Gene Symbol: stau
Description: staufen
Alias: CG5753, Dmel\CG5753, Dmstau, STAU, Stau, Stauf, dStau, staufen, CG5753-PA, CG5753-PB, CG5753-PC, stau-PA, stau-PB, stau-PC, stauffen
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Smith J, Wilson J, Macdonald P. Overexpression of oskar directs ectopic activation of nanos and presumptive pole cell formation in Drosophila embryos. Cell. 1992;70:849-59 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, formation of these ectopic pole cells is enhanced in nanos mutants. This observation may reflect competition between nanos and the germ cell determinant for a shared and limiting precursor. ..
  2. Hay B, Jan L, Jan Y. Localization of vasa, a component of Drosophila polar granules, in maternal-effect mutants that alter embryonic anteroposterior polarity. Development. 1990;109:425-33 pubmed
    ..Females homozygous for any one of the maternal-effect mutations, tudor, oskar, staufen, vasa, or valois give rise to embryos that lack localized polar granules, fail to form the germ cell lineage and ..
  3. Meignin C, Alvarez Garcia I, Davis I, Palacios I. The salvador-warts-hippo pathway is required for epithelial proliferation and axis specification in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1871-8 pubmed
    ..This work highlights a novel connection between cell proliferation, cell growth, and axis specification in egg chambers. ..
  4. Parton R, Hamilton R, Ball G, Yang L, Cullen C, Lu W, et al. A PAR-1-dependent orientation gradient of dynamic microtubules directs posterior cargo transport in the Drosophila oocyte. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:121-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings explain the biased random posterior cargo movements in the oocyte that establish the germline and posterior. ..
  5. Doerflinger H, Benton R, Torres I, Zwart M, St Johnston D. Drosophila anterior-posterior polarity requires actin-dependent PAR-1 recruitment to the oocyte posterior. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1090-5 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore identify a molecular parallel between axis formation in Drosophila and C. elegans and make Drosophila PAR-1 N1 the earliest known marker for the polarization of the oocyte. ..
  6. Barbee S, Estes P, Cziko A, Hillebrand J, Luedeman R, Coller J, et al. Staufen- and FMRP-containing neuronal RNPs are structurally and functionally related to somatic P bodies. Neuron. 2006;52:997-1009 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that staufen- and FMRP-containing RNPs in Drosophila neurons contain proteins also present in somatic "P bodies," ..
  7. Loiseau P, Davies T, Williams L, Mishima M, Palacios I. Drosophila PAT1 is required for Kinesin-1 to transport cargo and to maximize its motility. Development. 2010;137:2763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that the role of PAT1 in cargo transport in the cell is linked to PAT1 function as a positive regulator of Kinesin motility. ..
  8. Sung H, Telley I, Papadaki P, Ephrussi A, Surrey T, Rørth P. Drosophila ensconsin promotes productive recruitment of Kinesin-1 to microtubules. Dev Cell. 2008;15:866-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, spatial control of motor recruitment can provide additional regulatory control in Par-1 and microtubule-dependent cell polarity. ..
  9. Babu K, Cai Y, Bahri S, Yang X, Chia W. Roles of Bifocal, Homer, and F-actin in anchoring Oskar to the posterior cortex of Drosophila oocytes. Genes Dev. 2004;18:138-43 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that two processes, one requiring Bifocal and an intact F-actin cytoskeleton and a second requiring Homer but independent of intact F-actin, may act redundantly to mediate posterior anchoring of the osk gene products. ..

More Information


  1. Coutelis J, Ephrussi A. Rab6 mediates membrane organization and determinant localization during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2007;134:1419-30 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight the central role of vesicular trafficking in the establishment of polarity and in determinant localization in Drosophila. ..
  2. Breitwieser W, Markussen F, Horstmann H, Ephrussi A. Oskar protein interaction with Vasa represents an essential step in polar granule assembly. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2179-88 pubmed
    ..Genetics has revealed three additional genes, staufen, vasa, and tudor, that are also essential for pole plasm formation...
