Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Su(z)2
Description: Suppressor of zeste 2
Alias: Arp, CG3905, Dmel\CG3905, SU(Z)2, SUZ2, Su(Z)2, Su(z)2D, Su(z)3, Su(z)[], Suz2, l(2)k06344, su(z)2, su(z)3, suppressor of zeste 2, CG3905-PA, CG3905-PB, CG3905-PC, Su(z)2-PA, Su(z)2-PB, Su(z)2-PC, aristapedioid, aristopedoid, suppressor 2 of zeste, suppressor of zeste (2), suppressor of zeste (3), suppressor of zeste 3, suppressor of zeste two, supressor of zeste 2
Species: fruit fly
- Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Minoda A, Riddle N, Ernst J, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2011;471:480-5 pubmed publisher..This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function. ..
- Strübbe G, Popp C, Schmidt A, Pauli A, Ringrose L, Beisel C, et al. Polycomb purification by in vivo biotinylation tagging reveals cohesin and Trithorax group proteins as interaction partners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5572-7 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, our analysis revealed an association of PcG protein complexes with the cohesin complex and showed that Polycomb-dependent silencing of a transgenic reporter depends on cohesin function. ..
- Chinwalla V, Jane E, Harte P. The Drosophila trithorax protein binds to specific chromosomal sites and is co-localized with Polycomb at many sites. EMBO J. 1995;14:2056-65 pubmed..Co-localization with Polycomb also suggests that interactions between these activators and repressors of the homeotic genes may be a significant feature of their mode of action. ..
- Cryderman D, Morris E, Biessmann H, Elgin S, Wallrath L. Silencing at Drosophila telomeres: nuclear organization and chromatin structure play critical roles. EMBO J. 1999;18:3724-35 pubmed..Corresponding changes in the chromatin structure and inducible activity of an associated hsp26 transgene are observed. The data indicate that both nuclear organization and local chromatin structure play a role in this telomeric PEV. ..
- Soto M, Chou T, Bender W. Comparison of germline mosaics of genes in the Polycomb group of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;140:231-43 pubmed..are compared here: Enhancer of Polycomb [E(Pc)], Additional sex combs (Asx), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Suppressor of zeste 2 [Su (z) 2] and Polycomblike (Pcl)...
- Wu C, Howe M. A genetic analysis of the Suppressor 2 of zeste complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;140:139-81 pubmed..mutations that modify the z1 eye color, and this paper summarizes our studies of those belonging to the Suppressor 2 of zeste complex [Su(z)2-C]...
- Elgin S. Heterochromatin and gene regulation in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:193-202 pubmed..The current data support a competition/chromatin structure model, in which multiprotein repressor complexes compete with transcriptional activators to assemble an active or inactive chromatin structure. ..
- Irminger Finger I, Nothiger R. The Drosophila melanogaster gene lethal(3)73Ah encodes a ring finger protein homologous to the oncoproteins MEL-18 and BMI-1. Gene. 1995;163:203-8 pubmed..Its transcription is temporally and spatially regulated with maximal expression in adult females. In all stages the mRNA can be localized to the fat body and, in addition, to the ovaries of adult females. ..
- King I, Emmons R, Francis N, Wild B, Muller J, Kingston R, et al. Analysis of a polycomb group protein defines regions that link repressive activity on nucleosomal templates to in vivo function. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6578-91 pubmed
- Li X, Han Y, Xi R. Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 restrict follicle stem cell self-renewal and extrusion by controlling canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling. Genes Dev. 2010;24:933-46 pubmed publisher..encodes a core Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) component, functions redundantly with a similar gene, Suppressor of zeste two [Su(z)2], to restrict follicle stem cell (FSC) self-renewal in the Drosophila ovary...
- van Lohuizen M, Frasch M, Wientjens E, Berns A. Sequence similarity between the mammalian bmi-1 proto-oncogene and the Drosophila regulatory genes Psc and Su(z)2. Nature. 1991;353:353-5 pubmed..Chromosomal localization and sequence comparison reveal that D-bmi is identical to Posterior Sex Combs (Psc) and indicate that the conserved domains between mouse bmi and Psc are also conserved within Suppressor-2 of Zeste (Su(z)2). ..
