Gene Symbol: Sxl
Description: Sex lethal
Alias: CG14425, CG14425/CG18350, CG18350, CG33070, CG43770, DmSxl, Dmel\CG43770, Dmel_CG14425, Dmel_CG18350, Mex156, ORF2, SXL, Su(da), Sx1, SxL, Sxl-1 Sxl-2, SxlPe, SxlPm, dSXL, fs(1)K1274, fs(1)M106, l(1)6Fa, melSxl, sxl, Sex lethal, CG43770-PA, CG43770-PAA, CG43770-PAB, CG43770-PAC, CG43770-PB, CG43770-PC, CG43770-PD, CG43770-PE, CG43770-PF, CG43770-PG, CG43770-PH, CG43770-PJ, CG43770-PK, CG43770-PL, CG43770-PM, CG43770-PN, CG43770-PO, CG43770-PP, CG43770-PQ, CG43770-PR, CG43770-PT, CG43770-PW, CG43770-PX, CG43770-PY, CG43770-PZ, Sex-kethal, Sxl-PA, Sxl-PAA, Sxl-PAB, Sxl-PAC, Sxl-PB, Sxl-PC, Sxl-PD, Sxl-PE, Sxl-PF, Sxl-PG, Sxl-PH, Sxl-PJ, Sxl-PK, Sxl-PL, Sxl-PM, Sxl-PN, Sxl-PO, Sxl-PP, Sxl-PQ, Sxl-PR, Sxl-PT, Sxl-PW, Sxl-PX, Sxl-PY, Sxl-PZ, female lethal, sex-lethal, sexlethal
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Sxl

Top Publications

  1. Horabin J, Schedl P. Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:1408-14 pubmed
    ..This and the observation that the splice signals at the exon are suboptimal are discussed with regard to alternate splicing. ..
  2. Franke A, Dernburg A, Bashaw G, Baker B. Evidence that MSL-mediated dosage compensation in Drosophila begins at blastoderm. Development. 1996;122:2751-60 pubmed
    ..chromosome is also interdependent in male embryos and prevented in female embryos by the expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl)...
  3. Yang D, Lu H, Hong Y, Jinks T, Estes P, Erickson J. Interpretation of X chromosome dose at Sex-lethal requires non-E-box sites for the basic helix-loop-helix proteins SISB and daughterless. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1581-92 pubmed
    ..sisB or scute) gene is a key indicator of the X dose and functions to activate the switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) in female (XX), but not in male (XY), embryos...
  4. Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Kundu J, Birchler J. Gene expression analysis of the function of the male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2061-74 pubmed
  5. Chaouki A, Salz H. Drosophila SPF45: a bifunctional protein with roles in both splicing and DNA repair. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e178 pubmed
  6. Bell L, Horabin J, Schedl P, Cline T. Positive autoregulation of sex-lethal by alternative splicing maintains the female determined state in Drosophila. Cell. 1991;65:229-39 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate the role of Sxl in maintaining sexual pathway commitments...
  7. Bell L, Maine E, Schedl P, Cline T. Sex-lethal, a Drosophila sex determination switch gene, exhibits sex-specific RNA splicing and sequence similarity to RNA binding proteins. Cell. 1988;55:1037-46 pubmed
    The switch gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), controls sexual development and dosage compensation. It must be active in females and inactive in males throughout development...
  8. Cline T. Autoregulatory functioning of a Drosophila gene product that establish es and maintains the sexually determined state. Genetics. 1984;107:231-77 pubmed
    b>Sxl appears to head a regulatory gene hierarchy that controls Drosophila sexual dimorphism in response to the X chromosome/autosome balance. Only XXAA cells normally have Sxl(+) activity...