  3. St Johnston D, Driever W, Berleth T, Richstein S, Nusslein Volhard C. Multiple steps in the localization of bicoid RNA to the anterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 1989;107 Suppl:13-9 pubmed
    ..During a final phase that must occur between stage 12 of oogenesis and egg deposition, the RNA becomes localized to a spherical region that occupies a slightly dorsal position at the anterior pole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  4. Yano T, López de Quinto S, Matsui Y, Shevchenko A, Shevchenko A, Ephrussi A. Hrp48, a Drosophila hnRNPA/B homolog, binds and regulates translation of oskar mRNA. Dev Cell. 2004;6:637-48 pubmed
    ..Our data also show that Hrp48, which binds to the 5' and 3' regions of oskar mRNA, plays an important role in restricting Oskar activity to the posterior of the oocyte, by repressing oskar mRNA translation during transport. ..
  5. Shen C, Knoblich J, Chan Y, Jiang M, Jan L, Jan Y. Miranda as a multidomain adapter linking apically localized Inscuteable and basally localized Staufen and Prospero during asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1837-46 pubmed
    ..requires the function of inscuteable and miranda, whereas prospero RNA localization requires inscuteable and staufen function...
  6. Jenny A, Hachet O, Závorszky P, Cyrklaff A, Weston M, Johnston D, et al. A translation-independent role of oskar RNA in early Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2006;133:2827-33 pubmed
    ..Our analysis thus reveals an unexpected role for oskar RNA during early oogenesis, independent of Oskar protein. These findings indicate that oskar RNA acts as a scaffold or regulatory RNA essential for development of the oocyte. ..
  7. van Eeden F, Palacios I, Petronczki M, Weston M, St Johnston D. Barentsz is essential for the posterior localization of oskar mRNA and colocalizes with it to the posterior pole. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:511-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, Barentsz is essential for the posterior localization of oskar mRNA and behaves as a specific component of the oskar RNA transport complex. ..
  8. Rongo C, Gavis E, Lehmann R. Localization of oskar RNA regulates oskar translation and requires Oskar protein. Development. 1995;121:2737-46 pubmed
    ..We propose that initially localization of oskar RNA permits translation into Oskar protein and that subsequently Oskar protein regulates its own RNA localization through a positive feedback mechanism. ..
  9. Lasko P. RNA sorting in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. FASEB J. 1999;13:421-33 pubmed
    ..Prospects for filling gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of localizing RNAs and the importance of RNA sorting in regulating gene expression are also explored. ..
  10. Dollar G, Struckhoff E, Michaud J, Cohen R. Rab11 polarization of the Drosophila oocyte: a novel link between membrane trafficking, microtubule organization, and oskar mRNA localization and translation. Development. 2002;129:517-26 pubmed
    ..We propose that microtubule plus ends and, possibly, translation factors for osk mRNA are anchored to posterior membrane compartments that are defined by Rab11-mediated trafficking and reinforced by Rab11-Osk interactions. ..
  11. Hachet O, Ephrussi A. Drosophila Y14 shuttles to the posterior of the oocyte and is required for oskar mRNA transport. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1666-74 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that Y14 is part of the oskar mRNA localization complex and that the nuclear shuttling protein Y14 has a specific and direct role in oskar mRNA cytoplasmic localization. ..
  12. Clark I, Giniger E, Ruohola Baker H, Jan L, Jan Y. Transient posterior localization of a kinesin fusion protein reflects anteroposterior polarity of the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 1994;4:289-300 pubmed
    ..messenger RNAs and proteins to the posterior of the oocyte, beginning with the localization of oskar mRNA and Staufen protein during stages 8 and 9 of oogenesis...
  13. Micklem D, Adams J, Gr nert S, St Johnston D. Distinct roles of two conserved Staufen domains in oskar mRNA localization and translation. EMBO J. 2000;19:1366-77 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila Staufen protein is required for the localization of oskar mRNA to the posterior of the oocyte, the anterior anchoring of bicoid mRNA and the basal localization of prospero mRNA in dividing neuroblasts...