- Poux S, McCabe D, Pirrotta V. Recruitment of components of Polycomb Group chromatin complexes in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:75-85 pubmed..Analysis of pho mutant embryos and of PRE constructs whose PHO-binding sites are mutated suggests that, while PHO is important for silencing in imaginal discs, it is not necessary for embryonic PcG silencing. ..
- Hirose F, Ohshima N, Shiraki M, Inoue Y, Taguchi O, Nishi Y, et al. Ectopic expression of DREF induces DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and unusual morphogenesis in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc: possible interaction with Polycomb and trithorax group proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7231-42 pubmed..These deletions should be useful to identify novel targets of DREF and its positive or negative regulators. ..
- Sharp E, Martin E, Adler P. Directed overexpression of suppressor 2 of zeste and Posterior Sex Combs results in bristle abnormalities in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1994;161:379-92 pubmed..The bristle abnormalities are associated with overexpression of Suppressor 2 of zeste (Su(z)2)...
- Balasov M. Genetic factors controlling white gene expression of the transposon A(R) 4-24 at a telomere in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2002;45:1025-34 pubmed..To explain the results obtained with these modifiers, it is proposed that PEV and telomeric position effect can counteract each other at this particular cytological site...
- Wang S, Nan R, Accardo M, Sentmanat M, Dimitri P, Elgin S. A distinct type of heterochromatin at the telomeric region of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86451 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate the diversity of heterochromatin domains, and the corresponding variation in potential targeting mechanisms. ..
- Wu C, Jones R, Lasko P, Gelbart W. Homeosis and the interaction of zeste and white in Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;218:559-64 pubmed..This report details the observations that several of these mutations also have homeotic effects. ..
- Pirrotta V. Chromatin complexes regulating gene expression in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1995;5:466-72 pubmed..How they persist through cell proliferation and how they silence gene activity are still open issues. ..
- HÃ¼sken M, Hufnagel K, Mende K, Appel E, Meyer H, Peisker H, et al. Adhesive pad differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster depends on the Polycomb group gene Su(z)2. J Exp Biol. 2015;218:1159-65 pubmed publisher..Our results nicely demonstrate that the genetically treatable model organism Drosophila is highly suitable for future investigations on adhesive organ differentiation. ..
- Kelley R, Solovyeva I, Lyman L, Richman R, Solovyev V, Kuroda M. Expression of msl-2 causes assembly of dosage compensation regulators on the X chromosomes and female lethality in Drosophila. Cell. 1995;81:867-77 pubmed..We suggest that msl-2 RNA is the primary target of SxI regulation in the dosage compensation pathway and present a speculative model for the regulation of two distinct modes of dosage compensation by SxI. ..
- Poux S, Kostic C, Pirrotta V. Hunchback-independent silencing of late Ubx enhancers by a Polycomb Group Response Element. EMBO J. 1996;15:4713-22 pubmed..These results imply that the Polycomb complex is not dependent on hunchback and suggest that the pattern of silencing reflects rather the state of activity of the gene at the time the Polycomb complex is formed. ..
- Moazed D, O Farrell P. Maintenance of the engrailed expression pattern by Polycomb group genes in Drosophila. Development. 1992;116:805-10 pubmed
- Rasmuson Lestander A, Larsson J, Rasmuson B. Position-effect variegation and z1 mediated white repression in the In(1)wis system in Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 1993;119:209-18 pubmed..We propose that nonhomologous chromosome pairing between X and Y is important for the synapsis-dependent z1-mediated repression of white transcription activity in this system. ..
- Li X, Yang F, Chen H, Deng B, Li X, Xi R. Control of germline stem cell differentiation by Polycomb and Trithorax group genes in the niche microenvironment. Development. 2016;143:3449-3458 pubmed..Our study suggests a requirement for balanced activity between PcG and TrxG in an adult stem cell niche, and disruption of this balance could lead to the loss of tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. ..
- Bunker C, Kingston R. Transcriptional repression by Drosophila and mammalian Polycomb group proteins in transfected mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:1721-32 pubmed..We suggest that this function contributes to the stable repression of targeted loci during development. ..
- Dorval K, Bobechko B, Ahmad K, Bremner R. Transcriptional activity of the paired-like homeodomain proteins CHX10 and VSX1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10100-8 pubmed..Therefore, CHX10 and VSX1 may control retinal bipolar cell specification or differentiation by repressing genes required for the development of other cell types. ..
- Zhimulev I, Belyaeva E. Intercalary heterochromatin and genetic silencing. Bioessays. 2003;25:1040-51 pubmed..Some IH regions are known to contain homeotic genes. Summarizing these data, we suggest that IH regions comprise stable inactivated genes, whose silencing is developmentally programmed. ..
- Kelley R, Kuroda M. Equality for X chromosomes. Science. 1995;270:1607-10 pubmed..A common theme in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans systems is that a subtle alteration of chromatin structure may impose this modest, but vital adjustment of the X chromosome transcription level. ..
- Adler P, Martin E, Charlton J, Jones K. Phenotypic consequences and genetic interactions of a null mutation in the Drosophila Posterior Sex Combs gene. Dev Genet. 1991;12:349-61 pubmed..The differences in the phenotypes of the doubly mutant embryos allow us to eliminate one class of molecular models to explain the dramatic synergism seen with mutations in this group of genes. ..
- Hoffmann F, Sternberg P, Herskowitz I. Learning about cancer genes through invertebrate genetics. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992;2:45-52 pubmed..Some of the critical molecules involved are homologous to proto-oncogenes and others are likely to be analogous to the products of tumor suppressor genes. ..
- Cheng N, Sinclair D, Campbell R, Brock H. Interactions of polyhomeotic with Polycomb group genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;138:1151-62 pubmed..Based on this phenotypic analysis, we suggest that ph may perform different functions in conjunction with differing subsets of Pc group genes. ..
- Dickson B. Nuclear factors in sevenless signalling. Trends Genet. 1995;11:106-11 pubmed
- Platero J, Sharp E, Adler P, Eissenberg J. In vivo assay for protein-protein interactions using Drosophila chromosomes. Chromosoma. 1996;104:393-404 pubmed..A myc-tagged full-length Suppressor 2 of zeste [Su(z)2] protein interacts poorly or not at all with ectopic Pc-G complexes, but a truncated Su(z)2 ..
- Belenkaya T, Soldatov A, Nabirochkina E, Biryukova I, Birjukova I, Georgieva S, et al. P-Element insertion at the polyhomeotic gene leads to formation of a novel chimeric protein that negatively regulates yellow gene expression in P-element-induced alleles of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1998;150:687-97 pubmed..The P-PH, Polycomb (PC), and Posterior sex combs (PSC) proteins were immunohistochemically detected on polytene chromosomes in the regions of P-element insertions. ..
- Shanower G, Muller M, Blanton J, Honti V, Gyurkovics H, Schedl P. Characterization of the grappa gene, the Drosophila histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase. Genetics. 2005;169:173-84 pubmed
- McKeon J, Slade E, Sinclair D, Cheng N, Couling M, Brock H. Mutations in some Polycomb group genes of Drosophila interfere with regulation of segmentation genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:474-83 pubmed..These results support a role for Pc genes in regulation of some segmentation genes, and suggest that esc may act differently from other Pc group genes. ..
- Sharp E, Abramova N, Park W, Adler P. The conserved HR domain of the Drosophila suppressor 2 of zeste [Su(z)2] and murine bmi-1 proteins constitutes a locus-specific chromosome binding domain. Chromosoma. 1997;106:70-80 pubmedThe related Drosophila Suppressor 2 of zeste [Su(z)2] and Posterior sex combs (Psc) proteins are both locus-specific chromosome binding proteins...
- Gutierrez L, Oktaba K, Scheuermann J, Gambetta M, Ly Hartig N, Muller J. The role of the histone H2A ubiquitinase Sce in Polycomb repression. Development. 2012;139:117-27 pubmed publisher..Sce synergizes with the Polycomb repressive deubiquitinase (PR-DUB) complex to repress transcription at class I genes, suggesting that H2A monoubiquitylation must be appropriately balanced for their transcriptional repression. ..
- Wu C. Transvection, nuclear structure, and chromatin proteins. J Cell Biol. 1993;120:587-90 pubmed
- Nguyen S, Yu S, Oberlick E, Wu C. An Unexpected Regulatory Cascade Governs a Core Function of the Drosophila PRC1 Chromatin Protein Su(z)2. Genetics. 2017;205:551-558 pubmed publisher..This homolog, called Suppressor 2 of zeste [Su(z)2] is composed of two regions: the N-terminal homology region (HR), which serves as a hub for ..