  9. Kelley R, Solovyeva I, Lyman L, Richman R, Solovyev V, Kuroda M. Expression of msl-2 causes assembly of dosage compensation regulators on the X chromosomes and female lethality in Drosophila. Cell. 1995;81:867-77 pubmed
    ..We suggest that msl-2 RNA is the primary target of SxI regulation in the dosage compensation pathway and present a speculative model for the regulation of two distinct modes of dosage compensation by SxI. ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wang J, Dong Z, Bell L. Sex-lethal interactions with protein and RNA. Roles of glycine-rich and RNA binding domains. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:22227-35 pubmed
    Sex-lethal (Sxl) is an RNA-binding protein, containing two conserved RNA binding domains (RBDs) and a glycine-rich region, which functions as a regulator of alternative splicing in Drosophila sex determination...
  2. Erickson J, Cline T. Key aspects of the primary sex determination mechanism are conserved across the genus Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:3259-68 pubmed a potential 'numerator box,' since it is shared with the other strong X:A numerator gene, sisB, and its target, SxlPe. Temporal and spatial features of sisA and SxlPe expression are strikingly conserved, including rapid onset and ..
  3. Merendino L, Guth S, Bilbao D, Martinez C, Valcarcel J. Inhibition of msl-2 splicing by Sex-lethal reveals interaction between U2AF35 and the 3' splice site AG. Nature. 1999;402:838-41 pubmed
    The protein Sex-lethal (SXL) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila by inhibiting the splicing and translation of male-specific-lethal-2 (msl-2) transcripts...
  4. Kelley R, Kuroda M. Equality for X chromosomes. Science. 1995;270:1607-10 pubmed
    ..A common theme in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans systems is that a subtle alteration of chromatin structure may impose this modest, but vital adjustment of the X chromosome transcription level. ..
  5. Deshpande G, Samuels M, Schedl P. Sex-lethal interacts with splicing factors in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5036-47 pubmed
    ..Genetic and molecular studies have established that Sxl requires the product of another gene, snf, to autoregulate the splicing of its own transcripts...
  6. Yanowitz J, Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Schedl P. An N-terminal truncation uncouples the sex-transforming and dosage compensation functions of sex-lethal. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3018-28 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls autoregulation and sexual differentiation by alternative splicing but regulates dosage compensation by translational repression...
  7. Vied C, Horabin J. The sex determination master switch, Sex-lethal, responds to Hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2001;128:2649-60 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that downstream components of the Hedgehog signaling pathway regulate a target other than Cubitus interruptus. ..
  8. Rajendra T, Prasanth K, Lakhotia S. Male sterility associated with overexpression of the noncoding hsromega gene in cyst cells of testis of Drosophila melanogaster. J Genet. 2001;80:97-110 pubmed
    ..The in situ distribution patterns of these two hnRNPs and several other RNA-binding proteins (Hrp40, Hrb57A, S5, Sxl, SRp55 and Rb97D) were not affected by hsromega mutation in any of the meiotic stages in adult testes...
  9. Siera S, Cline T. Sexual back talk with evolutionary implications: stimulation of the Drosophila sex-determination gene sex-lethal by its target transformer. Genetics. 2008;180:1963-81 pubmed publisher regulatory relationship between two key genes of the Drosophila sex-determination gene hierarchy, Sex-lethal (Sxl) and transformer (tra)...
  10. Younger Shepherd S, Vaessin H, Bier E, Jan L, Jan Y. deadpan, an essential pan-neural gene encoding an HLH protein, acts as a denominator in Drosophila sex determination. Cell. 1992;70:911-22 pubmed
    ..dominant interactions, males die with too high a ratio of sc+ to dpn+, caused by misexpression of Sex lethal (Sxl) in embryos, and females die with too low a ratio of sc+ to dpn+, because of altered embryonic Sxl ..
  11. Keyes L, Cline T, Schedl P. The primary sex determination signal of Drosophila acts at the level of transcription. Cell. 1992;68:933-43 pubmed
    For Drosophila, the choice between male and female development is made by the switch gene, Sxl, in response to the X:A ratio...
  12. Bashaw G, Baker B. The msl-2 dosage compensation gene of Drosophila encodes a putative DNA-binding protein whose expression is sex specifically regulated by Sex-lethal. Development. 1995;121:3245-58 pubmed
    ..MSL-2 protein is not produced in females and sequences in both the 5' and 3' UTRs are important for this sex-specific regulation. Furthermore, msl-2 pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in a Sex-lethal-dependent fashion in its 5' UTR. ..
  13. Horabin J, Schedl P. Sex-lethal autoregulation requires multiple cis-acting elements upstream and downstream of the male exon and appears to depend largely on controlling the use of the male exon 5' splice site. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:7734-46 pubmed
    The on/off state of the binary switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl), which controls somatic sexual development in Drosophila melanogaster, is regulated at the level of alternative splicing...
  14. Sakashita E, Sakamoto H. Protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions of the Drosophila sex-lethal mediated by its RNA-binding domains. J Biochem. 1996;120:1028-33 pubmed
    The Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) contains two RNA-binding domains (RBDs) which belong to the RNA recognition motif (RRM) group...
  15. Hager J, Cline T. Induction of female Sex-lethal RNA splicing in male germ cells: implications for Drosophila germline sex determination. Development. 1997;124:5033-48 pubmed
    With a focus on Sex-lethal (Sxl), the master regulator of Drosophila somatic sex determination, we compare the sex determination mechanism that operates in the germline with that in the soma...
  16. Decotto E, Spradling A. The Drosophila ovarian and testis stem cell niches: similar somatic stem cells and signals. Dev Cell. 2005;9:501-10 pubmed
    ..These observations reveal striking similarities in the stem cell niches of male and female gonads, and suggest that they are largely governed by common mechanisms. ..
  17. Gergen J. Dosage Compensation in Drosophila: Evidence That daughterless and Sex-lethal Control X Chromosome Activity at the Blastoderm Stage of Embryogenesis. Genetics. 1987;117:477-85 pubmed
  18. Lee A, Kanaar R, Rio D, Wemmer D. Resonance assignments and solution structure of the second RNA-binding domain of sex-lethal determined by multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance. Biochemistry. 1994;33:13775-86 pubmed
    The RNA-binding protein Sex-lethal (Sxl) is a critical regulator of sexual differentiation and dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  19. Oliver B, Kim Y, Baker B. Sex-lethal, master and slave: a hierarchy of germ-line sex determination in Drosophila. Development. 1993;119:897-908 pubmed
    ..The fused+, ovarian tumor+, ovo+ and sans fille+ genes function upstream of Sex-lethal+ in the germ line. ..
  20. Gebauer F, Corona D, Preiss T, Becker P, Hentze M. Translational control of dosage compensation in Drosophila by Sex-lethal: cooperative silencing via the 5' and 3' UTRs of msl-2 mRNA is independent of the poly(A) tail. EMBO J. 1999;18:6146-54 pubmed
    Translational repression of male-specific-lethal 2 (msl-2) mRNA by Sex-lethal (SXL) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  21. Sanchez L, Gorfinkiel N, Guerrero I. Sex determination genes control the development of the Drosophila genital disc, modulating the response to Hedgehog, Wingless and Decapentaplegic signals. Development. 2001;128:1033-43 pubmed
    ..A model is presented for the dimorphic sexual development of the genital primordium in which both Doublesex(M) and Doublesex(F) products play positive and negative roles. ..
  22. Lallena M, Chalmers K, Llamazares S, Lamond A, Valcarcel J. Splicing regulation at the second catalytic step by Sex-lethal involves 3' splice site recognition by SPF45. Cell. 2002;109:285-96 pubmed
    The Drosophila protein Sex-lethal (SXL) promotes skipping of exon 3 from its own pre-mRNA...
  23. Schulz C, Wood C, Jones D, Tazuke S, Fuller M. Signaling from germ cells mediated by the rhomboid homolog stet organizes encapsulation by somatic support cells. Development. 2002;129:4523-34 pubmed
    ..The micro-environment provided by the surrounding somatic cells may, in turn, regulate differentiation of the germ cells they enclose. ..
  24. Tarone A, Nasser Y, Nuzhdin S. Genetic variation for expression of the sex determination pathway genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 2005;86:31-40 pubmed
    ..Expression of Sex lethal, transformer, transformer2, doublesex, intersex and hermaphrodite was assayed with quantitative RT-PCR in 0- to ..
  25. Penn J, Graham P, Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Chaouki A, Salz H, et al. Functioning of the Drosophila Wilms'-tumor-1-associated protein homolog, Fl(2)d, in Sex-lethal-dependent alternative splicing. Genetics. 2008;178:737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila homolog of Wilms'-tumor-1-associated protein (WTAP), regulates the alternative splicing of Sex-lethal (Sxl), transformer (tra), and Ultrabithorax (Ubx)...
  26. Lu H, Kozhina E, Mahadevaraju S, Yang D, Avila F, Erickson J. Maternal Groucho and bHLH repressors amplify the dose-sensitive X chromosome signal in Drosophila sex determination. Dev Biol. 2008;323:248-60 pubmed publisher
    ..the diplo-X dose of four X-linked signal element genes, XSEs, activates the Sex-lethal establishment promoter, SxlPe, whereas the haplo-X XSE dose leaves SxlPe off...
  27. Sakamoto H, Inoue K, Higuchi I, Ono Y, Shimura Y. Control of Drosophila Sex-lethal pre-mRNA splicing by its own female-specific product. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5533-40 pubmed
    ..Sex-lethal (Sxl), is one such gene. It is functionally expressed only in female flies...
  28. Schupbach T. Normal female germ cell differentiation requires the female X chromosome to autosome ratio and expression of sex-lethal in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1985;109:529-48 pubmed
    ..Instead, they formed multicellular cysts, very similar to those formed by 2X;3A cells. Zygotic Sxl+ activity is, therefore, also necessary for the development of normal female germ cells...
  29. Valcarcel J, Singh R, Zamore P, Green M. The protein Sex-lethal antagonizes the splicing factor U2AF to regulate alternative splicing of transformer pre-mRNA. Nature. 1993;362:171-5 pubmed
    ..The protein Sex-lethal (Sxl) activates a female-specific 3' splice site in the first intron of transformer (tra) pre-mRNA while repressing an ..
  30. Jimenez G, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Casanova J. Relief of gene repression by torso RTK signaling: role of capicua in Drosophila terminal and dorsoventral patterning. Genes Dev. 2000;14:224-31 pubmed
    ..cic has been evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that Cic-like proteins may act as repressors regulated by RTK signaling in other organisms. ..
  31. Wrischnik L, Timmer J, Megna L, Cline T. Recruitment of the proneural gene scute to the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2003;165:2007-27 pubmed
    ..The screen that yielded new sc alleles also generated autosomal duplications that argue against the textbook view that fruit fly sex signal evolution recruited a set of autosomal signal elements comparable to the XSEs...
  32. Granadino B, Penalva L, Sanchez L. The gene fl(2)d is needed for the sex-specific splicing of transformer pre-mRNA but not for double-sex pre-mRNA in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;253:26-31 pubmed
    ..The first gene is Sex-lethal(Sxl)...
  33. Cline T, Rudner D, Barbash D, Bell M, Vutien R. Functioning of the Drosophila integral U1/U2 protein Snf independent of U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles is revealed by snf(+) gene dose effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14451-8 pubmed
    ..of this housekeeping protein can specifically affect autoregulatory activity of the RNA-binding protein Sex-lethal (Sxl) in an action that we infer must be physically separate from Snf's functioning within snRNPs...
  34. Pomiankowski A, Nöthiger R, Wilkins A. The evolution of the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2004;166:1761-73 pubmed
    ..Our hypothesis is built on the available data from Drosophila and other insect species, and we point out where it is amenable to further experimental and comparative tests. ..
  35. Abaza I, Coll O, Patalano S, Gebauer F. Drosophila UNR is required for translational repression of male-specific lethal 2 mRNA during regulation of X-chromosome dosage compensation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:380-9 pubmed
    The inhibition of male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2) mRNA translation by the RNA-binding protein sex-lethal (SXL) is an essential regulatory step for X-chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  36. González A, Lu H, Erickson J. A shared enhancer controls a temporal switch between promoters during Drosophila primary sex determination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of two X chromosomes to produce a pulse of Sxl protein that acts on the premRNA products from the second promoter, SxlPm, to establish the splicing loop...
  37. Inoue K, Hoshijima K, Sakamoto H, Shimura Y. Binding of the Drosophila sex-lethal gene product to the alternative splice site of transformer primary transcript. Nature. 1990;344:461-3 pubmed
    ..sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster is accomplished by a hierarchy of genes of which one, Sex-lethal (Sxl), is required for the functional female-specific splicing of the transcripts of the immediately downstream ..
  38. Bachiller D, Sanchez L. Production of X0 clones in XX females of Drosophila. Genet Res. 1991;57:23-8 pubmed
    The experiments reported here are aimed at determining whether mutations deleting the function of the Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene are able to suppress the lethality of X0 clones, induced in females after the time when the state of activity of ..
  39. Wei G, Oliver B, Pauli D, Mahowald A. Evidence for sex transformation of germline cells in ovarian tumor mutants of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1994;161:318-20 pubmed
    ..Thus these genes are likely to be required for proper establishment of germline sexual identity. ..
  40. McDowell K, Hilfiker A, Lucchesi J. Dosage compensation in Drosophila: the X chromosome binding of MSL-1 and MSL-2 in female embryos is prevented by the early expression of the Sxl gene. Mech Dev. 1996;57:113-9 pubmed
    ..of MSL-1 is never seen in wildtype female embryos, and we have determined that this inhibition is mediated by the SXL product made by the activation of the early Sxl promoter...
  41. ROBINETT C, Vaughan A, Knapp J, Baker B. Sex and the single cell. II. There is a time and place for sex. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000365 pubmed publisher
    ..regulatory event that governs the activities of all downstream sex determination regulatory genes-turning on Sex lethal (Sxl) RNA splicing activity in females while leaving it turned off in males-there are, in addition, elaborate ..
  42. Bernstein M, Cline T. Differential effects of Sex-lethal mutations on dosage compensation early in Drosophila development. Genetics. 1994;136:1051-61 pubmed
    ..This "early vs. late" distinction correlates with a switch in promoter utilization from SxlPe to SxlPm at the blastoderm stage and a corresponding switch from transcriptional to RNA splicing control...
  43. Nagengast A, Stitzinger S, Tseng C, Mount S, Salz H. Sex-lethal splicing autoregulation in vivo: interactions between SEX-LETHAL, the U1 snRNP and U2AF underlie male exon skipping. Development. 2003;130:463-71 pubmed
  44. Duncan K, Strein C, Hentze M. The SXL-UNR corepressor complex uses a PABP-mediated mechanism to inhibit ribosome recruitment to msl-2 mRNA. Mol Cell. 2009;36:571-82 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila female viability requires translational repression of msl-2 mRNA by the SXL-UNR 3' UTR corepressor complex, which inhibits ribosome recruitment by an unknown mechanism...
  45. Chau J, Kulnane L, Salz H. Sex-lethal facilitates the transition from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell in the Drosophila ovary. Genetics. 2009;182:121-32 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, the female-specific SEX-LETHAL (SXL) protein is required for oogenesis, but how Sxl interfaces with the genetic circuitry controlling oogenesis remains unknown...
  46. Cline T, Dorsett M, Sun S, Harrison M, Dines J, Sefton L, et al. Evolution of the Drosophila feminizing switch gene Sex-lethal. Genetics. 2010;186:1321-36 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls all aspects of female development. Since melanogaster males lacking Sxl appear wild type, Sxl would seem to be functionally female specific...
  47. Cline T. The interaction between daughterless and sex-lethal in triploids: a lethal sex-transforming maternal effect linking sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1983;95:260-74 pubmed
    ..X/A) balance of the zygote is shown to require proper functioning of both the da+ gene in the mother and the Sxl+ gene in the zygote...
  48. Beckmann K, Grskovic M, Gebauer F, Hentze M. A dual inhibitory mechanism restricts msl-2 mRNA translation for dosage compensation in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;122:529-40 pubmed
    ..Female flies must inhibit msl-2 mRNA translation for survival, and this inhibition is mediated by Sex-lethal (SXL) binding to sites in both the 5' and the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs)...
  49. Horabin J. Splitting the Hedgehog signal: sex and patterning in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:4801-10 pubmed
    Sex-lethal (Sxl), the Drosophila sex-determination master switch, is on in females and controls sexual development as a splicing and translational regulator. Hedgehog (Hh) is a secreted protein that specifies cell fate during development...
  50. Staab S, Heller A, Steinmann Zwicky M. Somatic sex-determining signals act on XX germ cells in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1996;122:4065-71 pubmed
    ..However, XX germ cells that develop in masculinized animals also express mgm1. Therefore, somatic sex-determining signals have already acted on XX germ cells in 10-hour-old embryos. ..
  51. Nothiger R, Steinmann Zwicky M. Genetics of sex determination: what can we learn from Drosophila?. Development. 1987;101 Suppl:17-24 pubmed
    ..chromosomal signal, provided by the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A), regulates a key gene (Sxl)...
  52. Mar n I, Baker B. The evolutionary dynamics of sex determination. Science. 1998;281:1990-4 pubmed
  53. Oliver B, Pauli D. Suppression of distinct ovo phenotypes in the Drosophila female germline by maleless- and Sex-lethal. Dev Genet. 1998;23:335-46 pubmed
    ..Gain-of-function Sex-lethal (Sxl) alleles and male specific lethal-2 alleles did not suppress the ovo germline death phenotype...
  54. Cline T. Evidence that sisterless-a and sisterless-b are two of several discrete "numerator elements" of the X/A sex determination signal in Drosophila that switch Sxl between two alternative stable expression states. Genetics. 1988;119:829-62 pubmed
    ..sexually reciprocal viability effects of duplications of wild-type genes: combinations of sis-a+, sis-b+ and/or Sxl+ duplications are lethal to males but rescue females from the otherwise lethal effects of changes in other ..
  55. Uenoyama T, Fukunaga A, Ioshi K. Studies on the sex-specific lethals of Drosophila melanogaster. V. Sex transformation caused by interactions between a female-specific lethal, Sxlf 1, and the male-specific lethals mle(3)132, msl-2(27), and mle. Genetics. 1982;102:233-43 pubmed
    ..When mothers were homozygous for male-specific lethals, higher proportions of female progeny were affected than when mothers were heterozygous, suggesting a maternal effect. ..
  56. Sefton L, Timmer J, Zhang Y, Beranger F, Cline T. An extracellular activator of the Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway is a sex-determination signal element. Nature. 2000;405:970-3 pubmed
    ..set of X-linked signal elements (XSEs), which activate transcription of Sxl through its 'establishment' promoter, SxlPe. Here we describe a new XSE called sisterlessC (sisC) whose mode of action differs from that of previously ..
  57. Albrecht E, Salz H. The Drosophila sex determination gene snf is utilized for the establishment of the female-specific splicing pattern of Sex-lethal. Genetics. 1993;134:801-7 pubmed
    ..Whether snf influences the female-specific splice site choice directly or indirectly remains to be determined. ..
  58. Granadino B, Penalva L, Green M, Valcarcel J, Sanchez L. Distinct mechanisms of splicing regulation in vivo by the Drosophila protein Sex-lethal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7343-8 pubmed
    The protein Sex-lethal (SXL) controls pre-mRNA splicing of two genes involved in Drosophila sex determination: transformer (tra) and the Sxl gene itself...
  59. Marin I, Siegal M, Baker B. The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. Bioessays. 2000;22:1106-14 pubmed
    ..Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained. ..
  60. Corona D, Siriaco G, Armstrong J, Snarskaya N, McClymont S, Scott M, et al. ISWI regulates higher-order chromatin structure and histone H1 assembly in vivo. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e232 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ISWI plays a global role in chromatin compaction in vivo by promoting the association of the linker histone H1 with chromatin. ..