  14. Liang L, Diehl Jones W, Lasko P. Localization of vasa protein to the Drosophila pole plasm is independent of its RNA-binding and helicase activities. Development. 1994;120:1201-11 pubmed
    ..Posterior localization of vasa protein depends upon the functions of four genes: capu, spir, osk and stau. We have found that localization of vasa to the perinuclear nuage is abolished in most vas alleles, but is ..
  15. Yu J, Poulton J, Huang Y, Deng W. The hippo pathway promotes Notch signaling in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and oocyte polarity. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1761 pubmed publisher
  16. Lin M, Jiao X, Grima D, Newbury S, Kiledjian M, Chou T. Drosophila processing bodies in oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;322:276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This also suggests that a regulated conversion occurs between maternal RNA granules and P-bodies from oogenesis to embryogenesis. ..
  17. Roegiers F, Jan Y. Staufen: a common component of mRNA transport in oocytes and neurons?. Trends Cell Biol. 2000;10:220-4 pubmed
    Mammalian homologues of Staufen, a protein involved in localizing mRNAs during oogenesis and early central nervous system development in Drosophila, have been identified recently...
  18. Poulton J, Deng W. Dystroglycan down-regulation links EGF receptor signaling and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the Drosophila oocyte. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12775-80 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Dystroglycan links EGFR-induced repression of the anterior follicle cell fate and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the oocyte. ..
  19. Schupbach T, Wieschaus E. Germline autonomy of maternal-effect mutations altering the embryonic body pattern of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1986;113:443-8 pubmed
    ..In all nine loci (torso, trunk, exuperantia, vasa, valois, staufen, tudor, dorsal, Toll) a mutant genotype in the germ cells is sufficient to produce all aspects of the mutant ..
  20. St Johnston D. The intracellular localization of messenger RNAs. Cell. 1995;81:161-70 pubmed
    ..Indeed, there are already several examples where the direct linkage between translational control and localization has been demonstrated, and these are discussed in the accompanying review by Curtis et al. (1995). ..
  21. Bolduc F, Bell K, Cox H, Broadie K, Tully T. Excess protein synthesis in Drosophila fragile X mutants impairs long-term memory. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that fragile X protein was acutely required and interacted with argonaute1 and staufen in the formation of long-term memory...
  22. Macchi P, Kroening S, Palacios I, Baldassa S, Grunewald B, Ambrosino C, et al. Barentsz, a new component of the Staufen-containing ribonucleoprotein particles in mammalian cells, interacts with Staufen in an RNA-dependent manner. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5778-88 pubmed
    Staufen1, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila Staufen, assembles into ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), which are thought to transport and localize RNA into dendrites of mature hippocampal neurons...
  23. Leibfried A, Muller S, Ephrussi A. A Cdc42-regulated actin cytoskeleton mediates Drosophila oocyte polarization. Development. 2013;140:362-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This most likely allows for the robustness in symmetry breaking in the cell. ..
  24. Ramos A, Grunert S, Adams J, Micklem D, Proctor M, Freund S, et al. RNA recognition by a Staufen double-stranded RNA-binding domain. EMBO J. 2000;19:997-1009 pubmed
    ..To determine how this domain recognizes RNA, we have studied the third dsRBD from Drosophila Staufen. The domain binds optimally to RNA stem-loops containing 12 uninterrupted base pairs, and we have identified the ..
  25. Newmark P, Boswell R. The mago nashi locus encodes an essential product required for germ plasm assembly in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1303-13 pubmed
    ..The original mago nashi allele disrupts the localization of oskar mRNA and staufen protein to the posterior pole of the oocyte during oogenesis; anterior localization of bicoid mRNA is unaffected ..
  26. Bycroft M, Grunert S, Murzin A, Proctor M, St Johnston D. NMR solution structure of a dsRNA binding domain from Drosophila staufen protein reveals homology to the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S5. EMBO J. 1995;14:3563-71 pubmed
    ..Drosophila staufen protein contains five copies of this motif, and the third of these binds dsRNA in vitro...
