Gene Symbol: su(Hw)
Description: suppressor of Hairy wing
Alias: CG8573, Dmel\CG8573, SU(HW), SUHW, Su(HW), Su(Hw), Su(hw), Su[Hw], su(HW), su(hw), suHw, suppressor of hairy wing, CG8573-PA, CG8573-PB, CG8573-PC, su(Hw)-PA, su(Hw)-PB, su(Hw)-PC, suppressor of Hair-Wing, suppressor of hairy-wing
Species: fruit fly
Products:     su(Hw)

Top Publications

  1. Klug W, Bodenstein D, King R. Oogenesis in the suppressor of hairy-wing mutant of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Phenotypic characterization and transplantation experiments. J Exp Zool. 1968;167:151-6 pubmed
  2. Moshkovich N, Nisha P, Boyle P, Thompson B, Dale R, Lei E. RNAi-independent role for Argonaute2 in CTCF/CP190 chromatin insulator function. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1686-701 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that RNAi-independent recruitment of AGO2 to chromatin by insulator proteins promotes the definition of transcriptional domains throughout the genome. ..
  3. Harrison D, Geyer P, Spana C, Corces V. The gypsy retrotransposon of Drosophila melanogaster: mechanisms of mutagenesis and interaction with the suppressor of Hairy-wing locus. Dev Genet. 1989;10:239-48 pubmed
    ..This interaction is dependent on the binding of the su(Hw) protein to the specific gypsy sequences involved in the induction of the mutant phenotype. ..
  4. Lankenau D, Peluso M, Lankenau S. The Su(Hw) chromatin insulator protein alters double-strand break repair frequencies in the Drosophila germ line. Chromosoma. 2000;109:148-60 pubmed
    ..We propose that the searching 3'-hydroxy ends gain a higher degree of freedom for the search in a su(Hw) mutant background. ..
  5. Gdula D, Gerasimova T, Corces V. Genetic and molecular analysis of the gypsy chromatin insulator of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9378-83 pubmed
    ..The modifier of mdg4 [mod(mdg4)] protein interacts with su(Hw) to transform this bi-directional repression into the polar effect characteristic of insulators. These effects seem to be modulated by changes in chromatin structure. ..
  6. Van Bortle K, Ramos E, Takenaka N, Yang J, Wahi J, Corces V. Drosophila CTCF tandemly aligns with other insulator proteins at the borders of H3K27me3 domains. Genome Res. 2012;22:2176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila homolog of CTCF (dCTCF) aligns in the genome with other Drosophila insulator proteins such as Suppressor of Hairy wing [SU(HW)] and Boundary Element Associated Factor of 32 kDa (BEAF-32) at the borders of H3K27me3 domains, ..
  7. Morcillo P, Rosen C, Dorsett D. Genes regulating the remote wing margin enhancer in the Drosophila cut locus. Genetics. 1996;144:1143-54 pubmed activate promoters from thousands of base pairs away are disrupted by the suppressor of Hairy-wing protein (SUHW) of Drosophila...
  8. Campuzano S, Balcells L, Villares R, Carramolino L, Garcia Alonso L, Modolell J. Excess function hairy-wing mutations caused by gypsy and copia insertions within structural genes of the achaete-scute locus of Drosophila. Cell. 1986;44:303-12 pubmed
    ..The abundance is reduced in Hw1 revertants and Hw1 stocks carrying su(Hw) mutations. These and other data suggest that the excess function phenotypes of Hw mutations are generated by an increase in achaete or scute transcripts. ..
  9. Byrd K, Corces V. Visualization of chromatin domains created by the gypsy insulator of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:565-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the gypsy insulator might establish higher-order domains of chromatin structure and regulate nuclear organization by tethering the DNA to the nuclear matrix and creating chromatin loops. ..

More Information


  1. Golovnin A, Mazur A, Kopantseva M, Kurshakova M, Gulak P, Gilmore B, et al. Integrity of the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain is critical to insulator function in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:963-74 pubmed
    ..2 BTB domain with the GAF BTB domain produced a nonfunctional protein. Taken together, these data suggest that the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 BTB domain confers novel activities to gypsy insulator function. ..
