Gene Symbol: stnA
Description: stoned A
Alias: 8P1, CG12473/CG12500, CG12500, CG40306, Dmel\CG12500, ORF1, STNA, X-43, l(1)13-20, l(1)20Bc, l8P1, lR9-10, sesC, stn, stn-A, stoned A, CG12500-PC, CG12500-PD, CG12500-PE, CG12500-PF, section 20, section 31, section 32, stnA-PC, stnA-PD, stnA-PE, stnA-PF, stoned, stonedA, stress-sensitive-C
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Petrovich T, Merakovsky J, Kelly L. A genetic analysis of the stoned locus and its interaction with dunce, shibire and Suppressor of stoned variants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;133:955-65 pubmed
    The genetic complementation patterns of both behavioral and lethal alleles at the stoned locus have been characterized...
  2. Phillips A, Ramaswami M, Kelly L. Stoned. Traffic. 2010;11:16-24 pubmed publisher
    The stoned proteins, stoned A (STNA) and stoned B (STNB), are essential for normal vesicle trafficking in Drosophila melanogaster neurons, and deletion of the stoned locus is lethal...
  3. Stimson D, Estes P, Rao S, Krishnan K, Kelly L, Ramaswami M. Drosophila stoned proteins regulate the rate and fidelity of synaptic vesicle internalization. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3034-44 pubmed
    ..b>StonedA and stonedB, novel synaptic proteins encoded by a single Drosophila gene, have predicted structural similarities ..
  4. Fergestad T, Broadie K. Interaction of stoned and synaptotagmin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1218-27 pubmed
    The Drosophila dicistronic stoned locus encodes two distinctive presynaptic proteins, Stoned A (STNA) and Stoned B (STNB); STNA is a novel protein without homology to known synaptic proteins, and STNB contains a domain with homology to ..
  5. Fergestad T, Davis W, Broadie K. The stoned proteins regulate synaptic vesicle recycling in the presynaptic terminal. J Neurosci. 1999;19:5847-60 pubmed
    ..1973). The locus is dicistronic and encodes two distinct proteins, stoned A and stoned B, which are expressed specifically in presynaptic terminals at central and peripheral synapses...
  6. Stimson D, Estes P, Smith M, Kelly L, Ramaswami M. A product of the Drosophila stoned locus regulates neurotransmitter release. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9638-49 pubmed
    The Drosophila stoned locus encodes two novel gene products termed stonedA and stonedB, which possess sequence motifs shared by proteins involved in intracellular vesicle traffic...
  7. Andrews J, Smith M, Merakovsky J, Coulson M, Hannan F, Kelly L. The stoned locus of Drosophila melanogaster produces a dicistronic transcript and encodes two distinct polypeptides. Genetics. 1996;143:1699-711 pubmed
    The stoned gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for normal neuronal function in both adult and larva...
  8. Mohrmann R, Matthies H, Woodruff E, Broadie K. Stoned B mediates sorting of integral synaptic vesicle proteins. Neuroscience. 2008;153:1048-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Although both Stoned A and B proteins putatively participate in reconstituting synaptic vesicles, their precise function is still ..
  9. Kelly L, Phillips A. Molecular and genetic characterization of the interactions between the Drosophila stoned-B protein and DAP-160 (intersectin). Biochem J. 2005;388:195-204 pubmed
    The stoned locus of Drosophila produces a dicistronic transcript and encodes two proteins, stoned-A (STNA) and stoned-B (STNB). Both proteins are located at synaptic terminals...

More Information


  1. Estes P, Jackson T, Stimson D, Sanyal S, Kelly L, Ramaswami M. Functional dissection of a eukaryotic dicistronic gene: transgenic stonedB, but not stonedA, restores normal synaptic properties to Drosophila stoned mutants. Genetics. 2003;165:185-96 pubmed
    The dicistronic Drosophila stoned mRNA produces two proteins, stonedA and stonedB, that are localized at nerve terminals...