  27. Irion U, St Johnston D. bicoid RNA localization requires specific binding of an endosomal sorting complex. Nature. 2007;445:554-8 pubmed
    ..Indeed, the only known RNA-binding protein that co-localizes with bicoid mRNA is Staufen, which binds non-specifically to double-stranded RNA in vitro...
  28. Braat A, Yan N, Arn E, Harrison D, Macdonald P. Localization-dependent oskar protein accumulation; control after the initiation of translation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:125-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, the mechanisms that prevent accumulation of Oskar protein until it can be secured at the posterior pole of the oocyte include regulated degradation or inhibition of translational elongation. ..
  29. González Reyes A, St Johnston D. Role of oocyte position in establishment of anterior-posterior polarity in Drosophila. Science. 1994;266:639-42 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the generation of AP asymmetry requires signaling from the germ line to the soma and back again. ..
  30. Snee M, Harrison D, Yan N, Macdonald P. A late phase of Oskar accumulation is crucial for posterior patterning of the Drosophila embryo, and is blocked by ectopic expression of Bruno. Differentiation. 2007;75:246-55 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results strongly argue that a late phase in accumulation of Osk protein, typically not monitored because of imperviousness of late stage oocytes to antibodies, is crucial for body patterning. ..
  31. Ephrussi A, Lehmann R. Induction of germ cell formation by oskar. Nature. 1992;358:387-92 pubmed
    ..Of the eight genes necessary for germ cell formation at the posterior, only three, oskar, vasa and tudor, are essential at an ectopic site. ..
  32. Geng C, Macdonald P. Imp associates with squid and Hrp48 and contributes to localized expression of gurken in the oocyte. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9508-16 pubmed
    ..The opposing effects of reduced and elevated Imp activity on gurken mRNA expression indicate a role in gurken mRNA regulation. ..
  33. Riechmann V, Gutierrez G, Filardo P, Nebreda A, Ephrussi A. Par-1 regulates stability of the posterior determinant Oskar by phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:337-42 pubmed
    ..We show in cell-free extracts that Osk protein is intrinsically unstable and that it is stabilized after phosphorylation by Par-1. Our data indicate that posteriorly localized Par-1 regulates posterior patterning by stabilizing Osk. ..
  34. Torres I, Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D. A Notch/Delta-dependent relay mechanism establishes anterior-posterior polarity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:547-58 pubmed
    ..The anterior-posterior axis is therefore established by a relay mechanism, which propagates polarity from one cyst to the next. ..
  35. Palacios I. RNA processing: splicing and the cytoplasmic localisation of mRNA. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R50-2 pubmed
    ..The new findings suggest that recruitment of the Mago Nashi and Y14 proteins upon splicing of oskar mRNA is an essential step in the localisation of the RNA to the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. ..
  36. Tomancak P, Piano F, Riechmann V, Gunsalus K, Kemphues K, Ephrussi A. A Drosophila melanogaster homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans par-1 acts at an early step in embryonic-axis formation. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:458-60 pubmed
  37. Fuerstenberg S, Peng C, Alvarez Ortiz P, Hor T, Doe C. Identification of Miranda protein domains regulating asymmetric cortical localization, cargo binding, and cortical release. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998;12:325-39 pubmed
    ..neuroblast/GMC differences involves the asymmetric localization of proteins (Inscuteable, Miranda, Prospero, and Staufen) and RNA (prospero)...
  38. Broadus J, Fuerstenberg S, Doe C. Staufen-dependent localization of prospero mRNA contributes to neuroblast daughter-cell fate. Nature. 1998;391:792-5 pubmed
    ..The prospero (pros) mRNA and the RNA-binding protein Staufen (Stau) are asymmetrically localized in mitotic neuroblasts and are specifically partitioned into the GMC, as is ..
  39. Mische S, Li M, Serr M, Hays T. Direct observation of regulated ribonucleoprotein transport across the nurse cell/oocyte boundary. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2254-63 pubmed
    ..We speculate that after delivery to the oocyte, RNP complexes may disassemble and be remodeled with appropriate accessory factors to ensure proper localization. ..