  2. Sigrist C, Pirrotta V. Chromatin insulator elements block the silencing of a target gene by the Drosophila polycomb response element (PRE) but allow trans interactions between PREs on different chromosomes. Genetics. 1997;147:209-21 pubmed
    ..The similarity between the behavior of PREs and enhancers suggests a model for their long-distance action. ..
  3. Roy S, Jiang N, Hart C. Lack of the Drosophila BEAF insulator proteins alters regulation of genes in the Antennapedia complex. Mol Genet Genomics. 2011;285:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..A control gene, Dref, was not affected. A full understanding of the regulation of ANT-C genes during development will have to take the role of BEAF into account. ..
  4. Hou C, Li L, Qin Z, Corces V. Gene density, transcription, and insulators contribute to the partition of the Drosophila genome into physical domains. Mol Cell. 2012;48:471-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the higher-order physical organization of chromatin may impose an additional level of regulation over classical epigenetic marks. ..
  5. Xu Q, Li M, Adams J, Cai H. Nuclear location of a chromatin insulator in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1025-32 pubmed
    ..the relationship between the enhancer-blocking activity and subnuclear localization of the Drosophila melanogaster suHw insulator...
  6. Soshnev A, Li X, Wehling M, Geyer P. Context differences reveal insulator and activator functions of a Su(Hw) binding region. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000159 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that the function of non-gypsy Su(Hw) BRs depends on the genomic environment, predicting that Su(Hw) BRs represent a diverse collection of genomic regulatory elements. ..
  7. Gohl D, Aoki T, Blanton J, Shanower G, Kappes G, Schedl P. Mechanism of chromosomal boundary action: roadblock, sink, or loop?. Genetics. 2011;187:731-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In the studies reported here, we have designed assays that test these predictions. The results of our assays are inconsistent with the expectations of the roadblock and sink models. Instead, they support the topological loop model. ..
  8. Ivaldi M, Karam C, Corces V. Phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 facilitates RNA polymerase II release from promoter-proximal pausing in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2818-31 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results introduce H3S10 phosphorylation by JIL-1 as a hallmark of early transcription elongation in Drosophila. ..
  9. Cai H, Levine M. Modulation of enhancer-promoter interactions by insulators in the Drosophila embryo. Nature. 1995;376:533-6 pubmed
    ..Rather, they might function as flexible regulatory elements that modulate enhancer-promoter interactions within complex promoters and complex genetic loci. ..
  10. Golovnin A, Melnikova L, Volkov I, Kostuchenko M, Galkin A, Georgiev P. 'Insulator bodies' are aggregates of proteins but not of insulators. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The best-known insulators in Drosophila require proteins such as Suppressor of Hairy wing (Su(Hw)) and Modifier of mdg4 (Mod(mdg4)) to be functional...
  11. Golovnin A, Melnick E, Mazur A, Georgiev P. Drosophila Su(Hw) insulator can stimulate transcription of a weakened yellow promoter over a distance. Genetics. 2005;170:1133-42 pubmed
    ..The stimulatory activity depends on the number of Su(Hw)-binding sites. Mutational analysis demonstrates that only the DNA-binding domain and adjacent regions of the Su(Hw) protein are required for stimulation of yellow transcription. ..
  12. Capelson M, Corces V. SUMO conjugation attenuates the activity of the gypsy chromatin insulator. EMBO J. 2006;25:1906-14 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that long-range interactions of insulator proteins are inhibited by sumoylation and that the establishment of chromatin domains can be regulated by SUMO conjugation. ..
  13. Harrison D, Gdula D, Coyne R, Corces V. A leucine zipper domain of the suppressor of Hairy-wing protein mediates its repressive effect on enhancer function. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1966-78 pubmed
  14. Baxley R, Soshnev A, Koryakov D, Zhimulev I, Geyer P. The role of the Suppressor of Hairy-wing insulator protein in Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;356:398-410 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy wing [Su(Hw)] insulator protein has an essential role in the development of the female germline. Here we investigate the function of Su(Hw) in the ovary...
