Gene Symbol: sqh
Description: spaghetti squash
Alias: CG3595, DmMRLC_C, Dmel\CG3595, MLC, MLRC, MRLC, Myo, Myo II, Myo-II, Myo-II RLC, MyoII, NMM, RLC, RLC2, RMLC, Sqh, myo II, myoII, myosin, myosin II, sgh, spg, squ, ssq, spaghetti squash, CG3595-PA, CG3595-PB, CG3595-PC, CG3595-PD, CG3595-PE, Myo-II regulatory light chain, MyoII regulatory light chain, Myosin-II, Myosin-II light chain, Spaghetti-Squash, light chain of nonmuscle myosin II, myosin, myosin 2, myosin II, myosin II regulatory light chain, myosin LC, myosin light chain, myosin regulatory light chain, myosinII, non-muscle myosin II, non-muscle myosin II regulatory light chain, non-muscle myosin-II, nonmuscle myosin II, nonmuscle myosin II regulatory light chain, phospho-Myosin light chain 2, regulatory light chain, regulatory light chain of myosin, regulatory light chain of myosin II, regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin II, regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin-II, regulatory myosin light chain, sqh-PA, sqh-PB, sqh-PC, sqh-PD, sqh-PE, squash, type II myosin regulatory light chain
Species: fruit fly
Products:     sqh

Top Publications

  1. Kunda P, Pelling A, Liu T, Baum B. Moesin controls cortical rigidity, cell rounding, and spindle morphogenesis during mitosis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..and, when artificially activated, is sufficient to induce both processes in interphase cells, independently of Myosin II. This phospho-Moesin-induced increase in cortical rigidity plays an important role during mitotic progression, ..
  2. Dyer N, Rebollo E, Dominguez P, Elkhatib N, Chavrier P, Daviet L, et al. Spermatocyte cytokinesis requires rapid membrane addition mediated by ARF6 on central spindle recycling endosomes. Development. 2007;134:4437-47 pubmed
    ..We propose that ARF6 promotes rapid recycling of endosomal membrane stores during cytokinesis, which is critical for rapid cleavage furrow ingression. ..
  3. Simoes S, Denholm B, Azevedo D, Sotillos S, Martin P, Skaer H, et al. Compartmentalisation of Rho regulators directs cell invagination during tissue morphogenesis. Development. 2006;133:4257-67 pubmed
  4. Martin A, Gelbart M, Fernandez Gonzalez R, Kaschube M, Wieschaus E. Integration of contractile forces during tissue invagination. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:735-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Epithelial tension requires the transcription factor Twist, which stabilizes apical myosin II, promoting the formation of a supracellular actomyosin meshwork in which radial actomyosin fibers are joined end-..
  5. Hatan M, Shinder V, Israeli D, Schnorrer F, Volk T. The Drosophila blood brain barrier is maintained by GPCR-dependent dynamic actin structures. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, an overlap between ARS localization, elevated Ca(2+) levels, and myosin light chain phosphorylation is detected...
  6. Vereshchagina N, Bennett D, Szoor B, Kirchner J, Gross S, Vissi E, et al. The essential role of PP1beta in Drosophila is to regulate nonmuscle myosin. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4395-405 pubmed
    Reversible phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) is a key regulatory mechanism controlling myosin activity and thus regulating the actin/myosin cytoskeleton...
  7. Simões S, Blankenship J, Weitz O, Farrell D, Tamada M, Fernandez Gonzalez R, et al. Rho-kinase directs Bazooka/Par-3 planar polarity during Drosophila axis elongation. Dev Cell. 2010;19:377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Bazooka/Par-3 (Baz) is required for the planar polarized distribution of myosin II and adherens junction proteins and polarized intercalary behavior is disrupted in baz mutants...
  8. Grammont M. Adherens junction remodeling by the Notch pathway in Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:139-50 pubmed
    ..This results in abnormal StC flattening and delayed MBFC displacement. Additionally, accumulation of the myosin II heavy chain Zipper is delayed at the AJs that require disassembly...
  9. Roh Johnson M, Shemer G, Higgins C, McClellan J, Werts A, Tulu U, et al. Triggering a cell shape change by exploiting preexisting actomyosin contractions. Science. 2012;335:1232-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, apical constriction appears to be triggered not by a change in cortical tension, but by dynamic linking of apical cell-cell contact zones to an already contractile apical cortex...

