E, Ip Y. Heterodimers of NF-kappaB transcription factors DIF and Relish regulate antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..immune response in Drosophila involves the inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes mediated by the Toll and IMD signaling pathways...
  57. Towb P, Galindo R, Wasserman S. Recruitment of Tube and Pelle to signaling sites at the surface of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1998;125:2443-50 pubmed
    A signaling pathway initiated by activation of the transmembrane receptor Toll defines dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo...
  58. Charatsi I, Luschnig S, Bartoszewski S, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Moussian B. Krapfen/dMyd88 is required for the establishment of dorsoventral pattern in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2003;120:219-26 pubmed
    ..Epistasis experiments reveal that kra acts between the receptor Toll and the cytoplasmic factor Tube...
  59. Stramer B, Winfield M, Shaw T, Millard T, Woolner S, Martin P. Gene induction following wounding of wild-type versus macrophage-deficient Drosophila embryos. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:465-71 pubmed publisher
  60. Yagi Y, Nishida Y, Ip Y. Functional analysis of Toll-related genes in Drosophila. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:771-83 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila genome encodes a total of nine Toll and related proteins...
  61. Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124:783-801 pubmed
    ..Several classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components and directly activate immune ..
  62. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Hetru C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in Drosophila. Immunity. 2000;12:569-80 pubmed
    ..Like mutants of the Toll pathway, Dif mutant flies are susceptible to fungal but not to bacterial infections...
  63. Mizutani C, Nie Q, Wan F, Zhang Y, Vilmos P, Sousa Neves R, et al. Formation of the BMP activity gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2005;8:915-24 pubmed
  64. Mulinari S, Hacker U, Castillejo Lopez C. Expression and regulation of Spätzle-processing enzyme in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:5406-10 pubmed
    The Drosophila melanogaster Toll receptor controls embryonic dorsal-ventral axis formation and is crucial for the innate immune response. In both cases, Toll is activated by the enzymatically cleaved form of its ligand Spätzle (Spz)...
  65. Rose D, Chiba A. A single growth cone is capable of integrating simultaneously presented and functionally distinct molecular cues during target recognition. J Neurosci. 1999;19:4899-906 pubmed
    ..The RP3 motoneuron in Drosophila has previously been shown to respond to the muscle cell surface molecules TOLL and fasciclin III (FAS3), which are normally encountered during RP3 pathfinding in a sequential manner...
  66. Alarco A, Marcil A, Chen J, Suter B, Thomas D, Whiteway M. Immune-deficient Drosophila melanogaster: a model for the innate immune response to human fungal pathogens. J Immunol. 2004;172:5622-8 pubmed
    ..We established that a Drosophila strain devoid of functional Toll receptor is highly susceptible to the human pathogen C. albicans...
  67. Carroll S, Winslow G, Twombly V, Scott M. Genes that control dorsoventral polarity affect gene expression along the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1987;99:327-32 pubmed
  68. Sutcliffe B, Forero M, Zhu B, Robinson I, Hidalgo A. Neuron-type specific functions of DNT1, DNT2 and Spz at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75902 pubmed publisher
    ..Over-expression of DNTs in neurons, or the activated form of the Spz receptor, Toll(10b), in neurons only, rescued the semi-lethality of spz(2) and DNT1(41), DNT2(e03444) double mutants, indicating ..
  69. Ben Ami R, Lamaris G, Lewis R, Kontoyiannis D. Interstrain variability in the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus in a Toll-deficient Drosophila fly model of invasive aspergillosis. Med Mycol. 2010;48:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates using a previously described model of invasive aspergillosis in Toll-deficient fruit flies...
  70. Rutschmann S, Kilinc A, Ferrandon D. Cutting edge: the toll pathway is required for resistance to gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila. J Immunol. 2002;168:1542-6 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the Toll pathway is involved in the defense against filamentous fungi and controls the expression of antifungal peptide ..
  71. Hecht P, Anderson K. Genetic characterization of tube and pelle, genes required for signaling between Toll and dorsal in the specification of the dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo. Genetics. 1993;135:405-17 pubmed
    ..Double mutant females carrying dominant ventralizing alleles of Toll and dorsalizing alleles of tube or pelle produce dorsalized embryos, suggesting that tube and pelle act downstream ..
  72. Sorrentino R, Melk J, Govind S. Genetic analysis of contributions of dorsal group and JAK-Stat92E pathway genes to larval hemocyte concentration and the egg encapsulation response in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;166:1343-56 pubmed
    ..capsules, are also formed around "self" tissues in larvae carrying gain-of-function mutations in Toll and hopscotch...
