Gene Symbol: Taf4
Description: TBP-associated factor 4
Alias: CG5444, Dmel\CG5444, SR3-3, SY3-2 TAF110, TAF, TAF110, TAF4, TAFII110, TAF[II]110, TAF[[II]], TAF[[II]]110, TFIID, TFIID 110, Taf110, Taf[[II]]110, d110, dTAF4, dTAFII110, dTAF[[II]]110, dmTAF4, l(3)72Dj, p110, taf110, TBP-associated factor 4, CG5444-PA, CG5444-PB, CG5444-PC, CG5444-PD, CG5444-PE, CG5444-PF, CG5444-PG, CG5444-PH, CG5444-PI, TATA-associated factor 110, TBP associated factor 110, TBP-associated factor, TBP-associated factor 110, TBP-associated factor 110kD, Taf4-PA, Taf4-PB, Taf4-PC, Taf4-PD, Taf4-PE, Taf4-PF, Taf4-PG, Taf4-PH, Taf4-PI, lethal(3)72Dj
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Taf4

Top Publications

  1. Pugh B. Control of gene expression through regulation of the TATA-binding protein. Gene. 2000;255:1-14 pubmed
    ..Once TBP is bound to DNA, factors such as TAF(II)250 and Mot1 induce TBP to dissociate, while other factors such as NC2 and the NOT complex convert the TBP/DNA ..
  2. Wright K, Tjian R. Wnt signaling targets ETO coactivation domain of TAF4/TFIID in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:55-60 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the diverse activities of the multisubunit core promoter recognition complex TFIID in vivo requires knowledge of how individual subunits contribute to overall functions of this TATA box-binding protein (TBP)/TBP-associated ..
  3. Zhou J, Zwicker J, Szymanski P, Levine M, Tjian R. TAFII mutations disrupt Dorsal activation in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13483-8 pubmed
    ..In vitro transcription reactions and protein binding assays implicate the TAFII110 and TAFII60 subunits of the TFIID complex in contributing to Dorsal-mediated activation...
  4. Hiller M, Chen X, Pringle M, Suchorolski M, Sancak Y, Viswanathan S, et al. Testis-specific TAF homologs collaborate to control a tissue-specific transcription program. Development. 2004;131:5297-308 pubmed
    ..We show that Drosophila primary spermatocytes also express four additional tissue-specific TAFs: nht (homolog of dTAF4), mia (homolog of dTAF6), sa (homolog of dTAF8) and rye (homolog of dTAF12)...
  5. Albright S, Tjian R. TAFs revisited: more data reveal new twists and confirm old ideas. Gene. 2000;242:1-13 pubmed
    ..Coordinating the interaction of these proteins is the basal transcription factor TFIID, which recognizes the core promoter and supplies a scaffolding upon which the rest of the transcriptional ..
  6. Wright K, Marr M, Tjian R. TAF4 nucleates a core subcomplex of TFIID and mediates activated transcription from a TATA-less promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12347-52 pubmed
    Activator-dependent recruitment of TFIID initiates formation of the transcriptional preinitiation complex...
  7. Kokubo T, Gong D, Roeder R, Horikoshi M, Nakatani Y. The Drosophila 110-kDa transcription factor TFIID subunit directly interacts with the N-terminal region of the 230-kDa subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5896-900 pubmed
    Transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multimeric protein complex that plays a central role in transcriptional regulation by facilitating promoter responses to various activators...
  8. Cutler G, Perry K, Tjian R. Adf-1 is a nonmodular transcription factor that contains a TAF-binding Myb-like motif. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:2252-61 pubmed
    ..Like many transcriptional activators, Adf-1 contains a TFIID-binding domain that can interact with specific TAF subunits...
  9. Schock F, Sauer F, Jackle H, Purnell B. Drosophila head segmentation factor buttonhead interacts with the same TATA box-binding protein-associated factors and in vivo DNA targets as human Sp1 but executes a different biological program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5061-5 pubmed

More Information


  1. Lebedeva L, Georgieva S, Nabirochkina E. Study of the properties of two homologues of yeast ADA2 in Drosophila melanogaster. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2004;398:297-9 pubmed
  2. Kennett S, Moorefield K, Horowitz J. Sp3 represses gene expression via the titration of promoter-specific transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9780-9 pubmed
    ..Regions of M2 required for physical interactions with five TATA box-associated factors (TAF(II)s) were mapped, and mutations that disrupt the interaction of M2 with two of these proteins, TAF(II)70 and TAF(..
