Gene Symbol: swa
Description: swallow
Alias: CG3429, Dmel\CG3429, Swa, anon-WO0140519.70, fs(1)1497, fs(1)1502, fs(1)M11-999, fs(1)M13C82, fs(1)M44, fs(1)m44, sww, swallow, CG3429-PA, swa-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hegde J, Stephenson E. Distribution of swallow protein in egg chambers and embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1993;119:457-70 pubmed
    The Drosophila maternal effect gene swallow has a role in localizing bicoid mRNA at the anterior margin of the oocyte during oogenesis, and a poorly characterized role in nuclear divisions in early embryogenesis...
  2. Pokrywka N, Fishbein L, Frederick J. New phenotypes associated with the swallow gene of Drosophila: evidence for a general role in oocyte cytoskeletal organization. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:426-35 pubmed
    ..The product of the swallow (sww) gene is required for the localization of two different mRNAs during oogenesis, bicoid (bcd) and Adducin-..
  3. Knowles B, Cooley L. The specialized cytoskeleton of the Drosophila egg chamber. Trends Genet. 1994;10:235-41 pubmed
    ..Homologs or relatives of many known cytoskeletal proteins play key roles in these events. ..
  4. Leemans R, Loop T, Egger B, He H, Kammermeier L, Hartmann B, et al. Identification of candidate downstream genes for the homeodomain transcription factor Labial in Drosophila through oligonucleotide-array transcript imaging. Genome Biol. 2001;2:RESEARCH0015 pubmed
    ..Our results identify a number of novel candidate downstream target genes for Labial, suggesting that this homeoprotein differentially regulates a limited and distinct set of embryonically expressed Drosophila genes. ..
  5. Fergestad T, Bostwick B, Ganetzky B. Metabolic disruption in Drosophila bang-sensitive seizure mutants. Genetics. 2006;173:1357-64 pubmed
    ..Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. ..
  6. Nyarko A, Barbar E. Light chain-dependent self-association of dynein intermediate chain. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1556-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Such flexibility in association modes may function in maintaining a stable and versatile light chain-intermediate chain assembly under changing cellular conditions. ..
  7. McGregor A. How to get ahead: the origin, evolution and function of bicoid. Bioessays. 2005;27:904-13 pubmed
    ..I suggest further comparative studies may allow us to identify the intermediate steps in bcd evolution. This will make bcd a paradigm for the origin and evolution of genes and regulatory networks. ..
  8. Nüsslein Volhard C. The bicoid morphogen papers (I): account from CNV. Cell. 2004;116:S1-5, 2 p following S9 pubmed
  9. Stephenson E, Mahowald A. Isolation of Drosophila clones encoding maternally restricted RNAs. Dev Biol. 1987;124:1-8 pubmed
    ..The genomic position of one of these clones coincides closely with the position of the maternal effect lethal gene swallow, providing strong evidence that we have cloned this locus.

More Information


  1. Driever W, Nusslein Volhard C. The bicoid protein determines position in the Drosophila embryo in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell. 1988;54:95-104 pubmed
    ..The bcd protein thus has the properties of a morphogen that autonomously determines positions in the anterior half of the embryo. ..
  2. Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Microtubules are a general component of mRNA localization systems in Drosophila oocytes. Dev Biol. 1995;167:363-70 pubmed
    ..Microtubules are also required for the preferential accumulation of these transcripts in the previtellogenic oocyte, consistent with the idea that these mRNAs are transported by a microtubule-dependent mechanism to the oocyte. ..
  3. Vogt N, Koch I, Schwarz H, Schnorrer F, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. The gammaTuRC components Grip75 and Grip128 have an essential microtubule-anchoring function in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2006;133:3963-72 pubmed
    ..The gammaTuRC cap structure may be essential only for non-centrosome-based microtubule functions. ..
  4. Chiang P, Wei W, Gibson K, Bodmer R, Kurnit D. A fluorescent quantitative PCR approach to map gene deletions in the Drosophila genome. Genetics. 1999;153:1313-6 pubmed
    ..mutant flies and flies that we generated with deletions to demonstrate the presence or absence of Dspt6, Dspt4, and swa in various deletion mutant flies...