- Pirrotta V, Rastelli L. White gene expression, repressive chromatin domains and homeotic gene regulation in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1994;16:549-56 pubmed..Such complexes, which normally regulate the expression of many genes, including the homeotic loci, are responsible for silencing, white gene variegation, pairing-dependent effects and insertional targeting. ..
- Pirrotta V. Transvection and long-distance gene regulation. Bioessays. 1990;12:409-14 pubmed..These various examples of long-distance effects suggest that, in all cases, related forms of chromatin packaging may be involved. ..
- Kingston R, Bunker C, Imbalzano A. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure. Genes Dev. 1996;10:905-20 pubmed..This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists. ..
- Breiling A, O Neill L, D Eliseo D, Turner B, Orlando V. Epigenome changes in active and inactive polycomb-group-controlled regions. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:976-82 pubmed..These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. ..
- Ringrose L, Paro R. Remembering silence. Bioessays. 2001;23:566-70 pubmed..The authors' interpretation of these results is discussed here. ..
- Hodgson J, Argiropoulos B, Brock H. Site-specific recognition of a 70-base-pair element containing d(GA)(n) repeats mediates bithoraxoid polycomb group response element-dependent silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4528-43 pubmed..These studies demonstrate that site-specific recognition of the bxd PRE by d(GA)(n) repeat binding activities mediates PcG-dependent silencing. ..
- Paro R. Imprinting a determined state into the chromatin of Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1990;6:416-21 pubmed
- Brunk B, Adler P. The sequence of the Drosophila regulatory gene Suppressor two of zeste. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:3149 pubmed
- Mar n M, Rodr guez J, Ferr s A. Transcription of Drosophila troponin I gene is regulated by two conserved, functionally identical, synergistic elements. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1185-96 pubmed publisher..show that transvection is based on transcriptional changes in the homologous chromosome and that Zeste and Suppressor of Zeste 3 gene products act as repressors for wings-up A...
- Wallrath L. Drosophila telomeric transgenes provide insights on mechanisms of gene silencing. Genetica. 2000;109:25-33 pubmed..The results from these studies suggest that nuclear organization plays a role in gene silencing and that silencing is the result of a block early in the process of transcription initiation. ..
- Coen D. P element regulatory products enhance zeste repression of a P[white duplicated] transgene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:949-60 pubmed..3]19DE in any backgrounds. P repression acts to reduce the amount of the major white transcript. This suggests that P regulatory products may act through cis-interactions at a distance of over 3 kb. ..
- Holmes A, Weedmark K, Gloor G. Mutations in the extra sex combs and Enhancer of Polycomb genes increase homologous recombination in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;172:2367-77 pubmed..We propose that esc and E(Pc) mutants enhance homologous recombination by modulating the histone acetylation status of histone H4 at the double-strand break. ..
- Bai X, Larschan E, Kwon S, Badenhorst P, Kuroda M. Regional control of chromatin organization by noncoding roX RNAs and the NURF remodeling complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;176:1491-9 pubmed..Together, these results demonstrate the importance of a local balance between modifying activities that promote and antagonize chromatin compaction within defined chromatin domains in higher organisms. ..
- McGinnis W, Krumlauf R. Homeobox genes and axial patterning. Cell. 1992;68:283-302 pubmed
- Kalisch W, Rasmuson B. Changes of zeste phenotype induced by autosomal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 1974;78:97-104 pubmed
- Andrew D, Scott M. Immunological methods for mapping protein distributions on polytene chromosomes. Methods Cell Biol. 1994;44:353-70 pubmed
- Georgiev P. Identification of mutations in three genes that interact with zeste in the control of white gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;138:733-9 pubmed..The products of these three genes may represent, together with zeste, a group of proteins involved in the organization of long-distance interactions between DNA sequences...
- Kurenova E, Champion L, Biessmann H, Mason J. Directional gene silencing induced by a complex subtelomeric satellite from Drosophila. Chromosoma. 1998;107:311-20 pubmed
- Erhardt S, Lyko F, Ainscough J, Surani M, Paro R. Polycomb-group proteins are involved in silencing processes caused by a transgenic element from the murine imprinted H19/Igf2 region in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:336-44 pubmed..Polycomb group proteins are essential for gene silencing during development. Our results indicate that Polycomb group proteins may also be involved in the regulation of mammalian imprinted genes. ..