  2. Phillips A, Smith M, Ramaswami M, Kelly L. The products of the Drosophila stoned locus interact with synaptic vesicles via synaptotagmin. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8254-61 pubmed
    The stoned locus of Drosophila melanogaster encodes two novel proteins, stonedA (STNA) and stonedB (STNB), both of which are expressed in the nervous system...
  3. Miklos G, Cotsell J. Chromosome structure at interfaces between major chromatin types: alpha- and beta-heterochromatin. Bioessays. 1990;12:1-6 pubmed
    ..The recent microcloning of part of this region, the isolation of a monoclonal antibody to a beta-heterochromatin binding protein, and new in situ studies now shed a little more light on this chromosomal region. ..
  4. Buff H, Smith A, Korey C. Genetic modifiers of Drosophila palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1-induced degeneration. Genetics. 2007;176:209-20 pubmed
    ..A greater understanding of Ppt1 function in these cellular processes will provide valuable insight into the molecular etiology of the neuronal dysfunction underlying the disease. ..
  5. Paradi E, Vogel E, Szilagyi E. Effect of storage and dose on MMS-induced deletions. Complementation analysis of X-chromosomal recessive lethals in the zeste-white and maroon-like regions of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1983;111:145-59 pubmed
    ..An interesting aspect for further analysis is the apparent infrequency in the zeste-white region of alkylation-induced chromosomal breakage, as observed by various investigators for MMS, EMS and MNNG. ..
  6. Kelly L. The regulation of phosphorylation of a specific protein in synaptosomal fractions from Drosophila heads: the effects of light and two visual mutants. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1983;3:127-41 pubmed
    ..The in vivo phosphorylation of this protein is affected by light. Two visual mutants, tan and stoned, exhibit altered levels of in vivo phosphorylation of protein IV...
  7. Schalet A, Lefevre G. The localization of "ordinary" sex-linked genes in section 20 of the polytene X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1973;44:183-202 pubmed
  8. Rahman R, Lindsley D. Male-sterilizing interactions between duplications and deficiencies for proximal X-chromosome material in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1981;99:49-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there is no single factor at the base of the X that is required for the fertility of males whose genotype is otherwise normal. ..
  9. Rieder L, Savva Y, Reyna M, Chang Y, Dorsky J, Rezaei A, et al. Dynamic response of RNA editing to temperature in Drosophila. BMC Biol. 2015;13:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Environmental cues, in this case temperature, rapidly reprogram the Drosophila transcriptome through RNA editing, presumably resulting in altered proteomic ratios of edited and unedited proteins. ..
  10. Lifschytz E, Yakobovitz N. The role of X-linked lethal and viable male-sterile mutations in male gametogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster: genetic analysis. Mol Gen Genet. 1978;161:275-84 pubmed
    ..It is further shown that about the same proportion of vital genes is operating in female gonads and that the two groups overlap by about 70%. The role of viable and lethal male gametogenesis is discussed in detail. ..
  11. Miklos G, de Couet H. The mutations previously designated as flightless-I3, flightless-O2 and standby are members of the W-2 lethal complementation group at the base of the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1990;6:133-51 pubmed
    ..These viable flightless mutations are all hypomorphs since the homozygous deficiency of the W-2 X-chromosomal region is lethal to the organism. ..
  12. Perrimon N, Smouse D, Miklos G. Developmental genetics of loci at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1989;121:313-31 pubmed
    ..Additionally, all lethal complementation groups, as well as a specific subset of deficiencies, have been studied histologically for defects in the development of the central and peripheral embryonic nervous systems. ..
  13. Wall A, Phillips A, Kelly L. Effective translation of the second cistron in two Drosophila dicistronic transcripts is determined by the absence of in-frame AUG codons in the first cistron. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27670-8 pubmed
    ..the expression of the stoned locus and in particular, to explain the altered stoned protein levels in the stoned-temperature-sensitive mutant allele, which replaces a lysine with a methionine codon early in the first, stonedA, cistron.