  15. Lim S, Boyle P, Chinen M, Dale R, Lei E. Genome-wide localization of exosome components to active promoters and chromatin insulators in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2963-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results reveal a novel positive relationship between exosome and chromatin insulators throughout the genome. ..
  16. Gerasimova T, Gdula D, Gerasimov D, Simonova O, Corces V. A Drosophila protein that imparts directionality on a chromatin insulator is an enhancer of position-effect variegation. Cell. 1995;82:587-97 pubmed
    The suppressor of Hairy wing (su(Hw)) protein inhibits the function of transcriptional enhancers located distally from the promoter with respect to the location of su(Hw)-binding sites...
  17. Georgiev P, Kozycina M. Interaction between mutations in the suppressor of Hairy wing and modifier of mdg4 genes of Drosophila melanogaster affecting the phenotype of gypsy-induced mutations. Genetics. 1996;142:425-36 pubmed
  18. Mallin D, Myung J, Patton J, Geyer P. Polycomb group repression is blocked by the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing [su(Hw)] insulator. Genetics. 1998;148:331-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that one role of the su(Hw) protein may be to restrict the range of action of repressors, such as the Polycomb group proteins, throughout the euchromatic regions of the genome...
  19. Muravyova E, Golovnin A, Gracheva E, Parshikov A, Belenkaya T, Pirrotta V, et al. Loss of insulator activity by paired Su(Hw) chromatin insulators. Science. 2001;291:495-8 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy wing [Su(Hw)] protein binds the Su(Hw) insulator and prevents enhancer-promoter interaction by a mechanism ..
  20. Capelson M, Corces V. The ubiquitin ligase dTopors directs the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2005;20:105-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, dTopors appears to be involved in the establishment of chromatin organization through its ability to mediate the association of insulator complexes with a fixed nuclear substrate. ..
  21. Pai C, Lei E, Ghosh D, Corces V. The centrosomal protein CP190 is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2004;16:737-48 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that endogenous gypsy insulators contain binding sites for CP190, which is essential for insulator function, and may or may not contain binding sites for Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4)2.2. ..
  22. Kyrchanova O, Chetverina D, Maksimenko O, Kullyev A, Georgiev P. Orientation-dependent interaction between Drosophila insulators is a property of this class of regulatory elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:7019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that insulator proteins can support selective interactions between distant regulatory elements...
  23. Holdridge C, Dorsett D. Repression of hsp70 heat shock gene transcription by the suppressor of hairy-wing protein of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:1894-900 pubmed
    ..We propose that su(Hw) protein interferes nonspecifically with protein-protein interactions required for heat shock transcription, perhaps sterically, or by altering the ability of DNA to bend or twist. ..
  24. Minervini C, Ruggieri S, Traversa M, D Aiuto L, Marsano R, Leronni D, et al. Evidences for insulator activity of the 5'UTR of the Drosophila melanogaster LTR-retrotransposon ZAM. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility of employing the ZAM insulator in gene transfer protocols from insects to mammals in order to counteract the transgene positional and genotoxic effects. ..
  25. Mohan M, Bartkuhn M, Herold M, Philippen A, Heinl N, Bardenhagen I, et al. The Drosophila insulator proteins CTCF and CP190 link enhancer blocking to body patterning. EMBO J. 2007;26:4203-14 pubmed
    ..A short pulse of dCTCF expression during larval development rescues the dCTCF loss of function phenotype. Overall, we demonstrate the importance of dCTCF in fly development and in the regulation of abdominal segmentation. ..
  26. She W, Lin W, Zhu Y, Chen Y, Jin W, Yang Y, et al. The gypsy insulator of Drosophila melanogaster, together with its binding protein suppressor of Hairy-wing, facilitate high and precise expression of transgenes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2010;185:1141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain features of the gypsy insulator in Arabidopsis also provide new perspectives on the insulator field. ..
  27. Locke J, Tartof K. Molecular analysis of cubitus interruptus (ci) mutations suggests an explanation for the unusual ci position effects. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;243:234-43 pubmed
    ..Lack of repression of ci+ transcription, through a pairing-dependent, trans-acting silencer element, can explain the unusual position effects associated with ci (the Dubinin effect). ..
  28. Rach E, Winter D, Benjamin A, Corcoran D, Ni T, Zhu J, et al. Transcription initiation patterns indicate divergent strategies for gene regulation at the chromatin level. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001274 pubmed publisher
  29. Bell A, West A, Felsenfeld G. Insulators and boundaries: versatile regulatory elements in the eukaryotic genome. Science. 2001;291:447-50 pubmed
  30. Moon H, Filippova G, Loukinov D, Pugacheva E, Chen Q, Smith S, et al. CTCF is conserved from Drosophila to humans and confers enhancer blocking of the Fab-8 insulator. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:165-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the enhancer-blocking protein CTCF and, most probably, the mechanism of enhancer blocking mediated by this remarkably versatile factor are conserved from Drosophila to humans. ..
  31. Roseman R, Johnson E, Rodesch C, Bjerke M, Nagoshi R, Geyer P. A P element containing suppressor of hairy-wing binding regions has novel properties for mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;141:1061-74 pubmed
  32. Erokhin M, Davydova A, Kyrchanova O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Chetverina D. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription...
  33. Schoborg T, Labrador M. The phylogenetic distribution of non-CTCF insulator proteins is limited to insects and reveals that BEAF-32 is Drosophila lineage specific. J Mol Evol. 2010;70:74-84 pubmed publisher
  34. Smith S, Wickramasinghe P, Olson A, Loukinov D, Lin L, Deng J, et al. Genome wide ChIP-chip analyses reveal important roles for CTCF in Drosophila genome organization. Dev Biol. 2009;328:518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CTCF plays more active roles in regulating gene activity and it functions differently from other insulator proteins in organizing the Drosophila genome. ..
  35. Kim J, Shen B, Rosen C, Dorsett D. The DNA-binding and enhancer-blocking domains of the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3381-92 pubmed
    ..Gypsy binds the protein (SUHW) encoded by su(Hw), and SUHW prevents enhancers promoter-distal to gypsy from activating gene transcription...
  36. van Bemmel J, Pagie L, Braunschweig U, Brugman W, Meuleman W, Kerkhoven R, et al. The insulator protein SU(HW) fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15013 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW) as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions...
  37. Tsai S, Jang C, Prikhod ko G, Bessarab D, Tang C, Pflugfelder G, et al. Gypsy retrotransposon as a tool for the in vivo analysis of the regulatory region of the optomotor-blind gene in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3837-41 pubmed
    ..The effect of these gypsy insertions on the expression patterns allowed us to predict several aspects of the organization of the regulatory elements in the omb locus. ..
  38. Matzat L, Dale R, Moshkovich N, Lei E. Tissue-specific regulation of chromatin insulator function. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003069 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data reveal a novel, tissue-specific mode of regulation of a chromatin insulator. ..
  39. King M, Matzat L, Dale R, Lim S, Lei E. The RNA-binding protein Rumpelstiltskin antagonizes gypsy chromatin insulator function in a tissue-specific manner. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:2956-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate parallel roles for RNA-binding proteins in mediating tissue-specific regulation of chromatin insulator activity. ..
  40. Kurshakova M, Maksimenko O, Golovnin A, Pulina M, Georgieva S, Georgiev P, et al. Evolutionarily conserved E(y)2/Sus1 protein is essential for the barrier activity of Su(Hw)-dependent insulators in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2007;27:332-8 pubmed
    ..Apparently, different domains of Su(Hw) recruit proteins responsible for enhancer-blocking and for the barrier activity. ..
  41. Harrison D, Mortin M, Corces V. The RNA polymerase II 15-kilodalton subunit is essential for viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:928-35 pubmed
    ..The RpII15 gene product is thus necessary for viability of D. melanogaster. ..
  42. Gerasimova T, Corces V. Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Cell. 1998;92:511-21 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a model in which PcG and TrxG proteins regulate insulator function by establishing higher order domains of chromatin organization required for the assembly of functional insulators at the nuclear matrix. ..