More Information


  1. Brodu V, Casanova J. The RhoGAP crossveinless-c links trachealess and EGFR signaling to cell shape remodeling in Drosophila tracheal invagination. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1817-28 pubmed
    ..cell behavior at invagination and show that it is associated with, and requires, a distinct recruitment of Myosin II to the apical surface of cells at the invaginating edge...
  2. Herszterg S, Leibfried A, Bosveld F, Martin C, Bellaiche Y. Interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors regulates adherens junction formation during cytokinesis in epithelial tissue. Dev Cell. 2013;24:256-70 pubmed publisher
    ..During contraction of the cytokinetic ring, the neighboring cells locally accumulate Myosin II and produce the cortical tension necessary to set the initial geometry of the daughter cell interface...
  3. Lecuit T, Samanta R, Wieschaus E. slam encodes a developmental regulator of polarized membrane growth during cleavage of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2002;2:425-36 pubmed
    ..Slam colocalizes with the junctional proteins Arm/beta-catenin, the PDZ domain-containing protein Dlt, and Myosin and is also required for their proper membrane localization...
  4. D Avino P, Savoian M, Glover D. Cleavage furrow formation and ingression during animal cytokinesis: a microtubule legacy. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1549-58 pubmed
    ..The same mechanism might be conserved in other organisms. ..
  5. Martin A, Kaschube M, Wieschaus E. Pulsed contractions of an actin-myosin network drive apical constriction. Nature. 2009;457:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..thought to be driven by the continuous purse-string-like contraction of a circumferential actin and non-muscle myosin-II (myosin) belt underlying adherens junctions...
  6. Fulga T, Rørth P. Invasive cell migration is initiated by guided growth of long cellular extensions. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:715-9 pubmed
    ..LCE growth requires directional guidance signals and specific adhesion to the substratum. Interference with actin-myosin interactions allows continued LCE growth while preventing translocation of the cell bodies...
  7. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Zallen J. Oscillatory behaviors and hierarchical assembly of contractile structures in intercalating cells. Phys Biol. 2011;8:045005 pubmed publisher
    ..of contractile actomyosin structures at the medial cortex of the cell, with actin localization preceding myosin II and with the localization of both proteins preceding changes in cell shape...
  8. Sawyer J, Choi W, Jung K, He L, Harris N, Peifer M. A contractile actomyosin network linked to adherens junctions by Canoe/afadin helps drive convergent extension. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2491-508 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which an actomyosin network linked at AP AJs by Canoe and coupled to apical polarity proteins regulates convergent extension. ..
  9. Lee A, Treisman J. Excessive Myosin activity in mbs mutants causes photoreceptor movement out of the Drosophila eye disc epithelium. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3285-95 pubmed
    ..We show that this phenotype is due to excessive phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain Spaghetti squash rather than another potential substrate, Moesin, and that it requires the nonmuscle ..
  10. Levayer R, Lecuit T. Oscillation and polarity of E-cadherin asymmetries control actomyosin flow patterns during morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2013;26:162-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that fluctuations and mechanical instability are not the consequences of limited control over the systems key parameters, but rather that they define the axis of symmetry breaking. ..
  11. Cabernard C, Prehoda K, Doe C. A spindle-independent cleavage furrow positioning pathway. Nature. 2010;467:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that early and late furrow proteins (Pavarotti, Anillin, and Myosin) are localized to the neuroblast basal cortex at anaphase onset by a Pins cortical polarity pathway, and can ..
  12. Blankenship J, Backovic S, Sanny J, Weitz O, Zallen J. Multicellular rosette formation links planar cell polarity to tissue morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;11:459-70 pubmed
    ..We find that planar polarity in the Drosophila embryo is established through a sequential enrichment of actin-myosin cables and adherens junction proteins in complementary surface domains...
  13. Royou A, Field C, Sisson J, Sullivan W, Karess R. Reassessing the role and dynamics of nonmuscle myosin II during furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:838-50 pubmed
    ..Both involve actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, and both have myosin II at or near the forming furrow...
  14. Grusche F, Hidalgo C, Fletcher G, Sung H, Sahai E, Thompson B. Sds22, a PP1 phosphatase regulatory subunit, regulates epithelial cell polarity and shape [Sds22 in epithelial morphology]. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:14 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that two previously postulated PP1 targets, Spaghetti Squash and Moesin are hyper-phosphorylated in sds22 mutants...
  15. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Simões S, Röper J, Eaton S, Zallen J. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells. Dev Cell. 2009;17:736-43 pubmed publisher
    Axis elongation in Drosophila occurs through polarized cell rearrangements driven by actomyosin contractility. Myosin II promotes neighbor exchange through the contraction of single cell boundaries, while the contraction of myosin II ..
  16. Somma M, Fasulo B, Cenci G, Cundari E, Gatti M. Molecular dissection of cytokinesis by RNA interference in Drosophila cultured cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2448-60 pubmed
    ..We show that double-stranded RNAs for anillin, acGAP, pavarotti, rho1, pebble, spaghetti squash, syntaxin1A, and twinstar all disrupt cytokinesis in S2 tissue culture cells, causing gene-specific ..
  17. Rauzi M, Lenne P, Lecuit T. Planar polarized actomyosin contractile flows control epithelial junction remodelling. Nature. 2010;468:1110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..vertical') junctions during this process is known to require planar polarized junctional contractility by Myosin II (refs 4, 5, 7, 12)...
  18. Straight A, Field C, Mitchison T. Anillin binds nonmuscle myosin II and regulates the contractile ring. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:193-201 pubmed
    We demonstrate that the contractile ring protein anillin interacts directly with nonmuscle myosin II and that this interaction is regulated by myosin light chain phosphorylation...
  19. Antunes M, Pereira T, Cordeiro J, Almeida L, Jacinto A. Coordinated waves of actomyosin flow and apical cell constriction immediately after wounding. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:365-79 pubmed publisher
  20. Zhang L, Ward R. Distinct tissue distributions and subcellular localizations of differently phosphorylated forms of the myosin regulatory light chain in Drosophila. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:93-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Myosin activation is regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC, encoded by spaghettisquash or sqh in Drosophila) first on Ser21 and subsequently on Thr20...
  21. Meghana C, Ramdas N, Hameed F, Rao M, Shivashankar G, Narasimha M. Integrin adhesion drives the emergent polarization of active cytoskeletal stresses to pattern cell delamination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that a sequence of "emergent cytoskeletal polarities" in the nearest neighbors (directed myosin flows, lamellipodial growth, polarized actomyosin collars, microtubule asters), triggered by the mechanical ..
  22. Mulinari S, Barmchi M, Hacker U. DRhoGEF2 and diaphanous regulate contractile force during segmental groove morphogenesis in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1883-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of DRhoGEF2 in the ectoderm recruits myosin II to the cell cortex and induces cell contraction...
  23. Bosveld F, Bonnet I, Guirao B, Tlili S, Wang Z, Petitalot A, et al. Mechanical control of morphogenesis by Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed planar cell polarity pathway. Science. 2012;336:724-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Dachsous polarizes the myosin Dachs, which in turn promotes anisotropy of junction tension...
  24. Belloni G, Sechi S, Riparbelli M, Fuller M, Callaini G, Giansanti M. Mutations in Cog7 affect Golgi structure, meiotic cytokinesis and sperm development during Drosophila spermatogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5441-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Gio coimmunoprecipitates with Cog7 and with Rab11 in the testes. Our results altogether implicate Cog7 as an upstream component in a gio-Rab11 pathway controlling membrane addition during cytokinesis. ..
  25. Sisson J, Field C, Ventura R, Royou A, Sullivan W. Lava lamp, a novel peripheral golgi protein, is required for Drosophila melanogaster cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:905-18 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that animal cell cytokinesis depends on both actomyosin-based contraction and Golgi-derived membrane secretion. ..
  26. Hickson G, Echard A, O Farrell P. Rho-kinase controls cell shape changes during cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2006;16:359-70 pubmed
    ..Using RNAi and live video microscopy in Drosophila S2 cells, we implicate Rho-kinase (Rok) and myosin II in anaphase cell elongation...
  27. Wong R, Fabian L, Forer A, Brill J. Phospholipase C and myosin light chain kinase inhibition define a common step in actin regulation during cytokinesis. BMC Cell Biol. 2007;8:15 pubmed
    ..MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 caused cleavage furrow regression and loss of both F-actin and phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain from the contractile ring in a manner similar to treatment with U73122 and ET-18-OCH3...