  14. Miklos G, Kelly L, Coombe P, Leeds C, Lefevre G. Localization of the genes shaking-B, small optic lobes, sluggish-A, stoned and stress-sensitive-C to a well-defined region on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1987;4:1-19 pubmed
    ..belong to adjacent complementation groups, between lethals W2 and A112 near band 19F4; and stonedts1 and stress-sensitive-C1 are both alleles of the 8P1 lethal complementation group between lethals 114 and 13E3 near bands 20B-C.
  15. Miklos G, Healy M, Pain P, Howells A, Russell R. Molecular and genetic studies on the euchromatin-heterochromatin transition region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. 1. A cloned entry point near to the uncoordinated (unc) locus. Chromosoma. 1984;89:218-27 pubmed
    ..The possible significance of the presence of repeated families in the distinct properties of this region are discussed. ..
  16. Kelly L. An altered electroretinogram transient associated with an unusual jump response in a mutant of Drosophila. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1983;3:143-9 pubmed
    Mutations at the stoned locus of Drosophila melanogaster produce a reversible temperature-sensitive debilitation. At permissive temperatures they also exhibit an unusual jump response to a light-off stimulus...
  17. Grigliatti T, Hall L, Rosenbluth R, Suzuki D. Temperature-sensitive mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. XIV. A selection of immobile adults. Mol Gen Genet. 1973;120:107-14 pubmed
  18. O Hare K, Chadwick B, Constantinou A, Davis A, Mitchelson A, Tudor M. A 5.9-kb tandem repeat at the euchromatin-heterochromatin boundary of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;267:647-55 pubmed
    ..It is conserved in D. melanogaster strains of different geographic origin, but is not conserved in even closely related species. ..
  19. Lifschytz E, Falk R. Fine structure analysis of a chromosome segment in Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of x-ray-induced lethals. Mutat Res. 1968;6:235-44 pubmed
  20. Lifschytz E, Falk R. Fine structure analysis of a chromosome segment in Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of ethyl methanesulphonate-induced lethals. Mutat Res. 1969;8:147-55 pubmed
  21. Lifschytz E. Fine-Structure Analysis and Genetic Organization at the Base of the X Chromosome in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1978;88:457-67 pubmed
    ..quot;Free" ends of deficiencies occurred at any of 22 intervals in Section 20 and in the proximal portion of Section 19 of Bridges' (1938) polytene chromosome map...
  22. Vijayakrishnan N, Phillips S, Broadie K. Drosophila rolling blackout displays lipase domain-dependent and -independent endocytic functions downstream of dynamin. Traffic. 2010;11:1567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that RBO possesses both lipase domain-dependent and scaffolding functions with differential requirements in non-neuronal versus neuronal endocytosis mechanisms downstream of dynamin GTPase activity. ..
  23. Richmond J, Broadie K. The synaptic vesicle cycle: exocytosis and endocytosis in Drosophila and C. elegans. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:499-507 pubmed
    ..In neuromodulation, dcaps mutants provide the first genetic insight into possible roles of the CAPS protein in mediating dense core vesicle fusion and modulating synaptic vesicle fusion. ..
  24. Burden D, Osheroff N. In vitro evolution of preferred topoisomerase II DNA cleavage sites. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5227-35 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, implying that it may be a site for the physiological action of this enzyme. ..
  25. Blumenthal T. Gene clusters and polycistronic transcription in eukaryotes. Bioessays. 1998;20:480-7 pubmed
    ..This includes cases in which a polycistronic pre-mRNA is processed to make monocistronic mRNAs in nematodes, as well as isolated examples of polycistronic mRNAs found in mammals, flies, and perhaps plants. ..
  26. Homyk T, Pye Q. Some mutations affecting neural or muscular tissues alter the physiological components of the electroretinogram in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1989;5:37-48 pubmed
    ..Mutations bas, rex and sesD delay recovery from the prolonged depolarization afterpotential. The visual defects of mutations elavjl and nbAEE171 are not complemented by lethal mutations, which, presumably, affect other tissues. ..
  27. Soekmadji C, Angkawidjaja C, Kelly L. Ca2+ regulates the Drosophila Stoned-A and Stoned-B proteins interaction with the C2B domain of Synaptotagmin-1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38822 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in either stonedA or stonedB cause a severe disruption of neurotransmission in fruit flies...