  43. Golovnin A, Biryukova I, Birukova I, Romanova O, Silicheva M, Parshikov A, et al. An endogenous Su(Hw) insulator separates the yellow gene from the Achaete-scute gene complex in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:3249-58 pubmed
    The best characterized chromatin insulator in Drosophila is the Suppressor of Hairy wing binding region contained within the gypsy retrotransposon...
  44. Kravchenko E, Savitskaya E, Kravchuk O, Parshikov A, Georgiev P, Savitsky M. Pairing between gypsy insulators facilitates the enhancer action in trans throughout the Drosophila genome. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9283-91 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gypsy insulator pairing is involved in communication between loci in the Drosophila genome. ..
  45. Dorsett D. Potentiation of a polyadenylylation site by a downstream protein-DNA interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4373-7 pubmed
    ..A change in the repeat motif reduced both protein binding and poly(A) site potentiation. These findings provide evidence that DNA-binding proteins can regulate polyadenylylation sites. ..
  46. Rutledge B, Mortin M, Schwarz E, Thierry Mieg D, Meselson M. Genetic interactions of modifier genes and modifiable alleles in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1988;119:391-7 pubmed
    ..Implications of these results for models of modifier gene action are discussed. ..
  47. Roseman R, Pirrotta V, Geyer P. The su(Hw) protein insulates expression of the Drosophila melanogaster white gene from chromosomal position-effects. EMBO J. 1993;12:435-42 pubmed
    ..This separates enhancers and silencers distal to the su(Hw) binding region into an independent unit of gene activity, thereby causing their inactivation...
  48. Wallace H, Plata M, Kang H, Ross M, Labrador M. Chromatin insulators specifically associate with different levels of higher-order chromatin organization in Drosophila. Chromosoma. 2010;119:177-94 pubmed publisher
  49. Golovnin A, Volkov I, Georgiev P. SUMO conjugation is required for the assembly of Drosophila Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) into insulator bodies that facilitate insulator complex formation. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2064-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The best studied insulators in Drosophila require Suppressor of Hairy Wing [Su(Hw)], Modifier of mdg4 [Mod(mdg4)] and centrosomal 190 kDa (CP190) proteins to be functional...
  50. Bushey A, Ramos E, Corces V. Three subclasses of a Drosophila insulator show distinct and cell type-specific genomic distributions. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1338-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a model in which insulator subclasses may have distinct functions that together organize the genome in a cell type-specific manner, resulting in differential regulation of gene expression. ..
  51. Savitskaya E, Melnikova L, Kostuchenko M, Kravchenko E, Pomerantseva E, Boikova T, et al. Study of long-distance functional interactions between Su(Hw) insulators that can regulate enhancer-promoter communication in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:754-61 pubmed
    ..Some inferences concerning the possible modes of insulator action are made from collating the new data and the relevant literature, with tentative schemes illustrating the regulatory situations in particular model constructs. ..
  52. Scott K, Geyer P. Effects of the su(Hw) insulator protein on the expression of the divergently transcribed Drosophila yolk protein genes. EMBO J. 1995;14:6258-67 pubmed
    ..Lastly, our data indicate that yp promoter activity is interdependent, such that transcription from one promoter influences the level of activity of the linked promoter. ..
  53. Spana C, Harrison D, Corces V. The Drosophila melanogaster suppressor of Hairy-wing protein binds to specific sequences of the gypsy retrotransposon. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1414-23 pubmed
  54. Li M, Belozerov V, Cai H. Analysis of chromatin boundary activity in Drosophila cells. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:109 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the activities of diverse Drosophila insulators including suHw, SF1, SF1b, Fab7 and Fab8 are supported in these cells...
  55. Spana C, Corces V. DNA bending is a determinant of binding specificity for a Drosophila zinc finger protein. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1505-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, two DNA bends present on both sides of the binding site in the absence of protein favor the strength of this interaction. ..