  40. Tian A, Deng W. Lgl and its phosphorylation by aPKC regulate oocyte polarity formation in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:463-71 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that Lgl and its phosphorylation by aPKC may form a conserved regulatory circuitry in polarization of various cell types. ..
  41. Markussen F, Michon A, Breitwieser W, Ephrussi A. Translational control of oskar generates short OSK, the isoform that induces pole plasma assembly. Development. 1995;121:3723-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that when oskar RNA is localized, accumulation of Oskar protein requires the functions of vasa and tudor, as well as oskar itself, suggesting a positive feedback mechanism in the induction of pole plasm by oskar. ..
  42. Snee M, Macdonald P. Dynamic organization and plasticity of sponge bodies. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:918-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Both types of sponge bodies allow normal development, but show substantial differences in distribution of Staufen protein and oskar mRNA, whose localization within the oocyte is essential for axial patterning...
  43. Morais de Sá E, Vega Rioja A, Trovisco V, St Johnston D. Oskar is targeted for degradation by the sequential action of Par-1, GSK-3, and the SCF?Slimb ubiquitin ligase. Dev Cell. 2013;26:303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that Par-1 controls the timing of pole plasm assembly by promoting the localization of oskar mRNA but inhibiting the accumulation of Short Oskar protein. ..
  44. Rongo C, Lehmann R. Regulated synthesis, transport and assembly of the Drosophila germ plasm. Trends Genet. 1996;12:102-9 pubmed
    ..These results imply that the limiting steps in the assembly of the germ plasm are localization of the OSK RNA and regulated synthesis of the OSK protein, encoded by oskar, which are components of the germ plasm. ..
  45. Ephrussi A, Dickinson L, Lehmann R. Oskar organizes the germ plasm and directs localization of the posterior determinant nanos. Cell. 1991;66:37-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that the pole plasm is assembled stepwise and that continued interaction among its components is required for germ cell determination. ..
  46. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
  47. Tanaka T, Nakamura A. The endocytic pathway acts downstream of Oskar in Drosophila germ plasm assembly. Development. 2008;135:1107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Osk stimulates endosomal cycling, which in turn promotes F-actin reorganization to anchor the pole plasm components to the oocyte cortex. ..
  48. Erdelyi M, Michon A, Guichet A, Glotzer J, Ephrussi A. Requirement for Drosophila cytoplasmic tropomyosin in oskar mRNA localization. Nature. 1995;377:524-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mutations in tropomyosin II (TmII) virtually abolish oskar RNA localization to the posterior pole, suggesting an involvement of the actin network in oskar RNA localization. ..
  49. Polesello C, Tapon N. Salvador-warts-hippo signaling promotes Drosophila posterior follicle cell maturation downstream of notch. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1864-70 pubmed
    ..The PCP members of the SWH network are not involved in this process, indicating that signaling upstream of Hpo varies according to developmental context. ..
  50. Palacios I, St Johnston D. Kinesin light chain-independent function of the Kinesin heavy chain in cytoplasmic streaming and posterior localisation in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2002;129:5473-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Kinesin heavy chain can function independently of the light chain in the oocyte, indicating that it associates with its cargoes by a novel mechanism. ..
  51. Lasko P, Ashburner M. Posterior localization of vasa protein correlates with, but is not sufficient for, pole cell development. Genes Dev. 1990;4:905-21 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with respect to the multiple functions of the vasa gene. ..
  52. Januschke J, Nicolas E, Compagnon J, Formstecher E, Goud B, Guichet A. Rab6 and the secretory pathway affect oocyte polarity in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:3419-25 pubmed
    ..Our results point to a possible connection between Rab protein-mediated secretion, organization of the cytoskeleton and mRNA transport. ..
  53. Zimyanin V, Belaya K, Pecreaux J, Gilchrist M, Clark A, Davis I, et al. In vivo imaging of oskar mRNA transport reveals the mechanism of posterior localization. Cell. 2008;134:843-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that each component of the oskar mRNA complex plays a distinct role in particle formation and transport. ..