  61. Bopp D, Horabin J, Lersch R, Cline T, Schedl P. Expression of the Sex-lethal gene is controlled at multiple levels during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 1993;118:797-812 pubmed
    In addition to controlling somatic sexual development in Drosophila melanogaster, the Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene is required for proper differentiation of female germ cells...
  62. Kelley R, Wang J, Bell L, Kuroda M. Sex lethal controls dosage compensation in Drosophila by a non-splicing mechanism. Nature. 1997;387:195-9 pubmed
    ..Expression of ms12 is repressed post-transcriptionally by Sex lethal (SXL), a female-specific RNA-binding protein that regulates alternative splicing in the sex-determination ..
  63. Gebauer F, Grskovic M, Hentze M. Drosophila sex-lethal inhibits the stable association of the 40S ribosomal subunit with msl-2 mRNA. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1397-404 pubmed
    ..Translational repression of msl-2 requires sex-lethal (SXL) binding to uridine-rich sequences in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of the message...
  64. Wilkins A. Moving up the hierarchy: a hypothesis on the evolution of a genetic sex determination pathway. Bioessays. 1995;17:71-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, the specific molecular and population genetic questions that the model raises are described and some tests are proposed. ..
  65. Walthall S, Moses M, Horabin J. A large complex containing Patched and Smoothened initiates Hedgehog signaling in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:826-37 pubmed
  66. Avila F, Erickson J. Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway reveals distinct initiation and reinforcement steps in early transcription of Sxl. Curr Biol. 2007;17:643-8 pubmed
    ..expression in precellular XX and XY nuclei ensures that only XX embryos will activate the establishment promoter, SxlPe, to produce a pulse of the RNA-binding protein, SXL [1]...
  67. Chau J, Kulnane L, Salz H. Sex-lethal enables germline stem cell differentiation by down-regulating Nanos protein levels during Drosophila oogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9465-70 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila ovarian germ cells require Sex-lethal (Sxl) to exit from the stem cell state and to enter the differentiation pathway...
  68. Granadino B, Torres M, Bachiller D, Torroja E, Barbero J, Sanchez L. Genetic and molecular analysis of new female-specific lethal mutations at the gene Sxl of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;129:371-83 pubmed
    We have isolated three female-specific lethal mutations at the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl): Sxlfb, Sxlfc and Sxlfd. We have carried out the complementation analysis between these mutations and other previously reported Sxlf mutations...
  69. Steinmann Zwicky M. Sex determination in Drosophila: the X-chromosomal gene liz is required for Sxl activity. EMBO J. 1988;7:3889-98 pubmed
    In Drosophila, females require products of the gene Sxl for sex determination, dosage compensation and fertility...
  70. ten Bosch J, Benavides J, Cline T. The TAGteam DNA motif controls the timing of Drosophila pre-blastoderm transcription. Development. 2006;133:1967-77 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila sex-determination switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) and the X-chromosome signal element genes (XSEs) that induce the female-specific expression of Sxl are transcribed extremely early in development when most of the genome of ..
  71. Wang J, Bell L. The Sex-lethal amino terminus mediates cooperative interactions in RNA binding and is essential for splicing regulation. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2072-85 pubmed
    Sex-lethal (Sxl) acts as a binary switch that regulates Drosophila sexual differentiation and dosage compensation and also maintains a stable female state through autoregulation...
  72. Handa N, Nureki O, Kurimoto K, Kim I, Sakamoto H, Shimura Y, et al. Structural basis for recognition of the tra mRNA precursor by the Sex-lethal protein. Nature. 1999;398:579-85 pubmed
    The Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein of Drosophila melanogaster regulates alternative splicing of the transformer (tra) messenger RNA precursor by binding to the tra polypyrimidine tract during the sex-determination process...
  73. Hediger M, Burghardt G, Siegenthaler C, Buser N, Hilfiker Kleiner D, Dübendorfer A, et al. Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica converges at the level of the terminal regulator doublesex. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:29-42 pubmed
    ..cascades in these flies differ at the level of the primary sex-determining signal and their targets, Sxl in Drosophila and F in Musca...
