Gene Symbol: Syx1A
Description: Syntaxin 1A
Alias: CG10716, CG18615, CG31136, CG31136/CG33100, CG5448, CT30033, Dm Syx1, DmSyx1A, Dmel\CG31136, SYX, SYX 1A, SYX1A, Stx1a, Syt1A, Syx, Syx-1A, Syx1, Syx1a, SyxA, anon-EST:Gibbs4, anon-WO02059370.54, dSyx1, dsyn-1A, l(3)06737, synt, syt-1A, syx, syx-1, syx-1A, syx1, syx1A, syntaxin 1A, CG31136-PA, CG31136-PB, CG31136-PC, STX1A, Syx1A-PA, Syx1A-PB, Syx1A-PC, dsyntaxin-1A, syntaxin, syntaxin 1, syntaxin-1, syntaxin-1A, syntaxin1, syntaxin1A, syntx 1
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Syx1A

Top Publications

  1. Vilinsky I, Stewart B, Drummond J, Robinson I, Deitcher D. A Drosophila SNAP-25 null mutant reveals context-dependent redundancy with SNAP-24 in neurotransmission. Genetics. 2002;162:259-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the apparent redundancy between SNAP-25 and SNAP-24 is due to inappropriate genetic substitution. ..
  2. Bhattacharya S, Stewart B, Niemeyer B, Burgess R, McCabe B, Lin P, et al. Members of the synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) family in Drosophila are functionally interchangeable in vivo for neurotransmitter release and cell viability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13867-72 pubmed
  3. Xu H, Boulianne G, Trimble W. Drosophila syntaxin 16 is a Q-SNARE implicated in Golgi dynamics. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4447-55 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of the Drosophila homologue of syntaxin 16. dsyntaxin 16 binds SNAP in a concentration-dependent fashion and genetically interacts with NSF2...
  4. Yoshihara M, Littleton J. Synaptotagmin I functions as a calcium sensor to synchronize neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 2002;36:897-908 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that synaptotagmin is the major Ca(2+) sensor for evoked release and functions to trigger synchronous fusion in response to Ca(2+), while suppressing asynchronous release. ..
  5. Toonen R, Verhage M. Vesicle trafficking: pleasure and pain from SM genes. Trends Cell Biol. 2003;13:177-86 pubmed
    ..This review examines whether a universal principle for the molecular function of SM genes exists and whether the divergence in SM gene function can be related to the unique characteristics of different transport routes. ..
  6. Featherstone D, Davis W, Dubreuil R, Broadie K. Drosophila alpha- and beta-spectrin mutations disrupt presynaptic neurotransmitter release. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4215-24 pubmed
  7. Wu M, Fergestad T, Lloyd T, He Y, Broadie K, Bellen H. Syntaxin 1A interacts with multiple exocytic proteins to regulate neurotransmitter release in vivo. Neuron. 1999;23:593-605 pubmed
    Biochemical studies suggest that syntaxin 1A participates in multiple protein-protein interactions in the synaptic terminal, but the in vivo significance of these interactions is poorly understood...
  8. Babcock M, Macleod G, Leither J, Pallanck L. Genetic analysis of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein function in Drosophila reveals positive and negative secretory roles. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3964-73 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that SNAP promotes neurotransmitter release and SNARE complex disassembly but inhibits secretion when present at high abundance relative to NSF. ..
  9. Schulze K, Bellen H. Drosophila syntaxin is required for cell viability and may function in membrane formation and stabilization. Genetics. 1996;144:1713-24 pubmed
    The role of the Drosophila homologue of syntaxin-1A (syx) in neurotransmission has been extensively studied...

More Information


  1. Wagh D, Rasse T, Asan E, Hofbauer A, Schwenkert I, Dürrbeck H, et al. Bruchpilot, a protein with homology to ELKS/CAST, is required for structural integrity and function of synaptic active zones in Drosophila. Neuron. 2006;49:833-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that BRP is critical for intact AZ structure and normal-evoked neurotransmitter release at chemical synapses of Drosophila. ..