  73. Gueguen G, Kalamarz M, Ramroop J, Uribe J, Govind S. Polydnaviral ankyrin proteins aid parasitic wasp survival by coordinate and selective inhibition of hematopoietic and immune NF-kappa B signaling in insect hosts. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003580 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested if Ichnoviral Vankyrins differentially impede Toll-NF-?B-dependent hematopoietic and immune signaling in a heterologous in vivo Drosophila, system...
  74. Halfon M, Hashimoto C, Keshishian H. The Drosophila toll gene functions zygotically and is necessary for proper motoneuron and muscle development. Dev Biol. 1995;169:151-67 pubmed
    b>Toll is a maternally required Drosophila gene that encodes a transmembrane protein with an important function in embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning...
  75. Wu L, Anderson K. Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune response. Nature. 1998;392:93-7 pubmed
    ..The Toll signalling pathway, which controls dorsal-ventral patterning during Drosophila embryogenesis, regulates the nuclear ..
  76. Manfruelli P, Reichhart J, Steward R, Hoffmann J, Lemaitre B. A mosaic analysis in Drosophila fat body cells of the control of antimicrobial peptide genes by the Rel proteins Dorsal and DIF. EMBO J. 1999;18:3380-91 pubmed
    Expression of the gene encoding the antifungal peptide Drosomycin in Drosophila adults is controlled by the Toll signaling pathway...
  77. Ming M, Obata F, Kuranaga E, Miura M. Persephone/Spätzle pathogen sensors mediate the activation of Toll receptor signaling in response to endogenous danger signals in apoptosis-deficient Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:7558-68 pubmed publisher
    ..deficient for Dronc, the key initiator caspase required for apoptosis, produced the active form of the endogenous Toll ligand Spätzle (Spz)...
  78. Nicolas E, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Lemaitre B. In vivo regulation of the IkappaB homologue cactus during the immune response of Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:10463-9 pubmed
    The dorsoventral regulatory gene pathway (spätzle/Toll/cactus) controls the expression of several antimicrobial genes during the immune response of Drosophila...
  79. Tauszig Delamasure S, Bilak H, Capovilla M, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:91-7 pubmed
    ..DmMyD88 combines a Toll-IL-1R homology (TIR) domain and a death domain...
  80. Chamilos G, Bignell E, Schrettl M, Lewis R, Leventakos K, May G, et al. Exploring the concordance of Aspergillus fumigatus pathogenicity in mice and Toll-deficient flies. Med Mycol. 2010;48:506-10 pubmed publisher
    ..of six mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus that had been previously characterized in mice was assessed in Toll-deficient Drosophila melanogaster flies. Four out of six mutants of A...
  81. Gerttula S, Jin Y, Anderson K. Zygotic expression and activity of the Drosophila Toll gene, a gene required maternally for embryonic dorsal-ventral pattern formation. Genetics. 1988;119:123-33 pubmed
    Maternal expression of the Toll gene is required for the production and the correct spatial organization of all lateral and ventral structures of the Drosophila embryo...
  82. Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
    ..Fungal infection activates NF-kappaB-like transcription factors via the Toll pathway, which also regulates innate immune responses in mammals...
  83. Belvin M, Anderson K. A conserved signaling pathway: the Drosophila toll-dorsal pathway. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1996;12:393-416 pubmed
    The Toll-Dorsal pathway in Drosophila and the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-NF-kappa B pathway in mammals are homologous signal transduction pathways that mediate several different biological responses...
  84. Rancès E, Johnson T, Popovici J, Iturbe Ormaetxe I, Zakir T, Warr C, et al. The toll and Imd pathways are not required for wolbachia-mediated dengue virus interference. J Virol. 2013;87:11945-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the Drosophila model and mutations in the Toll and Imd pathways, we showed that neither pathway is required for expression of the dengue virus-blocking phenotype ..
  85. Liberman L, Reeves G, Stathopoulos A. Quantitative imaging of the Dorsal nuclear gradient reveals limitations to threshold-dependent patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22317-22 pubmed publisher
  86. Creton R, Kreiling J, Jaffe L. Presence and roles of calcium gradients along the dorsal-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2000;217:375-85 pubmed
    ..We further show that this calcium gradient is inhibited in pipe, Toll, and dorsal mutants, but is unaltered in decapentaplegic (dpp) or punt mutants, suggesting that the stage 5 calcium ..
  87. Isshiki T, Takeichi M, Nose A. The role of the msh homeobox gene during Drosophila neurogenesis: implication for the dorsoventral specification of the neuroectoderm. Development. 1997;124:3099-109 pubmed
  88. Leulier F, Parquet C, Pili Floury S, Ryu J, Caroff M, Lee W, et al. The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:478-84 pubmed
    ..of infectious microbes and responds with pathogen-specific defense reactions through selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways...