Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Syn
Alias: CG3985, Dmel\CG3985, Dsyn-1, SYN, SYN1, SYN2, syn, synapsin, CG3985-PA, CG3985-PD, CG3985-PE, CG3985-PF, Syn-PA, Syn-PD, Syn-PE, Syn-PF, Synapsin1, synapsin I
Species: fruit fly
- Michels B, Chen Y, Saumweber T, Mishra D, Tanimoto H, Schmid B, et al. Cellular site and molecular mode of synapsin action in associative learning. Learn Mem. 2011;18:332-44 pubmed publisherb>Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved, presynaptic vesicular phosphoprotein. Here, we ask where and how synapsin functions in associative behavioral plasticity...
- Dickman D, Davis G. The schizophrenia susceptibility gene dysbindin controls synaptic homeostasis. Science. 2009;326:1127-30 pubmed publisher..Thus, dysbindin is essential for adaptive neural plasticity and may link altered homeostatic signaling with a complex neurological disease. ..
- Kao H, Porton B, Hilfiker S, Stefani G, Pieribone V, DeSalle R, et al. Molecular evolution of the synapsin gene family. J Exp Zool. 1999;285:360-77 pubmed..b>Synapsin protein sequences from all these species were then used to explore the molecular phylogeny of these important ..
- Pielage J, Cheng L, Fetter R, Carlton P, Sedat J, Davis G. A presynaptic giant ankyrin stabilizes the NMJ through regulation of presynaptic microtubules and transsynaptic cell adhesion. Neuron. 2008;58:195-209 pubmed publisher..We propose that a presynaptic Ank2-L lattice links synaptic membrane proteins and spectrin to the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton to organize and stabilize the presynaptic terminal. ..
- Godenschwege T, Reisch D, Diegelmann S, Eberle K, Funk N, Heisenberg M, et al. Flies lacking all synapsins are unexpectedly healthy but are impaired in complex behaviour. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:611-22 pubmed..However, the consequences of a total lack of all synapsin isoforms due to a knock-out of all three mouse synapsin genes have not yet been investigated...
- Koh T, Verstreken P, Bellen H. Dap160/intersectin acts as a stabilizing scaffold required for synaptic development and vesicle endocytosis. Neuron. 2004;43:193-205 pubmed..Our data suggest that Dap160, like dynamin, is involved in synaptic vesicle retrieval at active and periactive zones. ..
- Michels B, Diegelmann S, Tanimoto H, Schwenkert I, Buchner E, Gerber B. A role for Synapsin in associative learning: the Drosophila larva as a study case. Learn Mem. 2005;12:224-31 pubmed..of transmitter release is a prerequisite for synaptic plasticity, we use the fruit fly Drosophila to ask whether Synapsin has a role in behavioral plasticity as well; in fruit flies, Synapsin is encoded by a single gene (syn)...
- Wagh D, Rasse T, Asan E, Hofbauer A, Schwenkert I, Dürrbeck H, et al. Bruchpilot, a protein with homology to ELKS/CAST, is required for structural integrity and function of synaptic active zones in Drosophila. Neuron. 2006;49:833-44 pubmed..We propose that BRP is critical for intact AZ structure and normal-evoked neurotransmitter release at chemical synapses of Drosophila. ..
- Sanchez Soriano N, Bottenberg W, Fiala A, Haessler U, Kerassoviti A, Knust E, et al. Are dendrites in Drosophila homologous to vertebrate dendrites?. Dev Biol. 2005;288:126-38 pubmed..Implications of these findings for studies of dendrite development, neuronal polarity, transport and evolution are discussed. ..
- Eaton B, Fetter R, Davis G. Dynactin is necessary for synapse stabilization. Neuron. 2002;34:729-41 pubmed..Our data suggests that dynactin functions locally within the presynaptic arbor to promote synapse stability. ..
- Liu C, Plaçais P, Yamagata N, Pfeiffer B, Aso Y, Friedrich A, et al. A subset of dopamine neurons signals reward for odour memory in Drosophila. Nature. 2012;488:512-6 pubmed publisher..Dopamine in insects is known to mediate aversive reinforcement signals. Our results highlight the cellular specificity underlying the various roles of dopamine and the importance of spatially segregated local circuits within the MBs. ..