  3. Muraro N, Moffat K. Down-regulation of torp4a, encoding the Drosophila homologue of torsinA, results in increased neuronal degeneration. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:1338-53 pubmed
  4. Lebedeva L, Nabirochkina E, Kurshakova M, Robert F, Krasnov A, Evgen ev M, et al. Occupancy of the Drosophila hsp70 promoter by a subset of basal transcription factors diminishes upon transcriptional activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18087-92 pubmed
    ..TATA-binding protein (TBP) and several TBP-associated factors (TAFs), TFIIB, TFIIF (RAP30), TFIIH (XPB), TBP-free/TAF-containg complex (GCN5 and TRRAP), and the Mediator complex subunit 13 before heat shock...
  5. Bhaskar V, Courey A. The MADF-BESS domain factor Dip3 potentiates synergistic activation by Dorsal and Twist. Gene. 2002;299:173-84 pubmed
    ..We assess the possibility that the MADF and BESS domains are related to the SANT domain, a well-characterized motif found in many transcriptional regulators and coregulators. ..
  6. Karim F, Chang H, Therrien M, Wassarman D, Laverty T, Rubin G. A screen for genes that function downstream of Ras1 during Drosophila eye development. Genetics. 1996;143:315-29 pubmed
    ..At least two suppressors appear to function either between Ras1 and Raf or in parallel to Raf. ..
  7. Dynlacht B, Hoey T, Tjian R. Isolation of coactivators associated with the TATA-binding protein that mediate transcriptional activation. Cell. 1991;66:563-76 pubmed
    ..fractionated Drosophila basal factors reveals that activation by NTF-1 requires factors present in the endogenous TFIID fraction that are distinct from the purified TATA-binding protein (TBP)...
  8. Slack C, Somers W, Sousa Nunes R, Chia W, Overton P. A mosaic genetic screen for novel mutations affecting Drosophila neuroblast divisions. BMC Genet. 2006;7:33 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate the value of mosaic screens in the identification of genes involved in neuroblast division. ..
  9. Keaveney M, Struhl K. Incorporation of Drosophila TAF110 into the yeast TFIID complex does not permit the Sp1 glutamine-rich activation domain to function in vivo. Genes Cells. 1999;4:197-203 pubmed
    ..The glutamine-rich activation domain of Sp1 interacts with TAF110, and it has been suggested that this interaction is important for transcriptional activation. S...
  10. Guglielmi B, La Rochelle N, Tjian R. Gene-specific transcriptional mechanisms at the histone gene cluster revealed by single-cell imaging. Mol Cell. 2013;51:480-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, no TFIIB or TFIID was detectable or functionally required at the initiation complexes of these promoters...
  11. Tora L. A unified nomenclature for TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAFs) involved in RNA polymerase II transcription. Genes Dev. 2002;16:673-5 pubmed
  12. Mantovani R. The molecular biology of the CCAAT-binding factor NF-Y. Gene. 1999;239:15-27 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the CCAAT sequence and on the NF-Y protein, also known as CBF, which binds to it. ..
  13. Kopytova D, Krasnov A, Kopantceva M, Nabirochkina E, Nikolenko J, Maksimenko O, et al. Two isoforms of Drosophila TRF2 are involved in embryonic development, premeiotic chromatin condensation, and proper differentiation of germ cells of both sexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7492-505 pubmed
    ..Moreover, TRF2 is essential for premeiotic chromatin condensation and proper differentiation of germ cells of both sexes. ..
  14. Mannervik M, Nibu Y, Zhang H, Levine M. Transcriptional coregulators in development. Science. 1999;284:606-9 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that a growing set of coactivators and corepressors mediate communication between diverse upstream regulatory proteins and the core RNA polymerase II transcription complex. ..
  15. Verrijzer C, Yokomori K, Chen J, Tjian R. Drosophila TAFII150: similarity to yeast gene TSM-1 and specific binding to core promoter DNA. Science. 1994;264:933-41 pubmed
    In Drosophila and human cells, the TATA binding protein (TBP) of the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex is tightly associated with multiple subunits termed TBP-associated factors (TAFs) that are essential for mediating regulation ..
  16. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. DNA template and activator-coactivator requirements for transcriptional synergism by Drosophila bicoid. Science. 1995;270:1825-8 pubmed
    ..reactions identified two independent activation domains of BCD that target different coactivator subunits (TAFII110 and TAFII60) of the basal transcription factor IID (TFIID)...
