Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: spn-E
Description: spindle E
Alias: CG3158, Dmel\CG3158, SPN-E, Spn-E, SpnE, fs(1)hls, fs(3)hls, hes, hls, homeless, spin-E, spn E, spn-E/hls, spnE, spindle E, CG3158-PA, Spindle-E (homeless), SpindleE, female sterile(3)homeless, homeless, homeless/spindle-E, spindle-E, spn-E-PA
Species: fruit fly
- Pal Bhadra M, Leibovitch B, Gandhi S, Chikka M, Rao M, Bhadra U, et al. Heterochromatic silencing and HP1 localization in Drosophila are dependent on the RNAi machinery. Science. 2004;303:669-72 pubmed..in heterochromatin to show loss of silencing as a result of mutations in piwi, aubergine, or spindle-E (homeless), which encode RNAi components...
- Cook H, Koppetsch B, Wu J, Theurkauf W. The Drosophila SDE3 homolog armitage is required for oskar mRNA silencing and embryonic axis specification. Cell. 2004;116:817-29 pubmed..We conclude that RNA silencing is essential for establishment of the cytoskeletal polarity that initiates embryonic axis specification and for translational control of oskar mRNA. ..
- Klenov M, Sokolova O, Yakushev E, Stolyarenko A, Mikhaleva E, Lavrov S, et al. Separation of stem cell maintenance and transposon silencing functions of Piwi protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18760-5 pubmed publisher..We suggest that the Piwi function in GSC self-renewal is independent of transposon repression and is normally realized in the cytoplasm of GSC niche cells. ..
- Kalmykova A, Kwon D, Rozovsky Y, Hueber N, Capy P, Maisonhaute C, et al. Selective expansion of the newly evolved genomic variants of retrotransposon 1731 in the Drosophila genomes. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:2281-9 pubmed..Thus, expansion of the recently evolved genomic variants of the LTR retrotransposon 1731 possessing a new translation strategy, duplication in the U3 region, and extended profile of expression is revealed. ..
- Savitsky M, Kwon D, Georgiev P, Kalmykova A, Gvozdev V. Telomere elongation is under the control of the RNAi-based mechanism in the Drosophila germline. Genes Dev. 2006;20:345-54 pubmed..Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated control of telomeric retroelement transposition may occur at premeiotic stages, resulting in the maintenance of appropriate telomere length in gamete precursors. ..
- Findley S, Tamanaha M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Maelstrom, a Drosophila spindle-class gene, encodes a protein that colocalizes with Vasa and RDE1/AGO1 homolog, Aubergine, in nuage. Development. 2003;130:859-71 pubmed..Furthermore, maelstrom mutant ovaries show mislocalization of two proteins involved in the microRNA and/or RNAi pathways, Dicer and Argonaute2, suggesting a potential connection between nuage and the microRNA-pathway. ..
- Robine N, Lau N, Balla S, Jin Z, Okamura K, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, et al. A broadly conserved pathway generates 3'UTR-directed primary piRNAs. Curr Biol. 2009;19:2066-76 pubmed publisher..These findings strongly increase the breadth of Argonaute-mediated small RNA systems in metazoans. ..
- Kavi H, Fernandez H, Xie W, Birchler J. RNA silencing in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5940-9 pubmed..RNA silencing processes in Drosophila are described. ..
- Grimaud C, Bantignies F, Pal Bhadra M, Ghana P, Bhadra U, Cavalli G. RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements. Cell. 2006;124:957-71 pubmed..This suggests a novel role for the RNAi machinery in regulating the nuclear organization of PcG chromatin targets. ..
- Castillo D, Mell J, Box K, Blumenstiel J. Molecular evolution under increasing transposable element burden in Drosophila: a speed limit on the evolutionary arms race. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:258 pubmed publisher..Third, we test whether increasing TE abundance is correlated with greater codon bias in genes of the piRNA machinery. This is predicted if increasing TE abundance selects for increased efficiency in the machinery of genome defense...
- Stapleton W, Das S, McKee B. A role of the Drosophila homeless gene in repression of Stellate in male meiosis. Chromosoma. 2001;110:228-40 pubmedThe homeless gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a member of the DE-H family of ATPase and RNA helicase proteins...
- Chambeyron S, Popkova A, Payen Groschêne G, Brun C, Laouini D, Pelisson A, et al. piRNA-mediated nuclear accumulation of retrotransposon transcripts in the Drosophila female germline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14964-9 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that piRNAs are involved in a posttranscriptional gene-silencing mechanism resulting in RNA nuclear accumulation. ..