  2. Acharya U, Edwards M, Jorquera R, Silva H, Nagashima K, Labarca P, et al. Drosophila melanogaster Scramblases modulate synaptic transmission. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:69-82 pubmed
    ..The lack of phenotypes related to failure of scrambling and the neurophysiological analysis lead us to propose that Scramblases play a modulatory role in the process of neurotransmission. ..
  3. Schulze K, Broadie K, Perin M, Bellen H. Genetic and electrophysiological studies of Drosophila syntaxin-1A demonstrate its role in nonneuronal secretion and neurotransmission. Cell. 1995;80:311-20 pubmed
    Cloning and characterization of the Drosophila syntaxin-1A gene, syx-1A, reveal that it is present in several tissues but is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, where it is localized to axons and synapses...
  4. Verstreken P, Koh T, Schulze K, Zhai R, Hiesinger P, Zhou Y, et al. Synaptojanin is recruited by endophilin to promote synaptic vesicle uncoating. Neuron. 2003;40:733-48 pubmed
    ..Our data also provide further evidence that kiss-and-run is able to maintain neurotransmitter release when synapses are not extensively challenged. ..
  5. Mohtashami M, Stewart B, Boulianne G, Trimble W. Analysis of the mutant Drosophila N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion-1 protein in comatose reveals molecular correlates of the behavioural paralysis. J Neurochem. 2001;77:1407-17 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that dNSF-1 is required for adult neuronal function, but that in the larval nmj function may be maintained by other isoforms. ..
  6. Rieckhof G, Yoshihara M, Guan Z, Littleton J. Presynaptic N-type calcium channels regulate synaptic growth. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41099-108 pubmed
    ..Hypomorphic mutations in syntaxin-1A or n-synaptobrevin, which also disrupt neurotransmitter release, did not affect synapse proliferation at the ..
  7. Ruden D, Sollars V, Wang X, Mori D, Alterman M, Lu X. Membrane fusion proteins are required for oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila egg chamber. Dev Biol. 2000;218:314-25 pubmed
    ..We found that ovaries that are mutant for syntaxin-1a, rop, and synaptotagmin are also defective in oskar mRNA localization during oogenesis...
  8. Goold C, Davis G. The BMP ligand Gbb gates the expression of synaptic homeostasis independent of synaptic growth control. Neuron. 2007;56:109-23 pubmed
  9. Burgess R, Deitcher D, Schwarz T. The synaptic protein syntaxin1 is required for cellularization of Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:861-75 pubmed
    ..We have mutagenized syntaxin1 in Drosophila and have found that it links the mechanism of synaptic transmission to a distinct cell biological ..
  10. Broadie K, Prokop A, Bellen H, O Kane C, Schulze K, Sweeney S. Syntaxin and synaptobrevin function downstream of vesicle docking in Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;15:663-73 pubmed
    ..vesicles are proposed to dock at presynaptic active zones by the association of synaptobrevin (v-SNARE) with syntaxin (t-SNARE)...
  11. Tolar L, Pallanck L. NSF function in neurotransmitter release involves rearrangement of the SNARE complex downstream of synaptic vesicle docking. J Neurosci. 1998;18:10250-6 pubmed
    ..Here we report that an SDS-resistant neural SNARE complex, composed of the SNARE polypeptides syntaxin, n-synaptobrevin, and SNAP-25, accumulates in comt mutants at restrictive temperature...
  12. Haghnia M, Cavalli V, Shah S, Schimmelpfeng K, Brusch R, Yang G, et al. Dynactin is required for coordinated bidirectional motility, but not for dynein membrane attachment. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2081-9 pubmed
  13. Diao F, Waro G, Tsunoda S. Fast inactivation of Shal (K(v)4) K+ channels is regulated by the novel interactor SKIP3 in Drosophila neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:33-44 pubmed publisher
    ..As a scaffold-like protein, SKIP3 is likely to lead to the identification of a novel regulatory complex that modulates Shal channel inactivation. ..