  17. Georgieva S, Kirschner D, Jagla T, Nabirochkina E, Hanke S, Schenkel H, et al. Two novel Drosophila TAF(II)s have homology with human TAF(II)30 and are differentially regulated during development. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1639-48 pubmed
    b>TFIID is a multiprotein complex composed of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAF(II)s)...
  18. Chen J, Attardi L, Verrijzer C, Yokomori K, Tjian R. Assembly of recombinant TFIID reveals differential coactivator requirements for distinct transcriptional activators. Cell. 1994;79:93-105 pubmed
    ..with a complex containing only TBP, TAFII250, and TAFII150, whereas Sp1 binds and additionally requires TAFII110 for activation...
  19. Wassarman D, Aoyagi N, Pile L, Schlag E. TAF250 is required for multiple developmental events in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1154-9 pubmed
    ..TAF250 mutants were isolated in a genetic screen that also yielded TAF60 and TAF110 mutants, indicating that TAFs function coordinately to regulate transcription...
  20. Pahi Z, Kiss Z, Komonyi O, Borsos B, Tora L, Boros I, et al. dTAF10- and dTAF10b-Containing Complexes Are Required for Ecdysone-Driven Larval-Pupal Morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0142226 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotes the TFIID complex is required for preinitiation complex assembly which positions RNA polymerase II around transcription start sites...
  21. Kokubo T, Gong D, Wootton J, Horikoshi M, Roeder R, Nakatani Y. Molecular cloning of Drosophila TFIID subunits. Nature. 1994;367:484-7 pubmed
    Transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multisubunit complex containing a TATA-box-binding factor (TFIID tau/TBP) and associated polypeptide factors (TAFs) with sizes ranging from M(r) approximately 20,000 to > 200,000...
  22. Yokomori K, Admon A, Goodrich J, Chen J, Tjian R. Drosophila TFIIA-L is processed into two subunits that are associated with the TBP/TAF complex. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2235-45 pubmed
    ..Protein-protein interaction assays identified dTBP and dTAFII110 as targets for binding TFIIA in the TFIID complex...
  23. Gill G, Pascal E, Tseng Z, Tjian R. A glutamine-rich hydrophobic patch in transcription factor Sp1 contacts the dTAFII110 component of the Drosophila TFIID complex and mediates transcriptional activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:192-6 pubmed
    ..domains of Sp1, A and B, can interact with at least one component of this complex, the TBP-associated factor dTAFII110. Here we report the mapping of a region of Sp1 with alternating glutamine and hydrophobic residues which is ..
  24. Damania B, Alwine J. TAF-like function of SV40 large T antigen. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1369-81 pubmed
    ..to epitope-tagged TBP, endogenous TBP, hTAF(II)100, hTAF(II)130, and hTAF(II)250, under conditions where holo-TFIID would be precipitated...
  25. Hoey T, Weinzierl R, Gill G, Chen J, Dynlacht B, Tjian R. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Drosophila TAF110 reveal properties expected of coactivators. Cell. 1993;72:247-60 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence of TAF110 revealed the presence of several glutamine- and serine/threonine-rich regions reminiscent of the protein-protein ..
  26. Petty K, Krimkevich Y, Thomas D. A TATA binding protein-associated factor functions as a coactivator for thyroid hormone receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 1996;10:1632-45 pubmed
    ..The human (h) TR beta bound specifically to dTAFII110 and weakly to dTAFII60, but did not bind to dTAFII30 alpha, dTAFII30 beta, dTAFII40, dTAFII80, or dTAFII150...
  27. Vorobyeva N, Soshnikova N, Kuzmina J, Kopantseva M, Nikolenko J, Nabirochkina E, et al. The novel regulator of metazoan development SAYP organizes a nuclear coactivator supercomplex. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2152-6 pubmed
    ..is related to the conserved domain SAY, which assembles a nuclear supercomplex BTFly consisting of Brahma and TFIID coactivators...
  28. Vorobyeva N, Soshnikova N, Nikolenko J, Kuzmina J, Nabirochkina E, Georgieva S, et al. Transcription coactivator SAYP combines chromatin remodeler Brahma and transcription initiation factor TFIID into a single supercomplex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..consisting of the chromatin-remodeling factor Brahma (SWI/SNF) and the transcription initiation factor TFIID, named BTFly (Brahma and TFIID in one assembly)...