- Lim A, Tao L, Kai T. piRNAs mediate posttranscriptional retroelement silencing and localization to pi-bodies in the Drosophila germline. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:333-42 pubmed publisher..HeT-A mRNA is derepressed in mRNA degradation mutants twin, dcp1, and ski3, indicating that these enzymes also aid in removing full-length transcripts and/or decay intermediates. ..
- Navarro C, Bullock S, Lehmann R. Altered dynein-dependent transport in piRNA pathway mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9691-6 pubmed publisher..We propose that aggregate formation is a cellular response to protect germ cells from DNA damage caused by elevated retrotransposon expression. ..
- Snee M, Macdonald P. Live imaging of nuage and polar granules: evidence against a precursor-product relationship and a novel role for Oskar in stabilization of polar granule components. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2109-20 pubmed
- Ponting C. Tudor domains in proteins that interact with RNA. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:51-2 pubmed
- Ni J, Zhou R, Czech B, Liu L, Holderbaum L, Yang Zhou D, et al. A genome-scale shRNA resource for transgenic RNAi in Drosophila. Nat Methods. 2011;8:405-7 pubmed publisher..We show that shRNAs, modeled on an endogenous microRNA, are extremely effective at silencing gene expression during oogenesis. We also describe our progress toward building a genome-wide shRNA resource. ..
- Gillespie D, Berg C. Homeless is required for RNA localization in Drosophila oogenesis and encodes a new member of the DE-H family of RNA-dependent ATPases. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2495-508 pubmedThe homeless (hls) gene of Drosophila is required for anteroposterior and dorsoventral axis formation during oogenesis...
- Shpiz S, Kwon D, Uneva A, Kim M, Klenov M, Rozovsky Y, et al. Characterization of Drosophila telomeric retroelement TAHRE: transcription, transpositions, and RNAi-based regulation of expression. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2535-45 pubmed..Taking into account a common pattern of HeT-A and TAHRE expression, one may consider TAHRE as a source of reverse transcriptase enzymatic activity for HeT-A transpositions in ovaries. ..
- Aravin A, Naumova N, Tulin A, Vagin V, Rozovsky Y, Gvozdev V. Double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing of genomic tandem repeats and transposable elements in the D. melanogaster germline. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1017-27 pubmed..dsRNA-mediated silencing may provide a basis for negative autogenous control of gene expression. The related surveillance system is implicated to control expression of retrotransposons in the germline. ..
- Klattenhoff C, Bratu D, McGinnis Schultz N, Koppetsch B, Cook H, Theurkauf W. Drosophila rasiRNA pathway mutations disrupt embryonic axis specification through activation of an ATR/Chk2 DNA damage response. Dev Cell. 2007;12:45-55 pubmed..We conclude that rasiRNA-based gene silencing is not required for axis specification, and that the critical developmental function for this pathway is to suppress DNA damage signaling in the germline. ..
- Vagin V, Sigova A, Li C, Seitz H, Gvozdev V, Zamore P. A distinct small RNA pathway silences selfish genetic elements in the germline. Science. 2006;313:320-4 pubmed..Our data suggest that rasiRNAs protect the fly germline through a silencing mechanism distinct from both the miRNA and RNA interference pathways. ..
- Bernstein E, Caudy A, Hammond S, Hannon G. Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference. Nature. 2001;409:363-6 pubmed..The enzyme has a distinctive structure, which includes a helicase domain and dual RNase III motifs. Dicer also contains a region of homology to the RDE1/QDE2/ARGONAUTE family that has been genetically linked to RNAi. ..
- Kolaczkowski B, Hupalo D, Kern A. Recurrent adaptation in RNA interference genes across the Drosophila phylogeny. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:1033-42 pubmed publisher..Our observations suggest a predictive model of how selective pressures generated by evolutionary arms race scenarios may affect multiple genes across protein interaction networks and other biochemical pathways. ..
- Kennerdell J, Yamaguchi S, Carthew R. RNAi is activated during Drosophila oocyte maturation in a manner dependent on aubergine and spindle-E. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1884-9 pubmed
- Pane A, Wehr K, Schupbach T. zucchini and squash encode two putative nucleases required for rasiRNA production in the Drosophila germline. Dev Cell. 2007;12:851-62 pubmed..We show that these defects are due to the inability of zuc and squ mutants to produce repeat-associated small interfering RNAs. ..
- Pek J, Kai T. A role for vasa in regulating mitotic chromosome condensation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2011;21:39-44 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that Vas functions during mitosis and may link the piRNA pathway to mitotic chromosome condensation in Drosophila. ..