  28. Mitonaka T, Muramatsu Y, Sugiyama S, Mizuno T, Nishida Y. Essential roles of myosin phosphatase in the maintenance of epithelial cell integrity of Drosophila imaginal disc cells. Dev Biol. 2007;309:78-86 pubmed
    ..Dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) by myosin phosphatase is one of the key events involved...
  29. Chodagam S, Royou A, Whitfield W, Karess R, Raff J. The centrosomal protein CP190 regulates myosin function during early Drosophila development. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1308-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a constitutively activated form of the myosin regulatory light chain can rescue the axial expansion defect in mutant embryos, suggesting that CP190 acts upstream of myosin ..
  30. Vlachos S, Harden N. Genetic evidence for antagonism between Pak protein kinase and Rho1 small GTPase signaling in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila oogenesis. Genetics. 2011;187:501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..There is ectopic myosin light chain phosphorylation in pak mutant follicle cell clones in elongating egg chambers, probably due at least in part ..
  31. Majumder P, Aranjuez G, Amick J, McDonald J. Par-1 controls myosin-II activity through myosin phosphatase to regulate border cell migration. Curr Biol. 2012;22:363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Par-1 thus promotes phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain, thereby increasing Myo-II activity...
  32. Bertet C, Rauzi M, Lecuit T. Repression of Wasp by JAK/STAT signalling inhibits medial actomyosin network assembly and apical cell constriction in intercalating epithelial cells. Development. 2009;136:4199-212 pubmed publisher
    ..whereas overexpression of the Myo-II heavy chain (also known as Zipper), or constitutive activation of its regulatory light chain, does not cause medial accumulation of Myo-II nor apical constriction...
  33. D Avino P, Takeda T, Capalbo L, Zhang W, Lilley K, Laue E, et al. Interaction between Anillin and RacGAP50C connects the actomyosin contractile ring with spindle microtubules at the cell division site. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1151-8 pubmed publisher
    Anillin, one of the first factors recruited to the cleavage site during cytokinesis, interacts with actin, myosin II and septins, and is essential for proper organization of the actomyosin contractile ring...
  34. Karess R, Chang X, Edwards K, Kulkarni S, Aguilera I, Kiehart D. The regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin is encoded by spaghetti-squash, a gene required for cytokinesis in Drosophila. Cell. 1991;65:1177-89 pubmed
    ..Independently, the gene that encodes the regulatory light chain of the biochemically defined nonmuscle myosin (MRLC-C) was also cloned...
  35. He B, Doubrovinski K, Polyakov O, Wieschaus E. Apical constriction drives tissue-scale hydrodynamic flow to mediate cell elongation. Nature. 2014;508:392-6 pubmed publisher
  36. Homem C, Peifer M. Diaphanous regulates myosin and adherens junctions to control cell contractility and protrusive behavior during morphogenesis. Development. 2008;135:1005-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This revealed an unexpected role in regulating myosin levels and activity at adherens junctions during cell shape change, suggesting that Diaphanous helps coordinate ..
  37. Royou A, Sullivan W, Karess R. Cortical recruitment of nonmuscle myosin II in early syncytial Drosophila embryos: its role in nuclear axial expansion and its regulation by Cdc2 activity. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:127-37 pubmed
    ..By following regulatory myosin light chain (RLC)-green fluorescent protein dynamics in living embryos, we observed cycles of myosin recruitment ..
  38. Verdier V, Guang Chao Chen -, Settleman J. Rho-kinase regulates tissue morphogenesis via non-muscle myosin and LIM-kinase during Drosophila development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:38 pubmed
    ..been implicated in many of the Rho-mediated effects on cell shape and movement via their ability to affect acto-myosin contractility...
  39. Ninov N, Chiarelli D, Martin Blanco E. Extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms directing epithelial cell sheet replacement during Drosophila metamorphosis. Development. 2007;134:367-79 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that histoblast spreading and the death of larval cells depend on a mutual exchange of signals and are non-autonomous processes. ..
  40. Escudero L, Bischoff M, Freeman M. Myosin II regulates complex cellular arrangement and epithelial architecture in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;13:717-29 pubmed
    Remodeling epithelia is a primary driver of morphogenesis. Here, we report a central role of myosin II in regulating several aspects of complex epithelial architecture in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc...