  14. Barber C, Jorquera R, Melom J, Littleton J. Postsynaptic regulation of synaptic plasticity by synaptotagmin 4 requires both C2 domains. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:295-310 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Syt 4 regulates activity-dependent release of postsynaptic retrograde signals that promote synaptic plasticity, similar to the role of Syt 1 as a Ca(2+) sensor for presynaptic vesicle fusion. ..
  15. Hiesinger P, Fayyazuddin A, Mehta S, Rosenmund T, Schulze K, Zhai R, et al. The v-ATPase V0 subunit a1 is required for a late step in synaptic vesicle exocytosis in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;121:607-620 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Vha100-1 functions downstream of SNAREs in synaptic vesicle fusion. ..
  16. Stewart B, Mohtashami M, Rivlin P, Deitcher D, Trimble W, Boulianne G. Dominant-negative NSF2 disrupts the structure and function of Drosophila neuromuscular synapses. J Neurobiol. 2002;51:261-71 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that dNSF2 has multiple roles in cellular function and adds that not all of its functions require disassembly of the SNARE complex. ..
  17. Cerezo J, Jimenez F, Moya F. Characterization and gene cloning of Drosophila syntaxin 1 (Dsynt1): the fruit fly homologue of rat syntaxin 1. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1995;29:245-52 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence of the Dsynt1 cDNA cloned is highly homologous to rat syntaxin 1A. Dsynt1 contains 291 amino acid residues and like other members of the syntaxin family is an integral membrane ..
  18. Adolfsen B, Saraswati S, Yoshihara M, Littleton J. Synaptotagmins are trafficked to distinct subcellular domains including the postsynaptic compartment. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:249-60 pubmed
    ..In addition, the identification of a postsynaptic synaptotagmin suggests calcium-dependent membrane-trafficking functions on both sides of the synapse. ..
  19. Pack Chung E, Kurshan P, Dickman D, Schwarz T. A Drosophila kinesin required for synaptic bouton formation and synaptic vesicle transport. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:980-9 pubmed
    ..Our data thus indicate that Imac transports components required for synaptic maturation and provide insight into presynaptic maturation as a process that can be differentiated from axon outgrowth and targeting. ..
  20. Williamson W, Wang D, Haberman A, Hiesinger P. A dual function of V0-ATPase a1 provides an endolysosomal degradation mechanism in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:885-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that V100 exerts a temporally integrated dual function that increases neuronal degradative capacity. ..
  21. Littleton J, Serano T, Rubin G, Ganetzky B, Chapman E. Synaptic function modulated by changes in the ratio of synaptotagmin I and IV. Nature. 1999;400:757-60 pubmed
  22. Hiesinger P, Scholz M, Meinertzhagen I, Fischbach K, Obermayer K. Visualization of synaptic markers in the optic neuropils of Drosophila using a new constrained deconvolution method. J Comp Neurol. 2001;429:277-88 pubmed
    ..We report differential localization of these near the resolution limit of light, which could not be distinguished without deconvolution. ..
  23. Littleton J, Chapman E, Kreber R, Garment M, Carlson S, Ganetzky B. Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations demonstrate that synaptic exocytosis requires SNARE complex assembly and disassembly. Neuron. 1998;21:401-13 pubmed
    The neuronal SNARE complex is formed via the interaction of synaptobrevin with syntaxin and SNAP-25. Purified SNARE proteins assemble spontaneously, while disassembly requires the ATPase NSF...
  24. Murthy M, Schwarz T. The exocyst component Sec5 is required for membrane traffic and polarity in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2004;131:377-88 pubmed
    ..However, we find the cytoskeleton to be correctly oriented. We conclude that Sec5 is required for directed membrane traffic, and consequently for the establishment of polarity within the developing oocyte. ..
  25. Tian A, Tamori Y, Huang Y, Melendez N, Deng W. Efficient EGFR signaling and dorsal-ventral axis patterning requires syntaxin dependent Gurken trafficking. Dev Biol. 2013;373:349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Syntaxin 1A (Syx1A) is required for efficient trafficking of Grk protein for DV patterning...