  74. Alekseyenko A, Larschan E, Lai W, Park P, Kuroda M. High-resolution ChIP-chip analysis reveals that the Drosophila MSL complex selectively identifies active genes on the male X chromosome. Genes Dev. 2006;20:848-57 pubmed
    ..Distinguishing expressed genes from the bulk of the genome is likely to be an important function common to many chromatin organizing and modifying activities. ..
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    ..Here, we explore how sexual identity is established in the Drosophila germline, how this affects other aspects of germ cell development and what studies in Drosophila can teach us about mammalian germ cells. ..
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    b>Sxl has been proposed to regulate splicing of specific target genes by directly interacting with their pre-mRNAs. We have therefore examined the RNA-binding properties of Sxl protein in vitro and in vivo...
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    Sex determination and X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster are directed by the Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein...
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    In Drosophila, Sxl functions as a binary switch in sex determination. Under the control of the primary sex-determining signal, it produces functional protein only in XX animals to implement female development...
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    ..process, resulting in female-specific lethality by inhibiting initiation of the master control gene Sex-lethal (Sxl)...
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    ..X/A ratio selects the sexual development pathway by determining the activity state of the binary switch Sex-lethal (Sxl)...
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    ..We also provide evidence that the repression of MSL-2 is directly regulated by Sex-lethal at the level of translation. ..
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    ..Inhibition of MSL-2 synthesis requires the female-specific protein sex-lethal (SXL), which binds to the msl-2 mRNA 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and blocks translation through distinct UTR-..
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    In D. melanogaster the binary switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) plays a pivotal role in somatic sex determination -- when the Sxl gene is on the female pathway is followed, while the male pathway is followed when the gene is off...
  85. Bashaw G, Baker B. Dosage compensation and chromatin structure in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:496-501 pubmed
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    ..Instead, we show that dsx regulates the A/P organizer to control growth of each genital primordium, and then directs each genital primordium to differentiate defined adult structures in both sexes. ..
  87. Hempel L, Oliver B. Sex-specific DoublesexM expression in subsets of Drosophila somatic gonad cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:113 pubmed
    ..The continuous expression of DSX(M) in cells contacting the germline suggests an ongoing short-range influence of the somatic sex determination pathway on germ cell development. ..
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    ..Biochemical analysis reveals that A2BP1 isoforms bind to each other and associate with Bruno, a known translational repressor protein. These data show that A2BP1 promotes the molecular differentiation of ovarian germline cysts. ..
  89. Deshpande G, Stukey J, Schedl P. scute (sis-b) function in Drosophila sex determination. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4430-40 pubmed the Drosophila melanogaster embryo by regulating the activity of the early promoter of the Sex-lethal gene, Sxl-Pe. This promoter is activated in females (2X/2A), while it remains off in males (1X/2A)...
  90. Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Jinks T, Polydorides A, Schedl P. Nanos downregulates transcription and modulates CTD phosphorylation in the soma of early Drosophila embryos. Mech Dev. 2005;122:645-57 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that nos is required to keep the Sex-lethal establishment promoter, Sxl-Pe, off in the germline of both sexes...
  91. Lyman L, Copps K, Rastelli L, Kelley R, Kuroda M. Drosophila male-specific lethal-2 protein: structure/function analysis and dependence on MSL-1 for chromosome association. Genetics. 1997;147:1743-53 pubmed
    ..The mutations, including those in conserved zinc coordinating cysteines, confirm that the RING finger is essential for MSL-2 function, while suggesting a less stringent requirement for an intact second motif. ..
  92. Suissa Y, Kalifa Y, Dinur T, Graham P, Deshpande G, Schedl P, et al. Hrp48 attenuates Sxl expression to allow for proper notch expression and signaling in wing development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6930-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, Sex-lethal (Sxl), the female determinant in Drosophila melanogaster, was shown to down-regulate Notch (N) signaling to accomplish ..