  41. Miller K, Kiehart D. Fly division. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:1-5 pubmed
  42. Halsell S, Kiehart D. Second-site noncomplementation identifies genomic regions required for Drosophila nonmuscle myosin function during morphogenesis. Genetics. 1998;148:1845-63 pubmed
    Drosophila is an ideal metazoan model system for analyzing the role of nonmuscle myosin-II (henceforth, myosin) during development...
  43. Mizuno T, Tsutsui K, Nishida Y. Drosophila myosin phosphatase and its role in dorsal closure. Development. 2002;129:1215-23 pubmed
    Myosin phosphatase negatively regulates nonmuscle myosin II through dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC)...
  44. Levayer R, Pelissier Monier A, Lecuit T. Spatial regulation of Dia and Myosin-II by RhoGEF2 controls initiation of E-cadherin endocytosis during epithelial morphogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the early Drosophila embryo, Myosin-II (Myo-II) controls the planar polarized remodelling of cell junctions and tissue extension...
  45. Franke J, Boury A, Gerald N, Kiehart D. Native nonmuscle myosin II stability and light chain binding in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:604-22 pubmed
    ..We find that the stability of two subunits, the heavy chain and the regulatory light chain, depend on one another whereas the stability of the third subunit, the essential light chain, does not ..
  46. Widmann T, Dahmann C. Dpp signaling promotes the cuboidal-to-columnar shape transition of Drosophila wing disc epithelia by regulating Rho1. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Dpp signaling controls the subcellular distribution of the activities of the small GTPase Rho1 and the regulatory light chain of non-muscle myosin II (MRLC)...
  47. Tan C, Stronach B, Perrimon N. Roles of myosin phosphatase during Drosophila development. Development. 2003;130:671-81 pubmed
    ..by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains, that in turn is modulated by the antagonistic activity of myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase...
  48. Simone R, Dinardo S. Actomyosin contractility and Discs large contribute to junctional conversion in guiding cell alignment within the Drosophila embryonic epithelium. Development. 2010;137:1385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we show that non-muscle Myosin II and the polarity proteins Discs large (Dlg) and Bazooka are enriched along cell interfaces in a complex but ..
  49. Walters J, Dilks S, Dinardo S. Planar polarization of the denticle field in the Drosophila embryo: roles for Myosin II (zipper) and fringe. Dev Biol. 2006;297:323-39 pubmed
    ..Cells of the prospective denticle field, but not the adjacent smooth field, align precisely. This requires Myosin II (zipper) function, and we find that Myosin II is enriched in a bipolar manner, across the parasegment, on both ..
  50. Zimmerman S, Thorpe L, Medrano V, Mallozzi C, McCartney B. Apical constriction and invagination downstream of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway require Rho1 and Myosin II. Dev Biol. 2010;340:54-66 pubmed publisher
    ..constriction and invagination of APC null tissue are independent of DE-cadherin elevation, but are dependent on Myosin II activity...
  51. Dean S, Spudich J. Rho kinase's role in myosin recruitment to the equatorial cortex of mitotic Drosophila S2 cells is for myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e131 pubmed
    ..Rok phosphorylates several cellular proteins, including the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC)...
  52. Bardet P, Guirao B, Paoletti C, Serman F, Léopold V, Bosveld F, et al. PTEN controls junction lengthening and stability during cell rearrangement in epithelial tissue. Dev Cell. 2013;25:534-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the failure to lengthen and to stabilize is caused by the lack of a decrease of Myosin II and Rho-kinase concentration at the newly formed junctions...
  53. Wood W, Jacinto A, Grose R, Woolner S, Gale J, Wilson C, et al. Wound healing recapitulates morphogenesis in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:907-12 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a more complex model for epithelial repair than previously envisaged and highlight remarkable similarities with the well-characterized morphogenetic movement of dorsal closure in Drosophila. ..
  54. David D, Tishkina A, Harris T. The PAR complex regulates pulsed actomyosin contractions during amnioserosa apical constriction in Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:1645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed the relationship between myosin and the polarity regulators Par-6, aPKC and Bazooka (Par-3) (the PAR complex) during amnioserosa apical ..
  55. Nishimura M, Inoue Y, Hayashi S. A wave of EGFR signaling determines cell alignment and intercalation in the Drosophila tracheal placode. Development. 2007;134:4273-82 pubmed
    ..cells in the rows align to form a smooth boundary (;boundary smoothing'), accompanied by a transient increase in myosin at the boundary and cell intercalation oriented in parallel with the cellular rows...
