Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: st
Alias: CG4314, Dmel\CG4314, scarlet, CG4314-PA, st-PA
Species: fruit fly
- Gelbart W, Chovnick A. Spontaneous unequal exchange in the rosy region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1979;92:849-59 pubmed
- Rutila J, Suri V, Le M, So W, Rosbash M, Hall J. CYCLE is a second bHLH-PAS clock protein essential for circadian rhythmicity and transcription of Drosophila period and timeless. Cell. 1998;93:805-14 pubmed..We propose that the CYC:CLK heterodimer binds to per and tim E boxes and makes a major contribution to the circadian transcription of Drosophila clock genes. ..
- Hill K, Bedian V, Juang J, Hoffmann F. Genetic interactions between the Drosophila Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase and failed axon connections (fax), a novel protein in axon bundles. Genetics. 1995;141:595-606 pubmed..The conditional, extragenic noncomplementation between fax and another Abl modifier gene, disabled, reveal that the two proteins are likely to function together in a process downstream or parallel to the Abl protein tyrosine kinase. ..
- ten Have J, Green M, Howells A. Molecular characterization of spontaneous mutations at the scarlet locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;249:673-81 pubmedSix spontaneous mutations of the scarlet (st) locus of Drosophila melanogaster have been studied at the molecular level...
- Velissariou V, Ashburner M. Cytogenetic and genetic mapping of a salivary gland secretion protein in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1981;84:173-85 pubmed..0 and to bands 71 C1,2-71 F3,5. In those stocks that possess SGS-6 a puff is active in 71 C3-4 in Puff Stage 1, but not in older larvae. We conclude that this puff is the manifestation of a transcriptionally active Sgs-6 gene. ..
- Tearle R. Tissue specific effects of ommochrome pathway mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1991;57:257-66 pubmed..Two mutations affecting the red eye pigments (drosopterins), bw and mal, do not substantially perturb brown pigment synthesis in any of the four organs. ..
- Liebl E, Rowe R, Forsthoefel D, Stammler A, Schmidt E, Turski M, et al. Interactions between the secreted protein Amalgam, its transmembrane receptor Neurotactin and the Abelson tyrosine kinase affect axon pathfinding. Development. 2003;130:3217-26 pubmed..These results suggest Ama/Nrt-mediated adhesion may be part of signaling networks involving the Abl tyrosine kinase in the growth cone. ..
- Inoue Y, do Carmo Avides M, Shiraki M, Deak P, Yamaguchi M, Nishimoto Y, et al. Orbit, a novel microtubule-associated protein essential for mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:153-66 pubmed
- Sullivan D, Sullivan M. Transport defects as the physiological basis for eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1975;13:603-13 pubmed..in organ culture using the Malpighian tubules and developing eyes from wild type and the eye color mutants w, st, ltd, ca, and cn of Drosophila melanogaster...
- Palladino M, Hadley T, Ganetzky B. Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants are enriched for those causing neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;161:1197-208 pubmed..Further studies of vacu and the other neurodegenerative mutants isolated should ultimately help dissect the biochemical pathways leading to neurodegeneration. ..
- Belote J, Hoffmann F, McKeown M, Chorsky R, Baker B. Cytogenetic analysis of chromosome region 73AD of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:783-93 pubmed..These complementation groups include the previously known scarlet (st), transformer (tra) and Dominant temperature-sensitive lethal-5 (DTS-5) genes, as well as 13 new recessive ..
- Chanut F, Luk A, Heberlein U. A screen for dominant modifiers of ro(Dom), a mutation that disrupts morphogenetic furrow progression in Drosophila, identifies groucho and hairless as regulators of atonal expression. Genetics. 2000;156:1203-17 pubmed..Analysis of their phenotypes in somatic clones suggests that both normally act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina, although they control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern. ..
- Duncan I, Kaufman T. Cytogenic analysis of chromosome 3 in Drosophila melanogaster: mapping of the proximal portion of the right arm. Genetics. 1975;80:733-52 pubmed
- Martin K, Poeck B, Roth H, Ebens A, Ballard L, Zipursky S. Mutations disrupting neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila visual system. Neuron. 1995;14:229-40 pubmed..Genes were identified as candidates for playing direct roles in R cell connectivity by affecting axonal outgrowth (eddy), target recognition (limbo and nonstop), and retinotopy (limbo). ..