- Kleber J, Chen Y, Michels B, Saumweber T, Schleyer M, KÃ¤hne T, et al. Synapsin is required to "boost" memory strength for highly salient events. Learn Mem. 2016;23:9-20 pubmed publisherb>Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein. It is encoded by only one gene in the Drosophila genome and is expressed throughout the nervous system...
- Harzsch S, Anger K, Dawirs R. Immunocytochemical detection of acetylated alpha-tubulin and Drosophila synapsin in the embryonic crustacean nervous system. Int J Dev Biol. 1997;41:477-84 pubmed..Development of the neuropil was elucidated by using an antibody to a Drosophila synapsin. In the ventral nerve cord, the segmental axonal scaffold consists of the paired lateral connectives, a median ..
- Heckscher E, Fetter R, Marek K, Albin S, Davis G. NF-kappaB, IkappaB, and IRAK control glutamate receptor density at the Drosophila NMJ. Neuron. 2007;55:859-73 pubmed..Based upon our data we speculate that Dorsal, Cactus, and Pelle could function together, locally at the postsynaptic density, to specify GluR levels. ..
- Rohrbough J, Broadie K. Anterograde Jelly belly ligand to Alk receptor signaling at developing synapses is regulated by Mind the gap. Development. 2010;137:3523-33 pubmed publisher..We conclude that Jeb-Alk expression and anterograde trans-synaptic signaling are modulated by Mtg and play a key role in establishing functional synaptic connectivity in the developing motor circuit. ..
- Ashley J, Packard M, Ataman B, Budnik V. Fasciclin II signals new synapse formation through amyloid precursor protein and the scaffolding protein dX11/Mint. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5943-55 pubmed..These results provide a novel mechanism by which cell adhesion molecules are regulated and provide fresh insights into the normal operation of APP during synapse development. ..
- Sanchez Soriano N, Prokop A. The influence of pioneer neurons on a growing motor nerve in Drosophila requires the neural cell adhesion molecule homolog FasciclinII. J Neurosci. 2005;25:78-87 pubmed..Therefore, FasciclinII is to a degree required and sufficient for pioneer-follower interactions, but its mode of action cannot be explained merely through an equally bidirectional adhesive interaction. ..
- Linial M, Parnas D. Deciphering neuronal secretion: tools of the trade. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1286:117-52 pubmed
- Adolfsen B, Saraswati S, Yoshihara M, Littleton J. Synaptotagmins are trafficked to distinct subcellular domains including the postsynaptic compartment. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:249-60 pubmed..In addition, the identification of a postsynaptic synaptotagmin suggests calcium-dependent membrane-trafficking functions on both sides of the synapse. ..
- Jin Y. Synaptogenesis: insights from worm and fly. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:71-9 pubmed
- Python F, Stocker R. Adult-like complexity of the larval antennal lobe of D. melanogaster despite markedly low numbers of odorant receptor neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2002;445:374-87 pubmed
- Oh H, Campusano J, Hilgenberg L, Sun X, Smith M, O Dowd D. Ultrastructural analysis of chemical synapses and gap junctions between Drosophila brain neurons in culture. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:281-94 pubmed..Here, we report that antibodies against pre-synaptic proteins Synapsin and Bruchpilot result in punctate staining of regenerating neurites...
- Fradkin L, Baines R, van der Plas M, Noordermeer J. The dystrophin Dp186 isoform regulates neurotransmitter release at a central synapse in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5105-14 pubmed publisher..These results are consistent with the possibility that Dp186 modulates other non-Gbb/Wit-dependent retrograde signaling pathways required to maintain normal synaptic physiology. ..
- Godena V, Romano G, Romano M, Appocher C, Klima R, Buratti E, et al. TDP-43 regulates Drosophila neuromuscular junctions growth by modulating Futsch/MAP1B levels and synaptic microtubules organization. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17808 pubmed publisher..Moreover, we observed that TDP-43 physically interacts with futsch mRNA and that its RNA binding capacity is required to prevent futsch down regulation and synaptic defects. ..