  56. Comet I, Schuettengruber B, Sexton T, Cavalli G. A chromatin insulator driving three-dimensional Polycomb response element (PRE) contacts and Polycomb association with the chromatin fiber. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2294-9 pubmed publisher
  57. Parkhurst S, Harrison D, Remington M, Spana C, Kelley R, Coyne R, et al. The Drosophila su(Hw) gene, which controls the phenotypic effect of the gypsy transposable element, encodes a putative DNA-binding protein. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1205-15 pubmed
  58. Schwartz Y, Linder Basso D, Kharchenko P, Tolstorukov M, Kim M, Li H, et al. Nature and function of insulator protein binding sites in the Drosophila genome. Genome Res. 2012;22:2188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations argue against the concept of a genome partitioned by specialized boundary elements and suggest that insulators are reserved for specific regulation of selected genes. ..
  59. Hoover K, Gerasimova T, Chien A, Corces V. Dominant effects of suppressor of Hairy-wing mutations on gypsy-induced alleles of forked and cut in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1992;132:691-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that these disruptions alter the affinity and interaction of su(Hw) protein with gypsy DNA, thereby sensitizing the mutant phenotype to fluctuations in su(Hw) product. ..
  60. Ramos E, Torre E, Bushey A, Gurudatta B, Corces V. DNA topoisomerase II modulates insulator function in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16562 pubmed publisher
    ..2 protein and its binding to polytene chromosomes are restored. Thus, Topo II is required to prevent Mod(mdg4)2.2 degradation and, consequently, to stabilize Su(Hw) insulator-mediated chromatin organization. ..
  61. Patton J, Gomes X, Geyer P. Position-independent germline transformation in Drosophila using a cuticle pigmentation gene as a selectable marker. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5859-60 pubmed
  62. Kahn T, Schwartz Y, Dellino G, Pirrotta V. Polycomb complexes and the propagation of the methylation mark at the Drosophila ubx gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29064-75 pubmed
    ..Both the spread of methylation from the Polycomb response elements, and the silencing effect can be blocked by the gypsy insulator. ..
  63. Karam C, Kellner W, Takenaka N, Clemmons A, Corces V. 14-3-3 mediates histone cross-talk during transcription elongation in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000975 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins mediate cross-talk between histone phosphorylation and acetylation at a critical step in transcription elongation. ..
  64. Parnell T, Viering M, Skjesol A, Helou C, Kuhn E, Geyer P. An endogenous suppressor of hairy-wing insulator separates regulatory domains in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13436-41 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we suggest that 1A-2 is an endogenous Su(Hw) insulator that separates regulatory domains within the Drosophila genome. ..
  65. Kuhn Parnell E, Helou C, Marion D, Gilmore B, Parnell T, Wold M, et al. Investigation of the properties of non-gypsy suppressor of hairy-wing-binding sites. Genetics. 2008;179:1263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies extend our understanding of the properties of Su(Hw) and the endogenous genomic regions to which this protein localizes. ..
  66. Parnell T, Kuhn E, Gilmore B, Helou C, Wold M, Geyer P. Identification of genomic sites that bind the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing insulator protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5983-93 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first direct evidence that the Su(Hw) protein contributes to the regulation of gene expression in the Drosophila genome through the establishment of endogenous insulators. ..
  67. Ghosh D, Gerasimova T, Corces V. Interactions between the Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) proteins required for gypsy insulator function. EMBO J. 2001;20:2518-27 pubmed
    ..The results provide a biochemical basis for the aggregation of multiple insulator sites and support the role of the gypsy insulator in nuclear organization. ..
  68. Lei E, Corces V. RNA interference machinery influences the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Nat Genet. 2006;38:936-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the RNAi machinery acts as a modulator of nuclear architecture capable of effecting global changes in gene expression. ..
  69. Gohl D, Muller M, Pirrotta V, Affolter M, Schedl P. Enhancer blocking and transvection at the Drosophila apterous locus. Genetics. 2008;178:127-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that this is unlikely to be due to insulator bypass. The transvection effects described here may provide insight into the role that boundary element pairing plays in enhancer blocking both in cis and in trans. ..
  70. Geyer P, Corces V. DNA position-specific repression of transcription by a Drosophila zinc finger protein. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1865-73 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in light of current models that explain long-range effects of enhancers on gene expression. ..