  5. Weil T, Xanthakis D, Parton R, Dobbie I, Rabouille C, Gavis E, et al. Distinguishing direct from indirect roles for bicoid mRNA localization factors. Development. 2010;137:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic requirements for several localization factors, including Swallow and Staufen, are well established, but the precise roles of these factors and their relationship to bicoid mRNA ..
  6. Cha B, Koppetsch B, Theurkauf W. In vivo analysis of Drosophila bicoid mRNA localization reveals a novel microtubule-dependent axis specification pathway. Cell. 2001;106:35-46 pubmed
    ..We propose that microtubule-dependent Exuperantia-bicoid mRNA complex formation in the nurse cell cytoplasm allows anterior-specific transport on a grossly nonpolar oocyte microtubule network. ..
  7. Capri M, Santoni M, Thomas Delaage M, Ait Ahmed O. Implication of a 5' coding sequence in targeting maternal mRNA to the Drosophila oocyte. Mech Dev. 1997;68:91-100 pubmed
    ..We show that the 5' coding sequence is necessary for the early accumulation of yem-alpha RNA in the oocyte and for its localization pattern during oogenesis. ..
  8. Wang L, Hare M, Hays T, Barbar E. Dynein light chain LC8 promotes assembly of the coiled-coil domain of swallow protein. Biochemistry. 2004;43:4611-20 pubmed
    ..An interaction between LC8 and the Drosophila protein swallow has been previously characterized and supports a role for dynein in the localization of maternal morphogens ..
  9. Mahone M, Saffman E, Lasko P. Localized Bicaudal-C RNA encodes a protein containing a KH domain, the RNA binding motif of FMR1. EMBO J. 1995;14:2043-55 pubmed
    ..Alteration of a highly conserved KH domain codon by mutation abrogates in vivo Bic-C function. These results suggest roles for the Bic-C protein in localizing RNAs and in intercellular signaling. ..
  10. Wang C, Dickinson L, Lehmann R. Genetics of nanos localization in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 1994;199:103-15 pubmed
    ..Localization of nanos is not affected by mutations in bicoid or torso, confirming that the three maternal systems of anterior-posterior determination initially act independently. ..
  11. Stone E, Ayroles J. Modulated modularity clustering as an exploratory tool for functional genomic inference. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000479 pubmed publisher
    ..We show MMC to be effective and suitable to applications of large scale. In light of these features, we advocate MMC as a standard tool for exploration and hypothesis generation. ..
  12. Bartolomé C, Maside X, Yi S, Grant A, Charlesworth B. Patterns of selection on synonymous and nonsynonymous variants in Drosophila miranda. Genetics. 2005;169:1495-507 pubmed
    ..The joint intensity of selection and biased gene conversion, in terms of the product of effective population size and the sum of the selection and conversion coefficients, was estimated to be approximately 0.65. ..
  13. Schnorrer F, Luschnig S, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Gamma-tubulin37C and gamma-tubulin ring complex protein 75 are essential for bicoid RNA localization during drosophila oogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:685-96 pubmed
    bicoid (bcd) RNA localization requires the activity of exuperantia and swallow at sequential steps of oogenesis and is microtubule dependent. In a genetic screen, we identified two novel genes essential for bcd RNA localization...
  14. Gottlieb E. Messenger RNA transport and localization. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1990;2:1080-6 pubmed
  15. Whittaker K, Ding D, Fisher W, Lipshitz H. Different 3' untranslated regions target alternatively processed hu-li tai shao (hts) transcripts to distinct cytoplasmic locations during Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 19):3385-98 pubmed
    ..The swallow locus is required to maintain hts transcripts at the anterior pole of the oocyte and functions through the N4 3'..
  16. Wolfgang W, Forte M. Posterior localization of the Drosophila Gi alpha protein during early embryogenesis requires a subset of the posterior group genes. Int J Dev Biol. 1995;39:581-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations that eliminate anterior structures bicoid, swallow, and exuperantia did not prevent the posterior accumulation of Gi alpha...