  29. Vorobyeva N, Soshnikova N, Nikolenko Y, Nabirochkina E, Georgieva S, Shidlovskii Y. A new evolutionarily conserved protein domain is capable of transcription activation. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2008;423:349-51 pubmed
  30. Pham A, Muller S, Sauer F. Mesoderm-determining transcription in Drosophila is alleviated by mutations in TAF(II)60 and TAF(II)110. Mech Dev. 1999;84:3-16 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that TBP-associated-factors (TAF(II)s) within the basal transcription factor TFIID mediate transcriptional activation by Dorsal and Twist...
  31. Georgieva S, Nabirochkina E, Dilworth F, Eickhoff H, Becker P, Tora L, et al. The novel transcription factor e(y)2 interacts with TAF(II)40 and potentiates transcription activation on chromatin templates. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5223-31 pubmed
    ..studies demonstrate that the major complex, including both proteins, appears to be distinct from TFIID. Furthermore, we provide genetic evidence suggesting that the carboxy terminus of dTAF(II)40 is important for ..
  32. Muratoglu S, Georgieva S, Papai G, Scheer E, Enunlu I, Komonyi O, et al. Two different Drosophila ADA2 homologues are present in distinct GCN5 histone acetyltransferase-containing complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:306-21 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in vivo the two dADA2 proteins showed different localizations on polytene X chromosomes. These results, taken together, suggest that the two Drosophila ADA2 homologues are present in distinct GCN5-containing HAT complexes. ..
  33. Farmer G, Colgan J, Nakatani Y, Manley J, Prives C. Functional interaction between p53, the TATA-binding protein (TBP), andTBP-associated factors in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4295-304 pubmed
    ..also inhibited activation by p53-GAL4 but had negligible effects on activation by GAL4-VP16 and Sp1, while TAFII110 did not affect any of the activators...
  34. Dynlacht B, Weinzierl R, Admon A, Tjian R. The dTAFII80 subunit of Drosophila TFIID contains beta-transducin repeats. Nature. 1993;363:176-9 pubmed
    ..We have described the properties of the subunit dTAFII110, which can interact directly with the transcriptional activator Sp1 (ref. 5)...
  35. Schlag E, Wassarman D. Identifying mutations in Drosophila genes by direct sequencing of PCR products. Biotechniques. 1999;27:262-4 pubmed
  36. Kokubo T, Gong D, Yamashita S, Takada R, Roeder R, Horikoshi M, et al. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of the Drosophila 85-kilodalton TFIID subunit. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:7859-63 pubmed
    Transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multimeric protein complex that plays a central role in mediating promoter responses to various activators and repressors...
  37. Castanon I, Baylies M. A Twist in fate: evolutionary comparison of Twist structure and function. Gene. 2002;287:11-22 pubmed
    ..Conserved principles and the molecular mechanisms underlying them are discussed. ..
  38. Schaeffer V, Janody F, Loss C, Desplan C, Wimmer E. Bicoid functions without its TATA-binding protein-associated factor interaction domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4461-6 pubmed
    ..Bcd contains three putative activation domains: a glutamine-rich region, which interacts in vitro with TAFII110; an alanine-rich domain, which targets TAFII60; and a C-terminal acidic region, which has an unknown role...
  39. Coustry F, Sinha S, Maity S, Crombrugghe B. The two activation domains of the CCAAT-binding factor CBF interact with the dTAFII110 component of the Drosophila TFIID complex. Biochem J. 1998;331 ( Pt 1):291-7 pubmed
    ..In CBF-C the C-terminal portion of the molecule seems to be needed for these two activities. Our results suggest that TAF110 might represent one of the co-activators that mediate transcriptional activation by CBF.
  40. Weinzierl R, Dynlacht B, Tjian R. Largest subunit of Drosophila transcription factor IID directs assembly of a complex containing TBP and a coactivator. Nature. 1993;362:511-7 pubmed
    ..we report the cloning of Drosophila TAFII250 and the assembly of a partial complex containing recombinant TBP, TAFII110 and the C-terminal domain of TAFII250...
  41. Shao H, Revach M, Moshonov S, Tzuman Y, Gazit K, Albeck S, et al. Core promoter binding by histone-like TAF complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:206-19 pubmed
    A major function of TFIID is core promoter recognition. TFIID consists of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs)...
  42. Weinzierl R, Ruppert S, Dynlacht B, Tanese N, Tjian R. Cloning and expression of Drosophila TAFII60 and human TAFII70 reveal conserved interactions with other subunits of TFIID. EMBO J. 1993;12:5303-9 pubmed
    Regulation of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II requires TFIID, a multisubunit complex composed of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and at least seven tightly associated factors (TAFs)...