- Ozdowski E, Gayle S, Bao H, Zhang B, SHERWOOD N. Loss of Drosophila melanogaster p21-activated kinase 3 suppresses defects in synapse structure and function caused by spastin mutations. Genetics. 2011;189:123-35 pubmed publisher..pak3 therefore regulates synapse development in vivo, and when mutated, suppresses the synaptic defects that result from spastin loss. ..
- Nicol S, Rahman D, Baines A. Ca2+-dependent interaction with calmodulin is conserved in the synapsin family: identification of a high-affinity site. Biochemistry. 1997;36:11487-95 pubmed..They are well characterized as substrates for protein kinases, and one class of synapsin, synapsin I, has been shown to bind, and be regulated by, calmodulin...
- Zeng X, Sun M, Liu L, Chen F, Wei L, Xie W. Neurexin-1 is required for synapse formation and larvae associative learning in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:2509-16 pubmed..The synapse number is decreased in central nervous system in Neurexin-1 null mutants. In addition, Neurexin-1 null mutants exhibit associative learning defect in larvae. ..
- Huang J, Ma P, Ji S, Zhao X, Tan J, Sun X, et al. Age-dependent alterations in the presynaptic active zone in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;51:161-7 pubmed publisher..Our study indicates that the chronic accumulation of intraneuronal A? can induce functional and structural changes in the presynaptic active zone prior to a loss of presynaptic buttons in the same neuron. ..
- Diegelmann S, Nieratschker V, Werner U, Hoppe J, Zars T, Buchner E. The conserved protein kinase-A target motif in synapsin of Drosophila is effectively modified by pre-mRNA editing. BMC Neurosci. 2006;7:76 pubmed..Similar to mouse mutants, synapsin knock-out flies show no obvious structural defects but are disturbed in complex behaviour, notably learning and ..
- Winther Ã, Vorontsova O, Rees K, NÃ¤reoja T, Sopova E, Jiao W, et al. An Endocytic Scaffolding Protein together with Synapsin Regulates Synaptic Vesicle Clustering in the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction. J Neurosci. 2015;35:14756-70 pubmed publisher..Dap160 colocalizes during the SV cycle and forms a functional complex with the SV-associated phosphoprotein synapsin, previously implicated in SV clustering...
- Ataman B, Ashley J, Gorczyca D, Gorczyca M, Mathew D, Wichmann C, et al. Nuclear trafficking of Drosophila Frizzled-2 during synapse development requires the PDZ protein dGRIP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7841-6 pubmed..These results provide a mechanism by which DFz2 is transported from the postsynaptic membrane to the postsynaptic nucleus during synapse formation and implicate dGRIP as an essential molecule in the transport of this signal. ..
- Sadanandappa M, Blanco Redondo B, Michels B, Rodrigues V, Gerber B, Vijayraghavan K, et al. Synapsin function in GABA-ergic interneurons is required for short-term olfactory habituation. J Neurosci. 2013;33:16576-85 pubmed publisher..However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that synapsin (syn) function is necessary for STH and that syn(97)-null mutant defects in STH can be rescued by syn(+) cDNA ..
- Santos J, VÃ¶mel M, Struck R, Homberg U, NÃ¤ssel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
- Mathew D, Gramates L, Packard M, Thomas U, Bilder D, Perrimon N, et al. Recruitment of scribble to the synaptic scaffolding complex requires GUK-holder, a novel DLG binding protein. Curr Biol. 2002;12:531-9 pubmed..Our results provide a mechanism by which developmentally important PDZ-mediated complexes are associated at the synapse. ..
- Maldonado C, Alicea D, Gonzalez M, Bykhovskaia M, Marie B. Adar is essential for optimal presynaptic function. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013;52:173-80 pubmed publisher..Finally, we present evidence of compensatory changes in muscle membrane properties in response to the changes in presynaptic activity within the Adar mutant NMJs. ..
- Rosenbaum E, Brehm K, Vasiljevic E, Liu C, Hardie R, Colley N. XPORT-dependent transport of TRP and rhodopsin. Neuron. 2011;72:602-15 pubmed publisher..Our results identify XPORT as a molecular chaperone and provide a mechanistic link between TRP channels and their GPCRs during biosynthesis and transport. ..