- Birchler J, Bhadra U, Rabinow L, Linsk R, Nguyen Huynh A. Weakener of white (Wow), a gene that modifies the expression of the white eye color locus and that suppresses position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;137:1057-70 pubmed..Two related genes, brown and scarlet, that are coordinately expressed with white, are also affected by Wow...
- Go M, Artavanis Tsakonas S. A genetic screen for novel components of the notch signaling pathway during Drosophila bristle development. Genetics. 1998;150:211-20 pubmed
- Albornoz J, Dominguez A. Inversion polymorphism and accumulation of lethals in selected lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1994;73 ( Pt 1):92-7 pubmed..Consideration of the high selection response attained despite inversion polymorphism leads to the conclusion that extreme responses to selection can be obtained without exploiting the potential from large genomic regions. ..
- Manoukian A, Krause H, Larsen E. Modifiers of bx1 alter the distribution of Ubx proteins in haltere imaginal discs of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1992;151:611-6 pubmed..In contrast, mutations in the suppressor of sable (su(s)) gene enhance the bx1 phenotype. A correlation was observed between patterns of Ubx protein expression and the phenotypic transformations observed. ..
- Bichon A, Boukhatem N, Gay P, Dru P, Terzian H, Petitjean A, et al. Genetic and molecular features of Su(P), a gene that interacts with ref(2)P in male fertility of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:354-61 pubmed..The Su(P) gene was cloned by P element tagging. The P element-tagged alleles identified a Su(P) transcript as a 1.4-kb mRNA produced in the soma of both males and females, which is also abundant in ovaries. ..
- Kain J, Stokes C, de Bivort B. Phototactic personality in fruit flies and its suppression by serotonin and white. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19834-9 pubmed publisher..Because we observed behavioral idiosyncrasy in all experimental groups, we suspect it is present in most behaviors of most animals...
- Henkemeyer M, Gertler F, Goodman W, Hoffmann F. The Drosophila Abelson proto-oncogene homolog: identification of mutant alleles that have pleiotropic effects late in development. Cell. 1987;51:821-8 pubmed..Elimination of abl zygotic function by mutations produces some recessive lethality at the pharate adult pupal stage, and mutant adults with reduced longevity, reduced fecundity, and an irregular pattern of retinal cells. ..
- Alexander M. Radiosensitivity at Specific Autosomal Loci in Mature Sperm and Spermatogonial Cells of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1960;45:1019-22 pubmed
- Roberts P. Screening for x-ray-induced crossover suppressors in Drosophila melanogaster: prevalence and effectiveness of translocations. Genetics. 1970;65:429-48 pubmed
- Borycz J, Borycz J, Kubów A, Lloyd V, Meinertzhagen I. Drosophila ABC transporter mutants white, brown and scarlet have altered contents and distribution of biogenic amines in the brain. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:3454-66 pubmed publisher..We find that flies mutant for these genes, and another binding partner, scarlet, have about half the wild-type amount of histamine in the head, as well as reduced 5-HT and dopamine...
- Hjorth J. A phosphoglucomutase locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 1970;64:146-8 pubmed
- Bhadra U, Birchler J. Characterization of a sex-influenced modifier of gene expression and suppressor of position-effect variegation in Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;250:601-13 pubmed..Two other functionally related genes, brown and scarlet, also exhibit a similar sexually dimorphic alteration in expression, mediated by Mow...
- Falk R, Schwartz S. MORGAN's hypothesis of the genetic control of development. Genetics. 1993;134:671-4 pubmed
- Wemmer T, Klämbt C. A genetic analysis of the Drosophila closely linked interacting genes bulge, argos and soba. Genetics. 1995;140:629-41 pubmed..In addition, we have identified one allele of a new gene, clown, which like soba suppresses the eye phenotypes associated with hs-argos and bulgeDominant. clown maps on chromosome 3 at the cytological position 68CD. ..
- Dorer D, Ezekiel D, Christensen A. The Triplo-lethal locus of Drosophila: reexamination of mutants and discovery of a second-site suppressor. Genetics. 1995;141:1037-42 pubmed..Su(Tpl) mutations suppress the lethality associated with three copies of the Triplo-lethal locus and are recessive lethal. We have mapped Su(Tpl) to the approximate map position 3-46.5, within the cytological region 76B-76D. ..