  17. Irion U, Adams J, Chang C, St Johnston D. Miranda couples oskar mRNA/Staufen complexes to the bicoid mRNA localization pathway. Dev Biol. 2006;297:522-33 pubmed
    ..Miranda localization requires microtubules, rather than actin, and depends on the function of Exuperantia and Swallow, indicating that Miranda links Staufen/oskar mRNA complexes to the bicoid mRNA localization pathway...
  18. Meng J, Stephenson E. Oocyte and embryonic cytoskeletal defects caused by mutations in the Drosophila swallow gene. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:239-47 pubmed
    The maternal effect gene swallow ( swa) of Drosophila is required for bicoid and htsN4 mRNA localization during oogenesis. Swallow is also required for additional, poorly understood, functions in early embryogenesis...
  19. Manseau L, Schupbach T. The egg came first, of course! Anterior-posterior pattern formation in Drosophila embryogenesis and oogenesis. Trends Genet. 1989;5:400-5 pubmed
    ..The initial spatial localizations of the maternal organizing activities are established during oogenesis. After fertilization these activities regulate zygotic gene activity along the anterior-posterior axis of the egg. ..
  20. Gans M, Audit C, Masson M. Isolation and characterization of sex-linked female-sterile mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;81:683-704 pubmed
    ..The value of the mutants isolated for analysis of the complex processes leading to egg formation and initiation of development is discussed. ..
  21. Zaccai M, Lipshitz H. Role of Adducin-like (hu-li tai shao) mRNA and protein localization in regulating cytoskeletal structure and function during Drosophila Oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Dev Genet. 1996;19:249-57 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the swallow gene results in delocalization of Add-hts mRNA and ADD-87 protein from the cortex of stage 9 and 10 oocytes, and ..
  22. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identify a novel pathway mediated by the gap gene huckebein through which three maternal systems cooperate to repress otd expression at the anterior terminus of the embryo. ..
  23. Ferrandon D, Elphick L, Nusslein Volhard C, St Johnston D. Staufen protein associates with the 3'UTR of bicoid mRNA to form particles that move in a microtubule-dependent manner. Cell. 1994;79:1221-32 pubmed
    ..Since staufen is also transported with oskar (osk) mRNA during oogenesis, staufen associates specifically with both osk and bcd mRNAs to mediate their localizations, but at two distinct stages of development. ..
  24. Stephenson E, Chao Y, Fackenthal J. Molecular analysis of the swallow gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1655-65 pubmed
    We report the cloning and molecular characterization of the swallow gene, a maternal-effect gene of Drosophila melanogaster...
  25. Burstein Z. A network model of developmental gene hierarchy. J Theor Biol. 1995;174:1-11 pubmed
    ..The model not only incorporates a program of control at gene level, but also makes a direct connection with current molecular studies throughout the whole hierarchy of the early embryogenesis of Drosophila. ..
  26. Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Localized RNAs are enriched in cytoskeletal extracts of Drosophila oocytes. Dev Biol. 1994;166:210-9 pubmed
    ..The cortical cytoskeleton of the oocyte is a likely candidate for the localization substratum. ..
  27. Driever W. The bicoid morphogen papers (II): account from Wolfgang Driever. Cell. 2004;116:S7-9, 2 p following S9 pubmed
  28. Shav Tal Y, Singer R. RNA localization. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4077-81 pubmed
  29. Snee M, Macdonald P. Bicaudal C and trailer hitch have similar roles in gurken mRNA localization and cytoskeletal organization. Dev Biol. 2009;328:434-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The cages sequester Gurken protein, blocking its secretion and thus interfering with signaling of the follicle cells to specify dorsal fate. ..
  30. Hays T, Karess R. Swallowing dynein: a missing link in RNA localization?. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E60-2 pubmed
    ..It now seems that the Swallow protein functions as an adaptor, bridging bicoid mRNA to dynein, a molecular motor that would transport the ..
  31. Chang C, Nashchekin D, Wheatley L, Irion U, Dahlgaard K, Montague T, et al. Anterior-posterior axis specification in Drosophila oocytes: identification of novel bicoid and oskar mRNA localization factors. Genetics. 2011;188:883-96 pubmed publisher
  32. Huang Z, Pokrywka N, Yoder J, Stephenson E. Analysis of a swallow homologue from Drosophila pseudoobscura. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:157-61 pubmed
    We analyzed a functional homologue of the swallow gene from Drosophila pseudoobscura. The swallow gene of D...