  54. Zimyanin V, Lowe N, St Johnston D. An oskar-dependent positive feedback loop maintains the polarity of the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2007;17:353-9 pubmed
  55. Kiebler M, Bassell G. Neuronal RNA granules: movers and makers. Neuron. 2006;51:685-90 pubmed
    ..We focus on three classes of RNA granules that include transport RNPs, stress granules, and P bodies and discuss their potential functions in RNA localization, microRNA-mediated translational regulation, and mRNA degradation. ..
  56. Lin M, Fan S, Hsu W, Chou T. Drosophila decapping protein 1, dDcp1, is a component of the oskar mRNP complex and directs its posterior localization in the oocyte. Dev Cell. 2006;10:601-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, as well as being a general factor required for mRNA decay, dDcp1 is an essential component of the osk mRNP localization complex. ..
  57. Glotzer J, Saffrich R, Glotzer M, Ephrussi A. Cytoplasmic flows localize injected oskar RNA in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 1997;7:326-37 pubmed
    ..These results also highlight the role of the osk RNA anchor in the localization process. ..
  58. Matsuzaki F, Ohshiro T, Ikeshima Kataoka H, Izumi H. miranda localizes staufen and prospero asymmetrically in mitotic neuroblasts and epithelial cells in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1998;125:4089-98 pubmed
    ..miranda is known to localize prospero protein to the basal cell cortex of neuroblasts while the staufen RNA-binding protein mediates prospero mRNA localization...
  59. Li Q, Xin T, Chen W, Zhu M, Li M. Lethal(2)giant larvae is required in the follicle cells for formation of the initial AP asymmetry and the oocyte polarity during Drosophila oogenesis. Cell Res. 2008;18:372-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide the first demonstration that lgl is implicated in the formation of the initial AP asymmetry and the patterning of the AP and DV axes in the oocyte by acting in the specification of a subset of somatic follicle cells. ..
  60. Brendza R, Serbus L, Duffy J, Saxton W. A function for kinesin I in the posterior transport of oskar mRNA and Staufen protein. Science. 2000;289:2120-2 pubmed
    ..microtubule motor kinesin I is required for the posterior localization of oskar mRNA and an associated protein, Staufen, but not for the anterior-posterior localization of other asymmetric factors...
  61. Tian A, Deng W. Par-1 and Tau regulate the anterior-posterior gradient of microtubules in Drosophila oocytes. Dev Biol. 2009;327:458-64 pubmed publisher
  62. Ashraf S, McLoon A, Sclarsic S, Kunes S. Synaptic protein synthesis associated with memory is regulated by the RISC pathway in Drosophila. Cell. 2006;124:191-205 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that degradative control of the RISC pathway underlies the pattern of synaptic protein synthesis associated with a stable memory. ..
  63. Xi R, McGregor J, Harrison D. A gradient of JAK pathway activity patterns the anterior-posterior axis of the follicular epithelium. Dev Cell. 2003;4:167-77 pubmed
    ..We propose that Upd secreted from the polar cells may act as a morphogen to stimulate A/P-derived follicular fates through JAK pathway activation. ..
  64. St Johnston D, Brown N, Gall J, Jantsch M. A conserved double-stranded RNA-binding domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10979-83 pubmed
    ..identified a double-stranded (ds)RNA-binding domain in each of two proteins: the product of the Drosophila gene staufen, which is required for the localization of maternal mRNAs, and a protein of unknown function, Xlrbpa, from ..
  65. Jambor H, Brunel C, Ephrussi A. Dimerization of oskar 3' UTRs promotes hitchhiking for RNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. RNA. 2011;17:2049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis provides insight into the molecular basis of RNA hitchhiking, whereby localization-incompetent RNA molecules can become locally enriched in the cytoplasm, by virtue of their association with transport-competent RNAs...
  66. St Johnston D, Beuchle D, Nusslein Volhard C. Staufen, a gene required to localize maternal RNAs in the Drosophila egg. Cell. 1991;66:51-63 pubmed
    The posterior group gene staufen is required both for the localization of maternal determinants to the posterior pole of the Drosophila egg and for bicoid RNA to localize correctly to the anterior pole...