- O Connell S, Wang L, Robert S, Jones C, Saint R, Jones R. Polycomblike PHD fingers mediate conserved interaction with enhancer of zeste protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43065-73 pubmed..We discuss the implications of PCL association with ESC.E(Z) complexes and the possibility that PCL may either be a subunit of a subset of ESC.E(Z) complexes or a subunit of a separate complex that interacts with ESC.E(Z) complexes. ..
- Pirrotta V. PcG complexes and chromatin silencing. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:249-58 pubmed..How such a complex interferes with transcriptional activity is not entirely clear but current evidence suggests that they compete with the chromatin structure required for the binding of activators. ..
- Kliman R, Hey J. The effects of mutation and natural selection on codon bias in the genes of Drosophila. Genetics. 1994;137:1049-56 pubmed..Although the results indicate regional variation in mutational bias, no evidence is found for large scale regions of compositional homogeneity. ..
- Silber J, Le Menn A, Chevillard S, Zider A, Paumard S. The vestigial locus of Drosophila melanogaster is involved in resistance to inhibitors of dTMP synthesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;241:42-8 pubmed..Our results indicate a role for the vestigial locus in mediating resistance to inhibitors of dTMP synthesis. ..
- Morillo Prado J, Chen X, Fuller M. Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 maintain somatic stem cell identity and activity in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52892 pubmed publisher..Here we describe the role of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) genes Posterior sex combs (Psc) and Suppressor of zeste two (Su(z)2) in restricting the proliferation and maintaining the identity of the Cyst Stem Cell (CySC) ..
- Pirrotta V. Chromatin-silencing mechanisms in Drosophila maintain patterns of gene expression. Trends Genet. 1997;13:314-8 pubmed..In vivo, complexes formed at one genomic site can interact with those at other sites, suggesting that they, like heterochromatin complexes, affect the folding of chromatin and the organization of chromosomes in the nucleus. ..
- Melnikova L, Kulikov A, Georgiev P. Interactions between cut wing mutations and mutations in zeste, and the enhancer of yellow and Polycomb group genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;252:230-6 pubmed..The results are discussed in terms of the role of long-distance interactions and DNA compaction in transcriptional control of the cut locus. ..
- Brunk B, Martin E, Adler P. Molecular genetics of the Posterior sex combs/Suppressor 2 of zeste region of Drosophila: aberrant expression of the Suppressor 2 of zeste gene results in abnormal bristle development. Genetics. 1991;128:119-32 pubmedWe report the molecular characterization of the Posterior sex combs-Suppressor 2 of zeste region of Drosophila melanogaster. The distal breakpoint of the Aristapedioid inversion divides the region into two parts...
- Adler P, Charlton J, Brunk B. Genetic interactions of the suppressor 2 of zeste region genes. Dev Genet. 1989;10:249-60 pubmed..of gain of function mutations have been induced in the Posterior Sex Comb (Psc)--Aristapedioid (Arp)--Suppressor 2 of zeste (Su(z)2) region of the second chromosome of Drosophila...
- Stankunas K, Berger J, Ruse C, Sinclair D, Randazzo F, Brock H. The enhancer of polycomb gene of Drosophila encodes a chromatin protein conserved in yeast and mammals. Development. 1998;125:4055-66 pubmed
- Pelegri F, Lehmann R. A role of polycomb group genes in the regulation of gap gene expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 1994;136:1341-53 pubmed..Because Pc-G genes are thought to control gene expression by regulating chromatin, we propose that imprinting at the chromatin level underlies the determination of anteroposterior polarity in the early embryo. ..
- Frey F, Sheahan T, Finkl K, Stoehr G, Mann M, Benda C, et al. Molecular basis of PRC1 targeting to Polycomb response elements by PhoRC. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1116-27 pubmed publisher..Together, this suggests that PRE-tethered Sfmbt-SAM nucleates PRC1 recruitment and that Scm-SAM/Ph-SAM-mediated polymerization then results in the formation of PRC1-compacted chromatin. ..
- Ali J, Bender W. Cross-regulation among the polycomb group genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7737-47 pubmed..These multiple pathways of cross-regulation help to explain the large size of the Polycomb group family of genes, but they complicate the genetic analysis of any single member. ..