- Nuwal T, Heo S, Lubec G, Buchner E. Mass spectrometric analysis of synapsins in Drosophila melanogaster and identification of novel phosphorylation sites. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:541-50 pubmed publisher..In Drosophila, synapsins are required for complex behavior including learning and memory. Synapsin isoforms were immunoprecipitated from homogenates of wild-type Drosophila heads using monoclonal antibody 3C11...
- Pohar N, Godenschwege T, Buchner E. Invertebrate tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase: structure and nested gene organization within the synapsin locus is conserved from Drosophila to human. Genomics. 1999;57:293-6 pubmed..By identifying cDNAs of a transcript detected within an intron of the Drosophila synapsin gene we have cloned the Drosophila TIMP gene (Timp), which represents the first invertebrate member of the TIMP ..
- Boerner J, Duch C. Average shape standard atlas for the adult Drosophila ventral nerve cord. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:2437-55 pubmed publisher..The standard and protocols for histological methods, segmentation, and registration procedures will be made available on the Web. ..
- Erdmann I, Marter K, Kobler O, Niehues S, Abele J, MÃ¼ller A, et al. Cell-selective labelling of proteomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7521 pubmed publisher..Cell-type-specific FUNCAT and BONCAT, thus, constitute eligible techniques to study protein synthesis-dependent processes in complex and behaving organisms. ..
- ..There are clearly still questions to be answered with regard to their overall roles in biology. ..
- Akbergenova Y, Bykhovskaia M. Synapsin regulates vesicle organization and activity-dependent recycling at Drosophila motor boutons. Neuroscience. 2010;170:441-52 pubmed publisherb>Synapsin is a phosphoprotein reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. We investigated synapsin function in mediating synaptic activity during intense stimulation at Drosophila motor boutons...
- Godenschwege T, Pohar N, Buchner S, Buchner E. Inflated wings, tissue autolysis and early death in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases mutants of Drosophila. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:495-501 pubmed..Hence, Drosophila Timp mutants may prove useful as a model system for a wide variety of pathological conditions related to ECM dysregulation. ..
- Besse F, Mertel S, Kittel R, Wichmann C, Rasse T, Sigrist S, et al. The Ig cell adhesion molecule Basigin controls compartmentalization and vesicle release at Drosophila melanogaster synapses. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:843-55 pubmed..We thus propose that Bsg is part of a transsynaptic complex regulating synaptic compartmentalization and strength, and coordinating plasma membrane and cortical organization. ..
- Jagadish S, Barnea G, Clandinin T, Axel R. Identifying functional connections of the inner photoreceptors in Drosophila using Tango-Trace. Neuron. 2014;83:630-44 pubmed publisher..Moreover, the Tango-Trace strategy we used may be applied more generally to identify neural circuits in the fly brain. ..
- Torroja L, Packard M, Gorczyca M, White K, Budnik V. The Drosophila beta-amyloid precursor protein homolog promotes synapse differentiation at the neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 1999;19:7793-803 pubmed..We propose a model by which APPL, in conjunction with activity-dependent mechanisms, regulates synaptic structure and number. ..
- Tsai P, Wang M, Kao H, Cheng Y, Lin Y, Chen R, et al. Activity-dependent retrograde laminin A signaling regulates synapse growth at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:17699-704 pubmed publisher..Our data indicate that synaptic activities down-regulate levels of the retrograde signal LanA to promote NMJ growth. ..
- Krzeptowski W, Górska Andrzejak J, Kijak E, Görlich A, Guzik E, Moore G, et al. External and circadian inputs modulate synaptic protein expression in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. Front Physiol. 2014;5:102 pubmed publisher..Using the specific antibodies against synaptic proteins; Bruchpilot (BRP), Synapsin (SYN), and Disc Large (DLG), the synapses in the distal lamina were specifically labeled...
