Gene Symbol: Tk
Description: Tachykinin
Alias: CG14734, DTK, DTK-1, DTK-2, DTK-3, DTK-4, DTK-5, DTK-6, DTK1, DmTK6, Dmel\CG14734, Drm-TK, Drm-TK-1, Drm-TK-2, Drm-TK-3, Drm-TK-4, Drm-TK-5, Drm-TK-6, Dtk, TAP-5, TK-1, Tyk, dTK, dtk, tachykinin, CG14734-PA, CG14734-PB, Tachykinin-related, Tk-PA, Tk-PB, neurokinin, preprotachykinin, tachykinin-1, tachykinin-3, tachykinin-6, tachykinin-like peptide
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first insect FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12073-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this article is the first report on the molecular identification of an invertebrate FMRFamide receptor. ..
  2. Carlsson M, Diesner M, Schachtner J, Nassel D. Multiple neuropeptides in the Drosophila antennal lobe suggest complex modulatory circuits. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3359-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These were short neuropeptide F, tachykinin related peptide, allatostatin A, myoinhibitory peptide, SIFamide, IPNamide, and myosuppressin...
  3. Ignell R, Root C, Birse R, Wang J, Nassel D, Winther A. Presynaptic peptidergic modulation of olfactory receptor neurons in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13070-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express the DTK receptor (DTKR)...
  4. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  5. Poels J, Birse R, Nachman R, Fichna J, Janecka A, Vanden Broeck J, et al. Characterization and distribution of NKD, a receptor for Drosophila tachykinin-related peptide 6. Peptides. 2009;30:545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..G protein-coupled receptors, designated NKD (neurokinin receptor from Drosophila; CG6515) and DTKR (Drosophila tachykinin receptor; CG7887), display sequence similarities to mammalian tachykinin receptors...
  6. Birse R, Johnson E, Taghert P, Nassel D. Widely distributed Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (CG7887) is activated by endogenous tachykinin-related peptides. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:33-46 pubmed
    ..GPCRs), designated NKD (CG6515) and DTKR (CG7887), cloned earlier, display sequence similarities to mammalian tachykinin receptors. However, they were not characterized with the endogenous Drosophila tachykinins (DTKs)...
  7. Johnson E, Shafer O, Trigg J, Park J, Schooley D, Dow J, et al. A novel diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila: evidence for conservation of CGRP signaling. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that both the molecular details as well as the functional organization of CGRP signaling have been conserved. ..
  8. Predel R, Wegener C, Russell W, Tichy S, Russell D, Nachman R. Peptidomics of CNS-associated neurohemal systems of adult Drosophila melanogaster: a mass spectrometric survey of peptides from individual flies. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:379-92 pubmed
  9. Rosenkilde C, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Søndergaard L, DeLotto R, et al. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and gene silencing of two Drosophila receptors for the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:485-94 pubmed
    ..The two Drosophila pyrokinin receptors are, to our knowledge, the first invertebrate pyrokinin receptors to be identified. ..

More Information


  1. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect ecdysis triggering hormone receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:924-31 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis (cuticle shedding) is an important behaviour, allowing growth and metamorphosis in insects and other arthropods. Our paper is the first report on the molecular identification of ecdysis triggering hormone receptors from insects. ..
  2. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila receptor for the neuropeptides capa-1 and -2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:628-33 pubmed
    ..Because capa-1 and -2 and related insect neuropeptides stimulate fluid secretion in insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, the identification of this first insect capa receptor will advance our knowledge on insect renal function. ..
  3. Winther A, Siviter R, Isaac R, Predel R, Nassel D. Neuronal expression of tachykinin-related peptides and gene transcript during postembryonic development of Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2003;464:180-96 pubmed
    The gene Dtk, encoding the prohormone of tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs), has been identified from Drosophila...
  4. Baggerman G, Boonen K, Verleyen P, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomic analysis of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by two-dimensional capillary liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:250-60 pubmed
    ..Among the 38 sequenced peptides, some originate from precursors, such as the tachykinin and the IFamide precursor that were entirely missed in the first study...
  5. J rgensen L, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor...
  6. Siviter R, Coast G, Winther A, Nachman R, Taylor C, Shirras A, et al. Expression and functional characterization of a Drosophila neuropeptide precursor with homology to mammalian preprotachykinin A. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:23273-80 pubmed
    ..Further evidence for the signaling role of insect tachykinin-related peptides was provided by the cloning and characterization of cDNAs for two tachykinin receptors from ..
  7. Winther A, Acebes A, Ferrús A. Tachykinin-related peptides modulate odor perception and locomotor activity in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;31:399-406 pubmed
    The invertebrate tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs) constitute a conserved family, structurally related to the mammalian tachykinins, including members such as substance P and neurokinins A and B...
  8. Reiher W, Shirras C, Kahnt J, Baumeister S, Isaac R, Wegener C. Peptidomics and peptide hormone processing in the Drosophila midgut. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:1881-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of enteroendocrine peptides in the fruit fly provides a platform to address functions of gut peptide hormones in the regulation of feeding and metabolism. ..