  26. Zhang S, Yeromin A, Zhang X, Yu Y, Safrina O, Penna A, et al. Genome-wide RNAi screen of Ca(2+) influx identifies genes that regulate Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9357-62 pubmed
  27. Sommer B, Oprins A, Rabouille C, Munro S. The exocyst component Sec5 is present on endocytic vesicles in the oocyte of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:953-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the exocyst may act in both Golgi to plasma membrane traffic and endocytic cycling, and hence in oocytes is recruited to clathrin-coated pits to facilitate the rapid recycling of Yolkless. ..
  28. Parfitt K, Reist N, Li J, Burgess R, Deitcher D, DiAntonio A, et al. Drosophila genetics and the functions of synaptic proteins. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1995;60:371-7 pubmed
  29. Bharathi V, Pallavi S, Bajpai R, Emerald B, Shashidhara L. Genetic characterization of the Drosophila homologue of coronin. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1911-22 pubmed
    ..Both viable and lethal alleles of coro show genetic interactions with syntaxin1A, a gene required for membrane trafficking...
  30. Niemeyer B, Schwarz T. SNAP-24, a Drosophila SNAP-25 homologue on granule membranes, is a putative mediator of secretion and granule-granule fusion in salivary glands. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 22):4055-64 pubmed
    ..In vitro studies, however, show that SNAP-24 can form core complexes with syntaxin and both synaptic and non-synaptic v-SNAREs...
  31. Wang Z, Chapman E. Rat and Drosophila synaptotagmin 4 have opposite effects during SNARE-catalyzed membrane fusion. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:30759-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, rat SYT4 serves as an inhibitory isoform, whereas fly SYT4 is a bona fide Ca(2+) sensor capable of coupling Ca(2+) to membrane fusion. ..
  32. Kazama H, Ichikawa A, Kohsaka H, Morimoto Tanifuji T, Nose A. Innervation and activity dependent dynamics of postsynaptic oxidative metabolism. Neuroscience. 2008;152:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging should allow us to begin assessing the progress of synapse formation from a metabolic perspective. ..
  33. Tian X, Li J, Valakh V, DiAntonio A, Wu C. Drosophila Rae1 controls the abundance of the ubiquitin ligase Highwire in post-mitotic neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results describe a previously unknown mechanism that selectively controls Hiw protein abundance during synaptic development. ..
  34. Khuong T, Habets R, Kuenen S, Witkowska A, Kasprowicz J, Swerts J, et al. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 is required for Syntaxin1A clustering and neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 2013;77:1097-108 pubmed publisher
    ..We find the lipid in membrane domains at neurotransmitter release sites, where it concentrates with Syntaxin1A, a protein essential for vesicle fusion...
  35. Huang F, Woodruff E, Mohrmann R, Broadie K. Rolling blackout is required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2369-79 pubmed
    ..Genetic tests reveal a synergistic interaction between rbo and syntaxin1A TS mutants, suggesting that RBO is required in the mechanism of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment ..
  36. Murthy M, Teodoro R, Miller T, Schwarz T. Sec5, a member of the exocyst complex, mediates Drosophila embryo cellularization. Development. 2010;137:2773-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the exocyst is necessary for, and is likely to direct, the polarized addition of new membrane during this form of cytokinesis. ..
  37. Stewart B, Mohtashami M, Trimble W, Boulianne G. SNARE proteins contribute to calcium cooperativity of synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13955-60 pubmed
    ..We therefore tested for a contribution of SNARE proteins to cooperativity by genetically reducing the levels of syntaxin IA and neuronal-synaptobrevin in Drosophila...
  38. Xie T, Ding D. Investigating 42 candidate orthologous protein groups by molecular evolutionary analysis on genome scale. Gene. 2000;261:305-10 pubmed
    ..The result could imply that the classical one-to-one orthology might be not as common as typically accepted and automated similarity-based methods should be used with caution when accurate orthology/paralogy discrimination is required. ..
