Gene Symbol: timeout
Description: timeout
Alias: CG14381, CG14382, CG7855, CG8148, Dmel\CG7855, TIM2, dtim2, tim2, timeout, CG7855-PA, timeless 2, timeless2, timeout-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Benna C, Bonaccorsi S, W├╝lbeck C, Helfrich Forster C, Gatti M, Kyriacou C, et al. Drosophila timeless2 is required for chromosome stability and circadian photoreception. Curr Biol. 2010;20:346-52 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, there are two timeless paralogs, timeless1 (tim1) and timeless2 (tim2, or timeout). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that tim1 originated as a duplication of tim2 around the time of the Cambrian explosion...
  2. Stanewsky R. Genetic analysis of the circadian system in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:111-47 pubmed
    ..This review will try to give a comparative overview about the two systems, highlighting similarities as well as specifics of both insect and murine clocks. ..
  3. Golden A, COHEN FIX O. Getting (chromosomes) loaded--a new role for timeless. Dev Cell. 2003;5:7-9 pubmed
    ..The phenotypes of tim-1 mutants suggest that cohesin subunits load onto chromosomes in a stepwise manner. Whether TIM-1 is also involved in circadian rhythms is discussed. ..
  4. Hall J. Cryptochromes: sensory reception, transduction, and clock functions subserving circadian systems. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:456-66 pubmed
    ..In the latter tissue, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, mouse CRYs are closely connected to the multimolecule murine clock mechanism. ..
  5. Rosato E, Kyriacou C. Flies, clocks and evolution. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:1769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in clock gene sequences between and within fly species is examined and the role of co-evolution between and within clock molecules is described, particularly with reference to adaptive functions of the circadian phenotype...
  6. Kippert F, Gerloff D. Timeless and Armadillo: a link too far (Comment on Vodovar et al. Curr. Biol. (2002) 12, R610-R611). Curr Biol. 2004;14:R650-1; author reply R652-3 pubmed
  7. Freer S, Lau D, Pearson J, Talsky K, Crews S. Molecular and functional analysis of Drosophila single-minded larval central brain expression. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This resembles the roles of vertebrate sim that have an early role in neuronal migration and a later role in axonogenesis. ..
  8. Benna C, Scannapieco P, Piccin A, Sandrelli F, Zordan M, Rosato E, et al. A second timeless gene in Drosophila shares greater sequence similarity with mammalian tim. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R512-3 pubmed
  9. Gotter A, Manganaro T, Weaver D, Kolakowski L, Possidente B, Sriram S, et al. A time-less function for mouse timeless. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:755-6 pubmed
    ..A putative mouse homolog, mTimeless (mTim), has been difficult to place in the circadian clock of mammals. Here we show that mTim is essential for embryonic development, but does not have substantiated circadian function. ..

More Information


  1. Clayton J, Kyriacou C, Reppert S. Keeping time with the human genome. Nature. 2001;409:829-31 pubmed
    ..The human genome will also aid in the identification of output genes that ultimately control circadian behaviours. ..
  2. Vodovar N, Clayton J, Costa R, Odell M, Kyriacou C. The Drosophila clock protein Timeless is a member of the Arm/HEAT family. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R610-1 pubmed
  3. Baggio F, Bozzato A, Benna C, Leonardi E, Romoli O, Cognolato M, et al. 2mit, an intronic gene of Drosophila melanogaster timeless2, is involved in behavioral plasticity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76351 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently characterized the D. melanogaster timeless2 (tim2) gene, showing its active involvement in chromosomal stability and light synchronization of the adult ..