- Vanlandingham P, Barmchi M, ROYER S, Green R, Bao H, REIST N, et al. AP180 couples protein retrieval to clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Traffic. 2014;15:433-50 pubmed publisher..AP180 is also genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the findings of this study may provide new mechanistic insight into the role of AP180 dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. ..
- Widmann A, Artinger M, Biesinger L, Boepple K, Peters C, Schlechter J, et al. Genetic Dissection of Aversive Associative Olfactory Learning and Memory in Drosophila Larvae. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006378 pubmed publisher..memory phases; a short lasting component that depends on cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling and synapsin gene function...
- Denker A, Bethani I, Kröhnert K, Körber C, Horstmann H, Wilhelm B, et al. A small pool of vesicles maintains synaptic activity in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17177-82 pubmed publisher..b>Synapsin, a molecule binding both vesicles and the cytoskeleton, may be a marker for the reserve vesicles: the proportion ..
- Siegmund T, Korge G. Innervation of the ring gland of Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2001;431:481-91 pubmed..Most of the neurons presented here have not been described before. The enhancer trap lines labeling them will be valuable tools for the analysis of neuronal as well as genetic regulation in insect development. ..
- Aso Y, Herb A, Ogueta M, Siwanowicz I, Templier T, Friedrich A, et al. Three dopamine pathways induce aversive odor memories with different stability. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002768 pubmed publisher..These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory. ..
- Chadha A, Cook B. The effect of stress on motor function in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112076 pubmed publisher..Our findings identify the effect of stress on a specific motor component of behavior and define the role of cAMP signaling in this stress response. ..
- Knapek S, Gerber B, Tanimoto H. Synapsin is selectively required for anesthesia-sensitive memory. Learn Mem. 2010;17:76-9 pubmed publisher..We report that a null mutant for the evolutionarily conserved synaptic protein Synapsin entails a memory deficit selectively in early memory, leaving later memory as well as sensory motor function ..
- Roos J, Kelly R. Dap160, a neural-specific Eps15 homology and multiple SH3 domain-containing protein that interacts with Drosophila dynamin. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19108-19 pubmed..We suggest that Dap160 is a scaffolding protein that helps anchor proteins required for endocytosis at sites where they are needed in the Drosophila nerve terminal. ..
- Chan Y, Miguel Aliaga I, Franks C, Thomas N, Trülzsch B, Sattelle D, et al. Neuromuscular defects in a Drosophila survival motor neuron gene mutant. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:1367-76 pubmed..This new Drosophila model for SMA thus proposes a functional role for SMN at the neuromuscular junction in the generation of neuromuscular defects. ..
- Niewalda T, Michels B, Jungnickel R, Diegelmann S, Kleber J, KÃ¤hne T, et al. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning. J Neurosci. 2015;35:7487-502 pubmed publisher..Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily ..
- Carlsson M, Diesner M, Schachtner J, Nassel D. Multiple neuropeptides in the Drosophila antennal lobe suggest complex modulatory circuits. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3359-80 pubmed publisher..In some neuron types neuropeptides were colocalized with classical neurotransmitters. Our findings suggest a huge complexity in peptidergic signaling in different circuits of the antennal lobe...
- Liu Z, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Chen D, Zhang Y. Drosophila Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 regulates axonal transport of synaptic vesicles and is required for synaptic development and transmission. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2052-63 pubmed publisher..Defects in axonal transport and synaptic function may account, at least in part, for the pathogenesis of ACSL4-related mental retardation. ..
- Paemka L, Mahajan V, Skeie J, Sowers L, Ehaideb S, Gonzalez Alegre P, et al. PRICKLE1 interaction with SYNAPSIN I reveals a role in autism spectrum disorders. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80737 pubmed publisher..we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human brain cDNA library and isolated a peptide with homology to SYNAPSIN I (SYN1), a protein involved in synaptogenesis, synaptic vesicle formation, and regulation of neurotransmitter ..
- Busch S, Selcho M, Ito K, Tanimoto H. A map of octopaminergic neurons in the Drosophila brain. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:643-67 pubmed publisher..The map may provide an anatomical framework for the functional constitution of the octopaminergic system. It also serves as a model for the single-cell organization of a particular neurotransmitter in the brain. ..