  39. Romano G, Klima R, Buratti E, Verstreken P, Baralle F, Feiguin F. Chronological requirements of TDP-43 function in synaptic organization and locomotive control. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;71:95-109 pubmed publisher
    ..for Drosophila motility and synaptic assembly through the direct modulation of vesicular proteins, such as Syntaxin 1A, indicating that synaptic transmission defects are early pathological consequences of TBPH dysfunction in vivo...
  40. Littleton J, Upton L, Kania A. Immunocytochemical analysis of axonal outgrowth in synaptotagmin mutations. J Neurochem. 1995;65:32-40 pubmed
    ..techniques to examine the distribution of the axonal protein Fasciclin II, the presynaptic membrane protein syntaxin, and the synaptic vesicle protein cysteine string protein, in synaptotagmin null mutations...
  41. Bronk P, Wenniger J, Dawson Scully K, Guo X, Hong S, Atwood H, et al. Drosophila Hsc70-4 is critical for neurotransmitter exocytosis in vivo. Neuron. 2001;30:475-88 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Hsc4 and CSP cooperatively augment the probability of release by increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of vesicle fusion. ..
  42. Reis G, Yang G, Szpankowski L, Weaver C, Shah S, Robinson J, et al. Molecular motor function in axonal transport in vivo probed by genetic and computational analysis in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1700-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein motors assemble in stable mixtures on APP vesicles and their direction and velocity are controlled at least in part by dynein intermediate chain. ..
  43. Muller M, Pym E, Tong A, Davis G. Rab3-GAP controls the progression of synaptic homeostasis at a late stage of vesicle release. Neuron. 2011;69:749-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data define roles for Rab3-GAP and Rab3 in synaptic homeostasis and uncover a mechanism, acting at a late stage of vesicle release, that opposes the progression of homeostatic plasticity. ..
  44. Richmond J, Broadie K. The synaptic vesicle cycle: exocytosis and endocytosis in Drosophila and C. elegans. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:499-507 pubmed the past year has revealed that Unc-13 and Rab3a-interacting molecule regulate the conformational state of syntaxin to prime synaptic vesicle fusion...
  45. Valzania L, Ono H, Ignesti M, Cavaliere V, Bernardi F, Gamberi C, et al. Drosophila 4EHP is essential for the larval-pupal transition and required in the prothoracic gland for ecdysone biosynthesis. Dev Biol. 2016;410:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results uncover a novel essential function for 4EHP in regulating ecdysone biosynthesis. ..
  46. Pereanu W, Shy D, Hartenstein V. Morphogenesis and proliferation of the larval brain glia in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;283:191-203 pubmed
    ..This increase results from mitosis of differentiated glia, but, more significantly, from the proliferation of neuroblasts. ..
  47. Bae Y, Kang S, Park K. Drosophila melanogaster Parkin ubiquitinates peanut and septin1 as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:430-9 pubmed
    ..melanogaster Parkin. Co-immunoprecipitation with membrane protein Syntaxin indicated direct binding of septin proteins to syntaxin, implicating their relevance in the exocytosis of ..
  48. Nie Z, Ranjan R, Wenniger J, Hong S, Bronk P, Zinsmaier K. Overexpression of cysteine-string proteins in Drosophila reveals interactions with syntaxin. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10270-9 pubmed
    ..The dominant effects caused by the overexpression of CSP are suppressed by the simultaneous overexpression of syntaxin-1A but not by the coexpression of SNAP-25...
  49. Rosenbaum E, Vasiljevic E, Cleland S, Flores C, Colley N. The Gos28 SNARE protein mediates intra-Golgi transport of rhodopsin and is required for photoreceptor survival. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:32392-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify Gos28 as an essential SNARE protein in Drosophila photoreceptors and provide mechanistic insights into the role of SNAREs in neurodegenerative disease. ..