  9. Ohlstein B, Spradling A. The adult Drosophila posterior midgut is maintained by pluripotent stem cells. Nature. 2006;439:470-4 pubmed
    ..The identification of Drosophila intestinal stem cells with striking similarities to their vertebrate counterparts will facilitate the genetic analysis of normal and abnormal intestinal function. ..
  10. Poels J, Verlinden H, Fichna J, Van Loy T, Franssens V, Studzian K, et al. Functional comparison of two evolutionary conserved insect neurokinin-like receptors. Peptides. 2007;28:103-8 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, two putative G protein-coupled tachykinin receptors have been cloned: DTKR and NKD...
  11. Anholt R, Mackay T. Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2015;2:1-7 pubmed
    ..Combining these approaches with emerging technologies, such as genome editing, is likely to yield a comprehensive understanding of the neurogenetic underpinnings that orchestrate the manifestation of behaviors. ..
  12. Hector C, Bretz C, Zhao Y, Johnson E. Functional differences between two CRF-related diuretic hormone receptors in Drosophila. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional characterization of this diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila demonstrates a high degree of conservation of CRF-like signaling. ..
  13. Winther A, Ignell R. Local peptidergic signaling in the antennal lobe shapes olfactory behavior. Fly (Austin). 2010;4:167-71 pubmed
    ..such as acetylcholine and GABA, but novel studies also implicate a neuropeptide: the Drosophila tachykinin (DTK)...
  14. Shankar S, Chua J, Tan K, Calvert M, Weng R, Ng W, et al. The neuropeptide tachykinin is essential for pheromone detection in a gustatory neural circuit. elife. 2015;4:e06914 pubmed publisher
    ..The release of tachykinin from 8 to 10 cells within the subesophageal zone is required for the pheromone-triggered courtship suppression...
  15. Brown E, Layne J, Zhu C, Jegga A, Rollmann S. Genome-wide association mapping of natural variation in odour-guided behaviour in Drosophila. Genes Brain Behav. 2013;12:503-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that subtle changes influencing nervous system function can result in marked differences in behaviour. ..
  16. Veenstra J, Ida T. More Drosophila enteroendocrine peptides: Orcokinin B and the CCHamides 1 and 2. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;357:607-21 pubmed publisher
  17. Takashima S, Younossi Hartenstein A, Ortiz P, Hartenstein V. A novel tissue in an established model system: the Drosophila pupal midgut. Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:69-81 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The formation of a pupal midgut has been reported from several other species and may represent a general feature of intestinal metamorphosis in insects. ..
  18. Söderberg J, Birse R, Nassel D. Insulin production and signaling in renal tubules of Drosophila is under control of tachykinin-related peptide and regulates stress resistance. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19866 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the control of DILP5 signaling in the renal tubules by Drosophila tachykinin peptide (DTK) and its receptor DTKR during desiccative, nutritional and oxidative stress...
  19. Lee W, Beebe K, Sudmeier L, Micchelli C. Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation. Development. 2009;136:2255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data underscore the essential requirement of Apc in exerting regulatory control over stem cell activity, as well as the consequences that disrupting this regulation can have on tissue homeostasis. ..
  20. Herrero P, Magarinos M, Torroja L, Canal I. Neurosecretory identity conferred by the apterous gene: lateral horn leucokinin neurons in Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2003;457:123-32 pubmed
    ..These results reinforce the emerging role of the LIM-HD proteins in determining neuronal identity. They also clarify the neuroendocrine phenotype of apterous mutants. ..
  21. Im S, Takle K, Jo J, Babcock D, Ma Z, Xiang Y, et al. Tachykinin acts upstream of autocrine Hedgehog signaling during nociceptive sensitization in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4:e10735 pubmed publisher conserved and potentially uncover novel interactions between nociceptive signaling pathways we examined SP/Tachykinin signaling in a Drosophila model of tissue damage-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity...
  22. Wegener C, Gorbashov A. Molecular evolution of neuropeptides in the genus Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..The last common ancestor of Drosophila obviously had a set of neuropeptides and peptide hormones identical to that of modern fruit flies. This is remarkable, since drosophilid flies have adapted to very different environments. ..
  23. Amcheslavsky A, Song W, Li Q, Nie Y, Bragatto I, Ferrandon D, et al. Enteroendocrine cells support intestinal stem-cell-mediated homeostasis in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;9:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The depletion of Tachykinin-producing enteroendocrine cells or knockdown of Tachykinin leads to a similar although less severe phenotype...
  24. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Williamson M, Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect proctolin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:437-42 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila receptor reported here is the first invertebrate proctolin receptor to be identified. ..
  25. Yapici N, Zimmer M, Domingos A. Cellular and molecular basis of decision-making. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:1023-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies interrogate decision-making about food, sexual behaviour, aggression or foraging strategies, and add molecular and cell biology understanding onto the consilience of brain and decision. ..
  26. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first two specific insect myosuppressin receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9808-13 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the molecular identification of specific insect myosuppressin receptors. ..