  67. Kim Ha J, Kerr K, Macdonald P. Translational regulation of oskar mRNA by bruno, an ovarian RNA-binding protein, is essential. Cell. 1995;81:403-12 pubmed
    ..Addition of BREs to a heterologous mRNA renders it sensitive to translational repression in the ovary. ..
  68. Huynh J, Petronczki M, Knoblich J, St Johnston D. Bazooka and PAR-6 are required with PAR-1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2001;11:901-6 pubmed
    ..elegans and Drosophila, the relationships between them are different, as the localization of PAR-1 does not require Bazooka or PAR-6 in Drosophila, as it does in the worm. ..
  69. Krauss J, López de Quinto S, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Ephrussi A. Myosin-V regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that a balance of microtubule- and actin-based motor activities regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. ..
  70. Wodarz A, Ramrath A, Kuchinke U, Knust E. Bazooka provides an apical cue for Inscuteable localization in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nature. 1999;402:544-7 pubmed
    ..Bazooka and Inscuteable form a complex that also contains Staufen, a protein responsible for the asymmetric localization of prospero messenger RNA...
  71. Kim Ha J, Smith J, Macdonald P. oskar mRNA is localized to the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Cell. 1991;66:23-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that nonsense oskar mutations disrupt osk mRNA localization, while missense oskar mutations do not. ..
  72. Benton R, Palacios I, St Johnston D. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;3:659-71 pubmed
    ..The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries. ..
  73. Li P, Yang X, Wasser M, Cai Y, Chia W. Inscuteable and Staufen mediate asymmetric localization and segregation of prospero RNA during Drosophila neuroblast cell divisions. Cell. 1997;90:437-47 pubmed
    ..b>staufen encodes a dsRNA-binding protein implicated in mRNA transport in oocytes...
  74. Shulman J, Benton R, St Johnston D. The Drosophila homolog of C. elegans PAR-1 organizes the oocyte cytoskeleton and directs oskar mRNA localization to the posterior pole. Cell. 2000;101:377-88 pubmed
    ..These results identify a molecular parallel between anterior-posterior polarization in Drosophila and C. elegans. ..
  75. Keller Larkin M, Deng W, Holder K, Tworoger M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Role of Notch pathway in terminal follicle cell differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Genes Evol. 1999;209:301-11 pubmed
  76. Mhlanga M, Bratu D, Genovesio A, Rybarska A, Chenouard N, Nehrbass U, et al. In vivo colocalisation of oskar mRNA and trans-acting proteins revealed by quantitative imaging of the Drosophila oocyte. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6241 pubmed publisher
    ..By in vivo covisualization of oskar mRNA with Staufen, its putative trafficking protein, we find oskar mRNA to be present in particles distinct from Staufen for part ..
  77. Castagnetti S, Ephrussi A. Orb and a long poly(A) tail are required for efficient oskar translation at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2003;130:835-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Orb-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation stimulates oskar translation to achieve the high levels of Oskar protein necessary for posterior patterning and germline differentiation. ..
  78. Kim Ha J, Webster P, Smith J, Macdonald P. Multiple RNA regulatory elements mediate distinct steps in localization of oskar mRNA. Development. 1993;119:169-78 pubmed
  79. Weil T, Forrest K, Gavis E. Localization of bicoid mRNA in late oocytes is maintained by continual active transport. Dev Cell. 2006;11:251-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results indicate that association of bicoid with the anterior oocyte cortex is dynamic and support a model for maintenance of bicoid localization by continual active transport on microtubules. ..
  80. Dubnau J, Chiang A, Grady L, Barditch J, Gossweiler S, McNeil J, et al. The staufen/pumilio pathway is involved in Drosophila long-term memory. Curr Biol. 2003;13:286-96 pubmed
    ..In vivo disruptions of four genes--staufen, pumilio, oskar, and eIF-5C--yield defective memory...