  50. Gilestro G, Tononi G, Cirelli C. Widespread changes in synaptic markers as a function of sleep and wakefulness in Drosophila. Science. 2009;324:109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease of synaptic markers during sleep was progressive, and sleep was necessary for their decline. Thus, sleep may be involved in maintaining synaptic homeostasis altered by waking activities. ..
  51. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003;422:326-30 pubmed
    ..Lgl promotes cortical localization of Miranda, and we propose that phosphorylation of Lgl by aPKC at the apical neuroblast cortex restricts Lgl activity and Miranda localization to the opposite, basal side of the cell. ..
  52. Baqri R, Charan R, Schimmelpfeng K, Chavan S, Ray K. Kinesin-2 differentially regulates the anterograde axonal transports of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:378-92 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these suggest that kinesin-2 independently transports AChE and ChAT within the same axon. It also implies that cargo availability could regulate the rate and frequency of transports by kinesin motors. ..
  53. Coutelis J, Ephrussi A. Rab6 mediates membrane organization and determinant localization during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2007;134:1419-30 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight the central role of vesicular trafficking in the establishment of polarity and in determinant localization in Drosophila. ..
  54. Beckett K, Monier S, Palmer L, Alexandre C, Green H, Bonneil E, et al. Drosophila S2 cells secrete wingless on exosome-like vesicles but the wingless gradient forms independently of exosomes. Traffic. 2013;14:82-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this conclusion, extracellularly tagged Evi expressed from a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome is not released from imaginal disc Wingless-expressing cells. ..
  55. Morrison H, Dionne H, Rusten T, Brech A, Fisher W, Pfeiffer B, et al. Regulation of early endosomal entry by the Drosophila tumor suppressors Rabenosyn and Vps45. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..that bridges an interaction between Rab5 and the Sec1/Munc18-family protein Vps45, and we further identify the syntaxin Avalanche (Avl) as a target for Vps45 activity...
  56. Ping Y, Tsunoda S. Inactivity-induced increase in nAChRs upregulates Shal K(+) channels to stabilize synaptic potentials. Nat Neurosci. 2011;15:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a previously unknown mechanism for fine tuning the homeostatic response. ..
  57. Saitoe M, Schwarz T, Umbach J, Gundersen C, Kidokoro Y. Absence of junctional glutamate receptor clusters in Drosophila mutants lacking spontaneous transmitter release. Science. 2001;293:514-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, spontaneous vesicle exocytosis appears to be tightly linked to the clustering of glutamate receptors during development. ..
  58. Gerst J. SNAREs and SNARE regulators in membrane fusion and exocytosis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;55:707-34 pubmed
    ..e. the synaptobrevin/VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP-25 families) which mediate membrane fusion...
  59. Strickland L, Burgess D. Pathways for membrane trafficking during cytokinesis. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:115-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, new work reveals that vesicles derived from the Rab11 recycling endosome (RE) promote actin remodeling at the furrow. ..
  60. Cho P, Poulin F, Cho Park Y, Cho Park I, Chicoine J, Lasko P, et al. A new paradigm for translational control: inhibition via 5'-3' mRNA tethering by Bicoid and the eIF4E cognate 4EHP. Cell. 2005;121:411-23 pubmed
    ..This example of cap-dependent translational control that is not mediated by canonical eIF4E defines a new paradigm for translational inhibition involving tethering of the mRNA 5' and 3' ends. ..
  61. Pereanu W, Spindler S, Im E, Buu N, Hartenstein V. The emergence of patterned movement during late embryogenesis of Drosophila. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:1669-85 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal prominent alterations in embryonic motility for both of these mutations, indicating that the protocerebrum and glial cells play a crucial role in the neural mechanism controlling larval movement in Drosophila. ..
  62. Tonning A, Helms S, Schwarz H, Uv A, Moussian B. Hormonal regulation of mummy is needed for apical extracellular matrix formation and epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:331-41 pubmed
  63. Baylis H, Sattelle D, Lane N. Genetic analysis of cholinergic nerve terminal function in invertebrates. J Neurocytol. 1996;25:747-62 pubmed
    ..The growing importance of the C. elegans genome as a major research resource is emphasized in this survey. ..