  27. Johnson E, Bohn L, Taghert P. Drosophila CG8422 encodes a functional diuretic hormone receptor. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:743-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of a Drosophila receptor for the DH neuropeptide provides a basis for genetic analysis of this critical factor's roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. ..
  28. Ida H, Suyari O, Shimamura M, Tien Tai T, Yamaguchi M, Taketani S. Genetic link between heme oxygenase and the signaling pathway of DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;231:117-25 pubmed
    ..This information should facilitate the identification of HO regulators in Drosophila and clarification of the roles of HO in eye development. ..
  29. Siviter R, Nachman R, Dani M, Keen J, Shirras A, Isaac R. Peptidyl dipeptidases (Ance and Acer) of Drosophila melanogaster: major differences in the substrate specificity of two homologs of human angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Peptides. 2002;23:2025-34 pubmed
    ..Of the insect peptides tested, the tachykinin-related peptide, Lom TK-1, proved to be the best substrate for Ance with a k(cat)/K(m) ratio of 0...
  30. Santos J, Vömel M, Struck R, Homberg U, Nässel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed
    ..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
  31. Kahsai L, Kapan N, Dircksen H, Winther A, Nassel D. Metabolic stress responses in Drosophila are modulated by brain neurosecretory cells that produce multiple neuropeptides. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11480 pubmed publisher
    ..five pairs of large protocerebral neurosecretory cells in two clusters (designated ipc-1 and ipc-2a): Drosophila tachykinin (DTK), short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and ion transport peptide (ITP)...
  32. Song W, Veenstra J, Perrimon N. Control of lipid metabolism by tachykinin in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;9:40-7 pubmed publisher
    ..unlike the physiological roles of TKs produced from the brain, gut-derived TKs do not affect behavior, thus demonstrating that gut TK hormones specifically regulate intestinal lipid metabolism without affecting neuronal functions.
  33. Takashima S, Adams K, Ortiz P, Ying C, Moridzadeh R, Younossi Hartenstein A, et al. Development of the Drosophila entero-endocrine lineage and its specification by the Notch signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 2011;353:161-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of Notch in pISCs forces these cells into an enterocyte fate. Loss of Notch function causes an increase in the proliferatory activity of pISCs, as well as a higher ratio of Prospero-positive cells. ..
  34. Jiang H, Lkhagva A, Daubnerova I, Chae H, Simo L, Jung S, et al. Natalisin, a tachykinin-like signaling system, regulates sexual activity and fecundity in insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3526-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A G protein-coupled receptor, previously known as tachykinin receptor 86C (also known as the neurokinin K receptor of D. melanogaster), now has been recognized as a bona fide natalisin receptor...
  35. Wang C, Xi R. Keeping intestinal stem cell differentiation on the Tramtrack. Fly (Austin). 2015;9:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Extra View, we also provide a brief discussion of recent progress and remaining questions concerning EE cell specification in adult Drosophila midgut. ..
  36. Salisbury J, Boggio K, Hsu Y, Quijada J, Sivachenko A, Gloeckner G, et al. A rapid MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry workflow for Drosophila melanogaster differential neuropeptidomics. Mol Brain. 2013;6:60 pubmed publisher
    ..While the data analysis methods should be compatible with other sample preparations, the presented sample preparation method was sufficient to identify previously unconfirmed D. melanogaster neuropeptides. ..
  37. Birse R, Söderberg J, Luo J, Winther A, Nassel D. Regulation of insulin-producing cells in the adult Drosophila brain via the tachykinin peptide receptor DTKR. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:4201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the role of Drosophila tachykinin-related peptides (DTKs) and their receptors, DTKR and NKD, in the regulation of brain insulin-producing cells (..
  38. Kahsai L, Winther A. Chemical neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: distribution of multiple neuropeptides in relation to neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:290-315 pubmed publisher
    ..the distribution of acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, monoamines, and eight different neuropeptides; Drosophila tachykinin, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, allatostatin A, proctolin, SIFamide, neuropeptide F, and FMRFamide...
  39. Cazzamali G, Saxild N, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila corazonin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:31-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a receptor that is structurally very similar to the Drosophila corazonin receptor can be found in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ..
  40. Poels J, Van Loy T, Franssens V, Detheux M, Nachman R, Oonk H, et al. Substitution of conserved glycine residue by alanine in natural and synthetic neuropeptide ligands causes partial agonism at the stomoxytachykinin receptor. J Neurochem. 2004;90:472-8 pubmed
    A few naturally occurring insect tachykinin-related peptides, such as stomoxytachykinin (Stc-TK), contain an Ala-residue instead of the highly conserved Gly-residue that is present in most other members of this peptide family...
  41. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor. ..
  42. Kahsai L, Martin J, Winther A. Neuropeptides in the Drosophila central complex in modulation of locomotor behavior. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have investigated the roles of two different neuropeptides, Drosophila tachykinin (DTK) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF), in aspects of locomotor behavior...