- Yamamoto M, Howells A, Ryall R. The ommochrome biosynthetic pathway in Drosophila melanogaster: the head particulate phenoxazinone synthase and the developmental onset of xanthommatin synthesis. Biochem Genet. 1976;14:1077-90 pubmed..In addition, it is much reduced in activity in a number of xanthommatin-deficient mutants (v, cn, st, cd, and w)...
- Rice W. Sexually antagonistic genes: experimental evidence. Science. 1992;256:1436-9 pubmed..A 29-generation study provides experimental evidence that sexually antagonistic genes may be common in nature and will accumulate in response to a new sex-determining gene. ..
- Silva F, Escriche B, Ordoño E, Ferre J. Genetic and biochemical characterization of little isoxanthopterin (lix), a gene controlling dihydropterin oxidase activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;230:97-103 pubmed..Isoxanthopterin was quantitated in strains carrying deficiencies for the region in which lix has been mapped by recombination. This allowed us to assign the lix locus to the 7D10-7F1-2 segment of the X chromosome. ..
- Chiang P, Kurnit D. Study of dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genetics. 2003;165:1167-81 pubmed
- Pankotai T, Komonyi O, Bodai L, Ujfaludi Z, Muratoglu S, Ciurciu A, et al. The homologous Drosophila transcriptional adaptors ADA2a and ADA2b are both required for normal development but have different functions. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8215-27 pubmed..The data presented here demonstrate that the two genes encoding homologous transcriptional adaptor ADA2 proteins in Drosophila are both essential but are functionally distinct. ..
- Elias V, Nicolas C, Abramson C. Eye color as an indicator of behavior: revisiting Worthy and Scott. Psychol Rep. 2008;102:759-78 pubmed..melanogaster pointed to significant behavioral differences among cell-defect groups, indicating that the cell defect which causes eye color, rather than eye color itself, may serve as a crude indicator of behavior. ..
- Benevolenskaya E, Frolov M, Birchler J. The sugarless mutation affects the expression of the white eye color gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;260:131-43 pubmed..Expression of three genes that participate in pigment deposition, white, scarlet and brown, was significantly affected in populations segregating for sgl, suggesting that it is the decrease in ..
- Nandy B, Prasad N. Reproductive behavior and fitness components in male Drosophila melaogaster are non-linearly affected by the number of male co-inhabitants early in adult life. J Insect Sci. 2011;11:67 pubmed publisher..However, there was a decline in the trait values as the co-inhabitant number increased further. The probable causes for the observed non-linear pattern of responses are discussed. ..
- Ewart G, Howells A. ABC transporters involved in transport of eye pigment precursors in Drosophila melanogaster. Methods Enzymol. 1998;292:213-24 pubmed
- Schaeffer S, Bhutkar A, McAllister B, Matsuda M, Matzkin L, O Grady P, et al. Polytene chromosomal maps of 11 Drosophila species: the order of genomic scaffolds inferred from genetic and physical maps. Genetics. 2008;179:1601-55 pubmed publisher..Despite the conservation of genes within homologous chromosome arms across species, the karyotypes of these species have changed through the fusion of chromosomal arms followed by subsequent rearrangement events...
- Wu L, Anderson K. Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune response. Nature. 1998;392:93-7 pubmed..Mutations in three other genes cause constitutive nuclear localization of Dif; these mutations may block Rel protein activity by a novel mechanism. ..
- Ostrowski S, Dierick H, Bejsovec A. Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;161:171-82 pubmed
- Baas S, Sharrow M, Kotu V, Middleton M, Nguyen K, Flanagan Steet H, et al. Sugar-free frosting, a homolog of SAD kinase, drives neural-specific glycan expression in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2011;138:553-63 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, neuronal sff expression is dependent on transcellular signaling through a non-neural toll-like receptor, linking neural-specific glycan expression to a kinase activity that is induced in response to environmental cues. ..
