Gene Symbol: spt4
Description: spt4
Alias: 142904_at, CG12372, DSIF, Dmel\CG12372, Dspt4, SPT4, Spt4, dDSIF, dspt4, l(2)k05316, spt4, CG12372-PA, DSIF, spt4-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Z, Wu C, Gilmour D. Analysis of polymerase II elongation complexes by native gel electrophoresis. Evidence for a novel carboxyl-terminal domain-mediated termination mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23223-8 pubmed
    ..The gel distinguishes Pol IIA and Pol IIB containing complexes. The interaction of DSIF (Spt4/Spt5) with the elongation complexes can be readily detected, and this association is not dependent on the ..
  2. Chopra V, Hong J, Levine M. Regulation of Hox gene activity by transcriptional elongation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2009;19:688-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Stalled Pol II persists in tissues where Ubx and Abd-B are silenced by the PcG complex. We propose that stalling fosters both the rapid induction and precise silencing of Hox gene expression during development. ..
  3. Jennings B. Pausing for thought: disrupting the early transcription elongation checkpoint leads to developmental defects and tumourigenesis. Bioessays. 2013;35:553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of these mutations has revealed that control of transcriptional pausing is critical for a diverse range of biological pathways essential for animal development and survival. ..
  4. Wu C, Yamaguchi Y, Benjamin L, Horvat Gordon M, Washinsky J, Enerly E, et al. NELF and DSIF cause promoter proximal pausing on the hsp70 promoter in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1402-14 pubmed
    NELF and DSIF collaborate to inhibit elongation by RNA polymerase IIa in extracts from human cells...
  5. Qiu Y, Gilmour D. Identification of Regions in the Spt5 Subunit of DRB Sensitivity-inducing Factor (DSIF) That Are Involved in Promoter-proximal Pausing. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:5555-5570 pubmed publisher
    DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF or Spt4/5) is a conserved transcription elongation factor that both inhibits and stimulates transcription elongation in metazoans...
  6. Geisbrecht E, Sawant K, Su Y, Liu Z, Silver D, Burtscher A, et al. Genetic interaction screens identify a role for hedgehog signaling in Drosophila border cell migration. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:414-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a pathway by which Hh signaling connects to Rac and Par-1 in cell migration. These results further highlight the importance of modifier screens in the identification of new genes that function in developmental pathways. ..
  7. Chiang P, Kurnit D. Study of dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genetics. 2003;165:1167-81 pubmed
  8. Wu C, Lee C, Fan R, Smith M, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H, et al. Molecular characterization of Drosophila NELF. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1269-79 pubmed
    NELF and DSIF act together to inhibit transcription elongation in vitro, and are implicated in causing promoter proximal pausing on the hsp70 gene in Drosophila. Here, further characterization of Drosophila NELF is provided...
  9. Missra A, Gilmour D. Interactions between DSIF (DRB sensitivity inducing factor), NELF (negative elongation factor), and the Drosophila RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11301-6 pubmed publisher
    Negative elongation factor (NELF) and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) are involved in pausing RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) in the promoter-proximal region of the hsp70 gene in Drosophila, ..

More Information


  1. Petruk S, Sedkov Y, Riley K, Hodgson J, Schweisguth F, Hirose S, et al. Transcription of bxd noncoding RNAs promoted by trithorax represses Ubx in cis by transcriptional interference. Cell. 2006;127:1209-21 pubmed
    ..We propose that TAC1 promotes the mosaic pattern of Ubx expression by facilitating transcriptional elongation of bxd ncRNAs, which represses Ubx transcription. ..
  2. Furuhashi H, Nakajima M, Hirose S. DNA supercoiling factor contributes to dosage compensation in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4475-83 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that SCF plays a role in transcriptional activation via alteration of chromatin structure and provide evidence that SCF contributes to dosage compensation. ..
  3. Chiang P, Wei W, Gibson K, Bodmer R, Kurnit D. A fluorescent quantitative PCR approach to map gene deletions in the Drosophila genome. Genetics. 1999;153:1313-6 pubmed
    ..model system, we used this technology to confirm the X chromosomal mapping of Dspt6 given the autosomal mapping of Dspt4. We then used this technique on both preexisting deletion mutant flies and flies that we generated with deletions ..
  4. Adams J. Characterization of a Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of muskelin. Gene. 2002;297:69-78 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new information on the modular structure of muskelin and indicate potential for conserved mechanisms of function. ..
  5. Leventis P, Chow B, Stewart B, Iyengar B, Campos A, Boulianne G. Drosophila Amphiphysin is a post-synaptic protein required for normal locomotion but not endocytosis. Traffic. 2001;2:839-50 pubmed
    ..However, Drosophila Amphiphysin function is required in both larvae and adults for normal locomotion. ..
  6. Chopra V, Cande J, Hong J, Levine M. Stalled Hox promoters as chromosomal boundaries. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are dependent on general transcription factors that inhibit Pol II elongation, including components of the DSIF and NELF complexes...
  7. Sawarkar R, Sievers C, Paro R. Hsp90 globally targets paused RNA polymerase to regulate gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Cell. 2012;149:807-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings add a molecular dimension to the chaperone's functionality with wide ramifications into its roles in health, disease, and evolution. ..
  8. Harvey R, Schuster E, Jennings B. Pleiohomeotic interacts with the core transcription elongation factor Spt5 to regulate gene expression in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70184 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Pho can interact with Spt5 to regulate transcription elongation in a gene specific manner. ..
  9. Buscaino A, Legube G, Akhtar A. X-chromosome targeting and dosage compensation are mediated by distinct domains in MSL-3. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:531-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that MSL-3 localization to the male X chromosome and transcriptional upregulation of X-linked genes are two separable functions of the MSL-3 protein. ..
  10. Deuring R, Fanti L, Armstrong J, Sarte M, Papoulas O, Prestel M, et al. The ISWI chromatin-remodeling protein is required for gene expression and the maintenance of higher order chromatin structure in vivo. Mol Cell. 2000;5:355-65 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal novel functions for the ISWI ATPase and underscore its importance in chromatin remodeling in vivo...