  43. Kokubo T, Takada R, Yamashita S, Gong D, Roeder R, Horikoshi M, et al. Identification of TFIID components required for transcriptional activation by upstream stimulatory factor. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:17554-8 pubmed
    A TATA box-binding initiation factor, TFIID, plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation by activators...
  44. Amrolia P, Ramamurthy L, Saluja D, Tanese N, Jane S, Cunningham J. The activation domain of the enhancer binding protein p45NF-E2 interacts with TAFII130 and mediates long-range activation of the alpha- and beta-globin gene loci in an erythroid cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10051-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest one potential mechanism for direct recruitment of distal regulatory regions of the globin loci to the individual promoters. ..
  45. Yokomori K, Chen J, Admon A, Zhou S, Tjian R. Molecular cloning and characterization of dTAFII30 alpha and dTAFII30 beta: two small subunits of Drosophila TFIID. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2587-97 pubmed
    ..dTAFII30 beta are associated with TFIID via interactions with other TAFs, including dTAFII250, dTAFII150, and dTAFII110. In addition, dTAFII30 alpha also contacts dTBP...
  46. Santoso B, Kadonaga J. Reconstitution of chromatin transcription with purified components reveals a chromatin-specific repressive activity of p300. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:131-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, the mechanism of transcriptional repression by p300 is distinct from that of histone H1, PARP-1 or Sir2. These findings reveal a novel chromatin-specific repressive function of p300. ..
  47. Purnell B, Emanuel P, Gilmour D. TFIID sequence recognition of the initiator and sequences farther downstream in Drosophila class II genes. Genes Dev. 1994;8:830-42 pubmed
    Immunopurified TFIID produces a large DNase I footprint over the hsp70, hsp26, and histone H3 promoters of Drosophila...
  48. Metcalf C, Wassarman D. Nucleolar colocalization of TAF1 and testis-specific TAFs during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2836-43 pubmed
    ..tTAFs are paralogs of generally expressed TAF subunits of transcription factor IID (TFIID)...
  49. Hansen S, Tjian R. TAFs and TFIIA mediate differential utilization of the tandem Adh promoters. Cell. 1995;82:565-75 pubmed
    ..We propose a mechanism for regulating differential promoter utilization during Drosophila development that involves the recognition of specific initiator elements by TAFs in the TFIID complex.
  50. Roos M, Su K, Baker J, Kudlow J. O glycosylation of an Sp1-derived peptide blocks known Sp1 protein interactions. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6472-80 pubmed
    ..Sp1's transcriptionally relevant protein-to-protein interactions with the TATA-binding-protein-associated factor (TAF110) and holo-Sp1...
  51. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. Multiple TAFIIs directing synergistic activation of transcription. Science. 1995;270:1783-8 pubmed
    ..Within the basal transcription factor complex TFIID, two specific targets, TAFII110 and TAFII60, served as coactivators to mediate transcriptional activation by these two enhancer binding proteins...
  52. Marr S, Lis J, Treisman J, Marr M. The metazoan-specific mediator subunit 26 (Med26) is essential for viability and is found at both active genes and pericentric heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2710-20 pubmed
    ..This work is the first characterization of the metazoan-specific Mediator subunit in an animal model. ..
  53. Rebay I, Chen F, Hsiao F, Kolodziej P, Kuang B, Laverty T, et al. A genetic screen for novel components of the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that interact with the yan gene of Drosophila identifies split ends, a new RNA recognition motif-containing protein. Genetics. 2000;154:695-712 pubmed
    ..We also isolated mutations in five previously uncharacterized genes, one of which, split ends, we have characterized molecularly and have shown to encode a member of the RRM family of RNA-binding proteins. ..
  54. Niessing D, Rivera Pomar R, La Rosée A, Hader T, Schock F, Purnell B, et al. A cascade of transcriptional control leading to axis determination in Drosophila. J Cell Physiol. 1997;173:162-7 pubmed
  55. Verrijzer C, Chen J, Yokomori K, Tjian R. Binding of TAFs to core elements directs promoter selectivity by RNA polymerase II. Cell. 1995;81:1115-25 pubmed
    ..Here, we have assessed the potential role of TAFs and the TFIID complex in directing basal promoter function...
  56. Attardi L, Tjian R. Drosophila tissue-specific transcription factor NTF-1 contains a novel isoleucine-rich activation motif. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1341-53 pubmed
    ..This 56-amino-acid activation region fails to interact with the putative Sp1 coactivator, dTAFII110, and thus appears to use a mechanism distinct from the glutamine-rich activation domain of Sp1...