- Frolov M, Benevolenskaya E, Birchler J. The oxen gene of Drosophila encodes a homolog of subunit 9 of yeast ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex: evidence for modulation of gene expression in response to mitochondrial activity. Genetics. 2000;156:1727-36 pubmed..expression of three genes encoding ABC transporters involved in pigment precursor transport, white, brown, and scarlet. A precise excision of the P element reverts the mutant phenotype...
- Gupta B, Rodrigues V. Distinct mechanisms of action of the Lozenge locus in Drosophila eye and antennal development are suggested by the analysis of dominant enhancers. J Neurogenet. 1995;10:137-51 pubmed..We analyse the phenotypes of both intragenic and extragenic modifiers. Our results reinforce the view from developmental studies that lz functions in eye and antennal development in distinct ways. ..
- Phillips J, Forrest H, Kulkarni A. Terminal synthesis of xanthommatin in Drosophila melanogaster. 3. Mutational pleiotropy and pigment granule association of phenoxazinone synthetase. Genetics. 1973;73:45-56 pubmed..Several classical eye color mutants (v, cn, st, ltd, cd, w), including two which effect other enzymes in the xanthommatin pathway (v, cn), have low levels of ..
- Kirchner J, Gross S, Bennett D, Alphey L. The nonmuscle myosin phosphatase PP1beta (flapwing) negatively regulates Jun N-terminal kinase in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;175:1741-9 pubmed..The level of phosphorylated (active) JNK is elevated in flw1 enhanced by puc. Together, we show that disruption of nonmuscle myosin activates JNK and puc expression in wing imaginal discs. ..
- Neuburger P, Saville K, Zeng J, Smyth K, Belote J. A genetic suppressor of two dominant temperature-sensitive lethal proteasome mutants of Drosophila melanogaster is itself a mutated proteasome subunit gene. Genetics. 2006;173:1377-87 pubmed..While Prosbeta2(1) shows a modest increase in the number of defective mitotic figures, there were no defects seen with the other two mutants, other than slightly reduced mitotic indexes. ..
- Novitski E, Grace D, Strommen C. The entire compound autosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1981;98:257-73 pubmed..These large chromosomes are recovered in progeny with frequencies lower than expectation partly because of zygote mortality associated with these chromosomes, and partly because of a failure of spermiogenesis. ..
- Reaume A, Knecht D, Chovnick A. The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster: xanthine dehydrogenase and eye pigments. Genetics. 1991;129:1099-109 pubmed
- Ward C, Alexander M. Cytological Analysis of X-Ray-Induced Mutations at Eight Specific Loci in the Third Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1957;42:42-54 pubmed
- Wolfner M, Goldberg M. Harnessing the power of Drosophila genetics. Methods Cell Biol. 1994;44:33-80 pubmed
- Bhadra U, Bhadra M, Birchler J. Interactions among dosage-dependent trans-acting modifiers of gene expression and position-effect variegation in Drosophila. Genetics. 1998;150:251-63 pubmed..Various combinations modulate two functionally related transcripts, white and scarlet, differently. The overall trend is that multiple modifiers are noncumulative or epistatic to each other...
- Baker W, Tsai L. Malformed, a mutation of Drosophila melanogaster producing mirror-image duplication of a portion of the orbit. Dev Biol. 1977;57:221-5 pubmed
- Howells A. Isolation and biochemical analysis of a temperature-sensitive scarlet eye color mutant of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:149-58 pubmedSix new ems-induced scarlet mutants were selected. Four of these were partially pigmented, with xanthommatin levels ranging from 12% to 45% of normal...
- Johnston L, Ostrow B, Jasoni C, Blochlinger K. The homeobox gene cut interacts genetically with the homeotic genes proboscipedia and Antennapedia. Genetics. 1998;149:131-42 pubmed..Our results implicate ct in the regulation of expression and/or function of two homeotic genes and document a new role of ct in the control of segmental identity. ..
- Holden J, Suzuki D. Temperature-sensitive mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. XII. The genetic and developmental effects of dominant lethals on chromosome 3. Genetics. 1973;73:445-58 pubmed..Only DTS-4 exhibited dominant lethality in triploid females. ..
- Yang H, Tanikawa A, Kondrashov A. Molecular nature of 11 spontaneous de novo mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;157:1285-92 pubmed..melanogaster than in H. sapiens. If so, the per nucleotide mutation rate in D. melanogaster may be lower than in H. sapiens, even if their per locus mutation rates are similar. ..