  33. Cheung D, MILES C, Kreitman M, Ma J. Adaptation of the length scale and amplitude of the Bicoid gradient profile to achieve robust patterning in abnormally large Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Development. 2014;141:124-35 pubmed publisher
  34. Meier K, Mathieu E, Finkernagel F, Reuter L, Scharfe M, Doehlemann G, et al. LINT, a novel dL(3)mbt-containing complex, represses malignant brain tumour signature genes. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002676 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a direct role of LINT in the repression of brain tumour-relevant target genes by restricting promoter access...
  35. Pokrywka N, Meng L, Debiec K, Stephenson E. Identification of hypomorphic and null alleles of swallow via molecular and phenotypic analyses. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:185-92 pubmed
    The swallow gene of Drosophila is required for the localization of two messenger RNAs, bicoid and hu-li tai shao, to the anterior pole of oocytes during the later stages of oogenesis...
  36. Kraemer C, Weil B, Christmann M, Schmidt E. The new gene DmX from Drosophila melanogaster encodes a novel WD-repeat protein. Gene. 1998;216:267-76 pubmed
    ..The inferred DMX amino acid sequence shows also limited, but significant similarity to a yeast ORF with unknown function. 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. ..
  37. Ding D, Parkhurst S, Lipshitz H. Different genetic requirements for anterior RNA localization revealed by the distribution of Adducin-like transcripts during Drosophila oogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:2512-6 pubmed
    ..distribution of bicoid and Adducin-like transcripts in the maternal-effect RNA-localization mutants exuperantia, swallow, and staufen indicates different genetic requirements for proper localization of these two mRNAs to the anterior ..
  38. Perrimon N, Gans M. Clonal analysis of the tissue specificity of recessive female-sterile mutations of Drosophila melanogaster using a dominant female-sterile mutation Fs(1)K1237. Dev Biol. 1983;100:365-73 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of a coincident production of clones in the follicle cells. ..
  39. Bearer E. Actin in the Drosophila embryo: is there a relationship to developmental cue localization?. Bioessays. 1991;13:199-204 pubmed
    ..My purpose is to juxtapose these two bodies of information such that the relationship between them may be revealed. ..
  40. Cohen R. Oocyte patterning: dynein and kinesin, inc. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R797-9 pubmed
    ..The orientation of microtubules in the oocyte suggests that kinesin mediates anterior transport indirectly, by activating and/or recycling dynein. ..
  41. Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Microtubules mediate the localization of bicoid RNA during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 1991;113:55-66 pubmed
    ..microtubules, also effectively disrupts bcd RNA localization, and the effects of taxol treatments on exuperantia and swallow mutants suggest general roles for these gene products in the multi-step bcd RNA localization process.
  42. Berleth T, Burri M, Thoma G, Bopp D, Richstein S, Frigerio G, et al. The role of localization of bicoid RNA in organizing the anterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1988;7:1749-56 pubmed
    ..The localization of the transcript requires the function of the maternal effect genes exuperantia and swallow while transcript stability is reduced by functions depending on posterior group genes.
  43. Benison G, Karplus P, Barbar E. Structure and dynamics of LC8 complexes with KXTQT-motif peptides: swallow and dynein intermediate chain compete for a common site. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:457-68 pubmed
    ..The work reported here investigates the interaction of LC8 with IC and a putative cargo, Swallow, which share the KXTQT recognition sequence, and addresses the apparent paradox of how LC8, as part of dynein, ..
  44. Pokrywka N, Zhang H, Raley Susman K. Distinct roles for hu li tai shao and swallow in cytoskeletal organization during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:906-16 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Swallow (Swa) and an isoform of Hu li tai shao (Ovhts-RC) have been implicated in the organization of actin filaments in ..
  45. Macdonald P, Luk S, Kilpatrick M. Protein encoded by the exuperantia gene is concentrated at sites of bicoid mRNA accumulation in Drosophila nurse cells but not in oocytes or embryos. Genes Dev. 1991;5:2455-66 pubmed
    ..There is no detectable exu protein in embryos. Therefore, exu acts only in initiating bcd mRNA localization and does not play a persistent role in that process. ..