  64. Phillips A, Smith M, Ramaswami M, Kelly L. The products of the Drosophila stoned locus interact with synaptic vesicles via synaptotagmin. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8254-61 pubmed
    ..However, STNB is not associated with all synaptic vesicles. We hypothesize that STNB specifies a subset of synaptic vesicles with a role in the synaptic vesicle cycle that is yet to be determined. ..
  65. Wu M, Bellen H. Genetic dissection of synaptic transmission in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1997;7:624-30 pubmed
    ..Analysis of mutant embryos lacking syntaxin or synaptobrevin suggests that these proteins perform distinct functions after vesicle docking with the ..
  66. Bykhovskaia M, Jagota A, González A, Vasin A, Littleton J. Interaction of the complexin accessory helix with the C-terminus of the SNARE complex: molecular-dynamics model of the fusion clamp. Biophys J. 2013;105:679-90 pubmed publisher
    SNARE complexes form between the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin and the plasma membrane proteins syntaxin and SNAP25 to drive membrane fusion...
  67. Broadie K, Rushton E, Skoulakis E, Davis R. Leonardo, a Drosophila 14-3-3 protein involved in learning, regulates presynaptic function. Neuron. 1997;19:391-402 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Leonardo plays a role in the regulation of synaptic vesicle dynamics, a function which may underlie synaptic modulation properties enabling learning. ..
  68. Lecuit T. Junctions and vesicular trafficking during Drosophila cellularization. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:3427-33 pubmed
    ..The novel proteins Nullo and Slam, which are specifically induced during cellularization, represent developmental regulators of membrane growth during cellularization. ..
  69. Gallagher C, Knoblich J. The conserved c2 domain protein lethal (2) giant discs regulates protein trafficking in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2006;11:641-53 pubmed
    ..Our experiments suggest that Lgd is a critical regulator of endocytosis that is not present in yeast and acts in the degradative pathway after Hrs. ..
  70. Matos M, Rizo J, Sudhof T. The relation of protein binding to function: what is the significance of munc18 and synaptotagmin binding to syntaxin 1, and where are the corresponding binding sites?. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:377-82 pubmed
    The Q-SNARE syntaxin 1 is a central component of the synaptic membrane fusion machinery. Syntaxin probably interacts with multiple proteins during synaptic vesicle exocytosis...
  71. Yu W, Kawasaki F, Ordway R. Activity-dependent interactions of NSF and SNAP at living synapses. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;47:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations extend current models describing the spatial organization of NSF, SNAP and SNARE proteins in synaptic vesicle trafficking. ..
  72. Tiklová K, Senti K, Wang S, Gräslund A, Samakovlis C. Epithelial septate junction assembly relies on melanotransferrin iron binding and endocytosis in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse MTf complements the defects of Drosophila MTf mutants. Drosophila provides the first genetic model for the functional dissection of MTf in epithelial junction assembly and morphogenesis. ..
  73. Somma M, Fasulo B, Cenci G, Cundari E, Gatti M. Molecular dissection of cytokinesis by RNA interference in Drosophila cultured cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2448-60 pubmed
    ..We show that double-stranded RNAs for anillin, acGAP, pavarotti, rho1, pebble, spaghetti squash, syntaxin1A, and twinstar all disrupt cytokinesis in S2 tissue culture cells, causing gene-specific phenotypes...
  74. Khanna M, Stanley B, Thomas G. Towards a membrane proteome in Drosophila: a method for the isolation of plasma membrane. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:302 pubmed publisher
    ..This points the way for further adaptations into other systems. ..
  75. Parchure A, Vyas N, Ferguson C, Parton R, Mayor S. Oligomerization and endocytosis of Hedgehog is necessary for its efficient exovesicular secretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:4700-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that nanoscale organization of Hh regulates the secretion of Hh on ESCRT-derived exovesicles, which in turn act as a vehicle for long-range signaling. ..