- Ito N, Rubin G. gigas, a Drosophila homolog of tuberous sclerosis gene product-2, regulates the cell cycle. Cell. 1999;96:529-39 pubmed..Our results suggest that the TSC disorder may result from an underlying defect in cell cycle control. We have also identified a Drosophila homolog of TSC1. ..
- McKeown M, Belote J, Baker B. A molecular analysis of transformer, a gene in Drosophila melanogaster that controls female sexual differentiation. Cell. 1987;48:489-99 pubmed..These results suggest that tra+ function is regulated at the level of production of the female-specific tra RNA. The fact that a tra transcript is found in males raises interesting possibilities for how tra expression is controlled. ..
- Beadle G. Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Fat Bodies and Malpighian Tubes in Relation to Diffusible Substances. Genetics. 1937;22:587-611 pubmed
- Boyd J, Golino M, Shaw K, Osgood C, Green M. Third-chromosome mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1981;97:607-23 pubmed..Mutants from four of the complementation groups are associated with moderate to strong meiotic effects in females. Preliminary biochemical analyses have implicated seven of these loci in DNA metabolism. ..
- Butler B, Pirrotta V, Irminger Finger I, Nothiger R. The sex-determining gene tra of Drosophila: molecular cloning and transformation studies. EMBO J. 1986;5:3607-13 pubmed..We present evidence that most of the function of tra can be provided by a subsegment of 2 kb that is differentially transcribed or processed in males and females. ..
- Beadle G, Ephrussi B. The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation. Genetics. 1936;21:225-47 pubmed
- Sturtevant A. Genetic Studies on DROSOPHILA SIMULANS. III. Autosomal Genes. General Discussion. Genetics. 1921;6:179-207 pubmed
- Madhavan M, Kumar R, Krishnan K. Genetics of anesthetic response: autosomal mutations that render Drosophila resistant to halothane. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000;67:749-57 pubmed..Two of these mutations, Omar(82) and Qajjem(211) are shown to map to separate loci on the third chromosome. ..
- Frolov M, Benevolenskaya E, Birchler J. Regena (Rga), a Drosophila homolog of the global negative transcriptional regulator CDC36 (NOT2) from yeast, modifies gene expression and suppresses position effect variegation. Genetics. 1998;148:317-29 pubmed..Rga also acts as a suppressor of position effect variegation, suggesting that a possible function of Rga could be mediation of an interaction between chromatin proteins and the transcriptional complex. ..
- Li M, Serr M, Edwards K, Ludmann S, Yamamoto D, Tilney L, et al. Filamin is required for ring canal assembly and actin organization during Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1061-74 pubmed..The genetic and molecular characterization of Drosophila filamin provides the first genetic model system for the analysis of filamin function and regulation during development. ..
- Bhadra U, Pal Bhadra M, Birchler J. A trans-acting modifier causing extensive overexpression of genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;254:621-34 pubmed..the effect is nearly exponential in some developmental stages for five of the eleven genes tested (white, brown, scarlet, rudimentary and vermilion)...
- Harris D, Kim K, Nakahara K, Vásquez Doorman C, Carthew R. Cargo sorting to lysosome-related organelles regulates siRNA-mediated gene silencing. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:77-87 pubmed publisher..Negative regulation is also not linked to sorting into all LROs but only a specific class of pigment LRO. Thus, regulation of siRNA activity is tied to sorting of specific types of cargo to particular LROs...
- Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
- Elizur A, Vacek A, Howells A. Cloning and characterization of the white and topaz eye color genes from the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. J Mol Evol. 1990;30:347-58 pubmed..isolated from genomic DNA libraries of the blowfly Lucilia cuprina using cloned DNA from the homologous white and scarlet genes, respectively, of Drosophila melanogaster as probes...
- Romanova N, Aslanian M, Kim A. [Analysis of spontaneous and ethylmethanesulfonate-induced visible mutations in the genetically unstable MS, w strain of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1996;32:759-66 pubmed..the X chromosome, in five loci of chromosome 2 (b, j, pr, cn, and vg), and in eight loci of chromosome 3 (ru, h, th, st, cu, sr, es, and ca)...