  56. Monier B, Pélissier Monier A, Brand A, Sanson B. An actomyosin-based barrier inhibits cell mixing at compartmental boundaries in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:60-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When MyoII (non-muscle myosin II) function is inhibited, including locally at the cable by chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI), in ..
  57. Nikolaidou K, Barrett K. A Rho GTPase signaling pathway is used reiteratively in epithelial folding and potentially selects the outcome of Rho activation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1822-6 pubmed
    ..DRhoGEF2 exerts its effects in gastrulation through the regulation of Myosin II to orchestrate coordinated apical cell constriction...
  58. Abreu Blanco M, Verboon J, Parkhurst S. Cell wound repair in Drosophila occurs through three distinct phases of membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..By analyzing the expression and the effects of perturbations of actin, myosin, microtubules, E-cadherin, and the plasma membrane, we define three distinct phases in the repair process-..
  59. Somers W, Saint R. A RhoGEF and Rho family GTPase-activating protein complex links the contractile ring to cortical microtubules at the onset of cytokinesis. Dev Cell. 2003;4:29-39 pubmed
  60. McCleland M, O Farrell P. RNAi of mitotic cyclins in Drosophila uncouples the nuclear and centrosome cycle. Curr Biol. 2008;18:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite nuclear arrest, centrosomes and associated myosin cages continued to divide until the midblastula transition...
  61. Jordan P, Karess R. Myosin light chain-activating phosphorylation sites are required for oogenesis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:1805-19 pubmed
    The Drosophila spaghetti squash (sqh) gene encodes the regulatory myosin light chain (RMLC) of nonmuscle myosin II...
  62. Bischoff M, Cseresnyes Z. Cell rearrangements, cell divisions and cell death in a migrating epithelial sheet in the abdomen of Drosophila. Development. 2009;136:2403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that an active force created by the histoblasts contributes to the formation of the adult epidermis. Finally, we show that histoblasts occasionally undergo apoptosis. ..
  63. Vale R, Spudich J, Griffis E. Dynamics of myosin, microtubules, and Kinesin-6 at the cortex during cytokinesis in Drosophila S2 cells. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:727-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have imaged the dynamics of green fluorescent protein-tagged myosin filaments, microtubules, and Kinesin-6 (which carries activators of Rho guanosine triphosphatase) at the cell ..
  64. Polevoy G, Wei H, Wong R, Szentpetery Z, Kim Y, Goldbach P, et al. Dual roles for the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive in localizing Rab11 during cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, activated Rab11 partially suppresses loss of fwd. Our data suggest Fwd plays catalytic and noncatalytic roles in regulating Rab11 during cytokinesis...
  65. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Zallen J. Wounded cells drive rapid epidermal repair in the early Drosophila embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Wound repair is often associated with an accumulation of actin and nonmuscle myosin II around the wound, forming a purse string...
  66. Hickson G, O Farrell P. Rho-dependent control of anillin behavior during cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..exchange factor (GEF)(Pbl)-dependent but may also be mediated by known anillin interactions with F-actin and myosin II, which are under RhoGEF(Pbl)-dependent control themselves...
  67. Wang Y, Riechmann V. The role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in coordination of tissue growth during Drosophila oogenesis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1349-55 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a role for the actomyosin cytoskeleton in this process. We show that myosin activity is restricted to the epithelium's apical surface, which is facing the growing cyst...
  68. He L, Wang X, Tang H, Montell D. Tissue elongation requires oscillating contractions of a basal actomyosin network. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..surfaces of Drosophila follicle cells undergo a series of directional, oscillating contractions driven by periodic myosin accumulation on a polarized actin network...
  69. Dobens L, Jaeger A, Peterson J, Raftery L. Bunched sets a boundary for Notch signaling to pattern anterior eggshell structures during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;287:425-37 pubmed
  70. Blanchard G, Murugesu S, Adams R, Martinez Arias A, Gorfinkiel N. Cytoskeletal dynamics and supracellular organisation of cell shape fluctuations during dorsal closure. Development. 2010;137:2743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that apical shape fluctuations are driven by the medial cytoskeleton, with periodic foci of contractile myosin and actin travelling across cell apices...
  71. Edwards K, Kiehart D. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II has multiple essential roles in imaginal disc and egg chamber morphogenesis. Development. 1996;122:1499-511 pubmed
    ..of strong and weak larval lethal mutations in spaghetti squash (sqh), which encodes the nonmuscle myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC)...