  46. Yassin A, Lienau E, Narechania A, DeSalle R. Catching the phylogenic history through the ontogenic hourglass: a phylogenomic analysis of Drosophila body segmentation genes. Evol Dev. 2010;12:288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that simultaneous character-based analyses give better macroevolutionary support to the hourglass model of the developmental constraints on genome evolution than pairwise phenetic comparisons. ..
  47. Song Y, Benison G, Nyarko A, Hays T, Barbar E. Potential role for phosphorylation in differential regulation of the assembly of dynein light chains. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17272-9 pubmed
    ..This modulation of the monomer-dimer equilibrium by phosphorylation provides a novel mechanism for discrimination among LC8 binding partners. ..
  48. Jack T, McGinnis W. Establishment of the Deformed expression stripe requires the combinatorial action of coordinate, gap and pair-rule proteins. EMBO J. 1990;9:1187-98 pubmed
    ..In addition, the activation code for Deformed is redundant; other pair-rule genes in addition to even-skipped can apparently act in combination with bicoid and hunchback to activate Deformed. ..
  49. Schroder C, Tautz D, Seifert E, Jackle H. Differential regulation of the two transcripts from the Drosophila gap segmentation gene hunchback. EMBO J. 1988;7:2881-7 pubmed
    ..9-kb transcript to approximately 300 bp upstream of the site of transcription initiation and show that this region is sufficient to confer the full regulation by bcd. ..
  50. Petrov D, Chao Y, Stephenson E, Hartl D. Pseudogene evolution in Drosophila suggests a high rate of DNA loss. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1562-7 pubmed
  51. Fischer J. Molecular motors and developmental asymmetry. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:489-96 pubmed
    ..The extent of possible regulatory complexity is only beginning to emerge. ..
  52. St Johnston D, Driever W, Berleth T, Richstein S, Nusslein Volhard C. Multiple steps in the localization of bicoid RNA to the anterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 1989;107 Suppl:13-9 pubmed
    ..During a final phase that must occur between stage 12 of oogenesis and egg deposition, the RNA becomes localized to a spherical region that occupies a slightly dorsal position at the anterior pole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  53. Lasko P. RNA sorting in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. FASEB J. 1999;13:421-33 pubmed
    ..Prospects for filling gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of localizing RNAs and the importance of RNA sorting in regulating gene expression are also explored. ..
  54. Zalokar M, Audit C, Erk I. Developmental defects of female-sterile mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1975;47:419-32 pubmed
  55. Gaul U, Jackle H. Role of gap genes in early Drosophila development. Adv Genet. 1990;27:239-75 pubmed
  56. Chao Y, Donahue K, Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Sequence of swallow, a gene required for the localization of bicoid message in Drosophila eggs. Dev Genet. 1991;12:333-41 pubmed
    We report the sequence of the Drosophila maternal effect gene swallow, one of the genes whose product is required for the localization of bicoid message during Drosophila oogenesis...
  57. Arn E, Cha B, Theurkauf W, Macdonald P. Recognition of a bicoid mRNA localization signal by a protein complex containing Swallow, Nod, and RNA binding proteins. Dev Cell. 2003;4:41-51 pubmed
    ..complex components include the RNA binding proteins Modulo, PABP, and Smooth, the known localization factor Swallow, and the kinesin family member Nod. We demonstrate that localization of bcd mRNA is defective in modulo mutants...
  58. Kidane A, Song Y, Nyarko A, Hall J, Hare M, Lohr F, et al. Structural features of LC8-induced self-association of swallow. Biochemistry. 2013;52:6011-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Among its partners is Swallow with which LC8 is essential for proper localization of bicoid mRNA at the anterior cortex of Drosophila oocytes...
  59. Houchmandzadeh B, Wieschaus E, Leibler S. Establishment of developmental precision and proportions in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 2002;415:798-802 pubmed
    ..We show that genes known to interact directly with Hb are not responsible for its spatial precision, but that the maternal gene staufen may be crucial. ..