  72. Kwon Y, Baek S, Lee H, Choe K. Nonmuscle myosin II localization is regulated by JNK during Drosophila larval wound healing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This process requires zipper, a gene encoding the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain...
  73. Dawes Hoang R, Parmar K, Christiansen A, Phelps C, Brand A, Wieschaus E. folded gastrulation, cell shape change and the control of myosin localization. Development. 2005;132:4165-78 pubmed
    ..protein is apically polarized, making this the earliest polarized component of a pathway that ultimately drives myosin to the apical side of the cell...
  74. Jiang Y, Scott K, Kwak S, Chen R, Mardon G. Sds22/PP1 links epithelial integrity and tumor suppression via regulation of myosin II and JNK signaling. Oncogene. 2011;30:3248-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we show that sds22 prevents cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting myosin II and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity downstream of PP1...
  75. Carreno S, Kouranti I, Glusman E, Fuller M, Echard A, Payre F. Moesin and its activating kinase Slik are required for cortical stability and microtubule organization in mitotic cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the spatiotemporal control of moesin activation at the mitotic cortex provides localized cues to coordinate cortical contractility and microtubule interactions during cell division. ..
  76. Xu N, Keung B, Myat M. Rho GTPase controls invagination and cohesive migration of the Drosophila salivary gland through Crumbs and Rho-kinase. Dev Biol. 2008;321:88-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic and live-imaging analyses provide novel evidence that the proximal gland cells play an essential and active role in salivary gland migration that propels the entire gland to turn and migrate posteriorly. ..
  77. Wheatley S, Kulkarni S, Karess R. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II is required for rapid cytoplasmic transport during oogenesis and for axial nuclear migration in early embryos. Development. 1995;121:1937-46 pubmed
    The X-linked Drosophila gene spaghetti squash (sqh) encodes the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin II. To assess the requirement for myosin II in oogenesis and early embryogenesis, we induced homozygous germline clones of the ..
  78. Grosshans J, Wenzl C, Herz H, Bartoszewski S, Schnorrer F, Vogt N, et al. RhoGEF2 and the formin Dia control the formation of the furrow canal by directed actin assembly during Drosophila cellularisation. Development. 2005;132:1009-20 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model in which RhoGEF2 and dia control position, shape and stability of the forming furrow canal by spatially restricted assembly of actin filaments required for the proper infolding of the plasma membrane. ..
  79. Pouille P, Farge E. Hydrodynamic simulation of multicellular embryo invagination. Phys Biol. 2008;5:015005 pubmed publisher
    ..the tissue is composed of adhesive individual cells, in which shape change dynamics is governed by internal acto-myosin forces and the hydrodynamic flow associated with membrane movements...
  80. Abreu Blanco M, Verboon J, Liu R, Watts J, Parkhurst S. Drosophila embryos close epithelial wounds using a combination of cellular protrusions and an actomyosin purse string. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5984-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we find that myosin, E-cadherin, Echinoid, the plasma membrane, microtubules and the Cdc42 small GTPase respond dynamically during ..
  81. Padash Barmchi M, Rogers S, Hacker U. DRhoGEF2 regulates actin organization and contractility in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:575-85 pubmed
    ..coordinates contractile actomyosin forces throughout morphogenesis in Drosophila by regulating the association of myosin with actin to form contractile cables...
  82. Bertet C, Sulak L, Lecuit T. Myosin-dependent junction remodelling controls planar cell intercalation and axis elongation. Nature. 2004;429:667-71 pubmed
    ..b>Myosin II is specifically enriched in disassembling junctions, and its planar polarized localization and activity are ..
  83. Simões S, Mainieri A, Zallen J. Rho GTPase and Shroom direct planar polarized actomyosin contractility during convergent extension. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:575-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Shroom, an asymmetrically localized actin- and Rho-kinase-binding protein, amplifies Rho-kinase and myosin II planar polarity and junctional localization downstream of Rho signaling...
  84. Kirchner J, Gross S, Bennett D, Alphey L. The nonmuscle myosin phosphatase PP1beta (flapwing) negatively regulates Jun N-terminal kinase in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;175:1741-9 pubmed
    ..Flw is thought to dephosphorylate the nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain, Spaghetti Squash (Sqh); this inactivates the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain, Zipper (Zip)...