- Specchia V, Piacentini L, Tritto P, Fanti L, D Alessandro R, Palumbo G, et al. Hsp90 prevents phenotypic variation by suppressing the mutagenic activity of transposons. Nature. 2010;463:662-5 pubmed publisher..This indicates that Hsp90 mutations can generate new variation by transposon-mediated 'canonical' mutagenesis. ..
- Perrini B, Piacentini L, Fanti L, Altieri F, Chichiarelli S, Berloco M, et al. HP1 controls telomere capping, telomere elongation, and telomere silencing by two different mechanisms in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;15:467-76 pubmed..Here, we tested this model, and we found that the capping function of HP1 is due to its direct binding to telomeric DNA, while the silencing of telomeric sequences and telomere elongation is due to its interaction with H3-MeK9. ..
- Usakin L, Abad J, Vagin V, de Pablos B, Villasante A, Gvozdev V. Transcription of the 1.688 satellite DNA family is under the control of RNA interference machinery in Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. Genetics. 2007;176:1343-9 pubmed..Thus, we revealed that RNAi operates in ovaries to maintain the silenced state of centromeric and pericentromeric 1.688 repeats. ..
- Josse T, Teysset L, Todeschini A, Sidor C, Anxolabehere D, Ronsseray S. Telomeric trans-silencing: an epigenetic repression combining RNA silencing and heterochromatin formation. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:1633-43 pubmed..1 and Su(var)3-7) and the repeat-associated small interfering RNA (or rasiRNA) silencing pathway (aubergine, homeless, armitage, and piwi)...
- Kavi H, Fernandez H, Xie W, Birchler J. Polycomb, pairing and PIWI--RNA silencing and nuclear interactions. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006;31:485-7 pubmed..These Pc-associated sequences are involved with the control of the proper expression of developmental HOX genes. ..
- Shpiz S, Olovnikov I, Sergeeva A, Lavrov S, Abramov Y, Savitsky M, et al. Mechanism of the piRNA-mediated silencing of Drosophila telomeric retrotransposons. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8703-11 pubmed publisher..Therefore piRNA-mediated transcriptional mode of silencing is involved in the control of retrotransposon expression in the Drosophila germline. ..
- Lim A, Kai T. Unique germ-line organelle, nuage, functions to repress selfish genetic elements in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6714-9 pubmed..Hence, our data suggest that the nuage functions as a specialized center that protects the genome in the germ-line cells via gene regulation mediated by repeat-associated small interfering RNAs. ..
- Moshkovich N, Lei E. HP1 recruitment in the absence of argonaute proteins in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000880 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results indicate that heterochromatin forms independently of endo-siRNA and piRNA pathways. ..
- Nagao A, Mituyama T, Huang H, Chen D, Siomi M, Siomi H. Biogenesis pathways of piRNAs loaded onto AGO3 in the Drosophila testis. RNA. 2010;16:2503-15 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that the impacts of armi mutants on the operation of the piRNA pathway are variable in germ cells of fly testes. ..
- Olivieri D, Sykora M, Sachidanandam R, Mechtler K, Brennecke J. An in vivo RNAi assay identifies major genetic and cellular requirements for primary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2010;29:3301-17 pubmed publisher..Loss of Zucchini leads to an accumulation of Piwi and Armitage in Yb bodies, indicating that Yb bodies are sites of primary piRNA biogenesis. ..
- Aravin A, Klenov M, Vagin V, Bantignies F, Cavalli G, Gvozdev V. Dissection of a natural RNA silencing process in the Drosophila melanogaster germ line. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6742-50 pubmed..Thus, different small RNA-containing complexes operate in the male germ line. ..
- Kawamura Y, Saito K, Kin T, Ono Y, Asai K, Sunohara T, et al. Drosophila endogenous small RNAs bind to Argonaute 2 in somatic cells. Nature. 2008;453:793-7 pubmed publisher..Mutations in Dicer-2 caused an increase in retrotransposon transcripts. Together, our findings indicate that different types of small RNAs and Argonautes are used to repress retrotransposons in germline and somatic cells in Drosophila. ..
- Haynes K, Caudy A, Collins L, Elgin S. Element 1360 and RNAi components contribute to HP1-dependent silencing of a pericentric reporter. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2222-7 pubmed..Silencing of the 1360, hsp70-white reporter is sensitive to mutations in RNAi components. Our results implicate 1360 as a target for sequence-specific heterochromatic silencing through an RNAi-dependent mechanism. ..
- Kalmykova A, Klenov M, Gvozdev V. Argonaute protein PIWI controls mobilization of retrotransposons in the Drosophila male germline. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:2052-9 pubmed..Our results provide the first evidence that protein of the Argonaute family prevents retrotranspositions. It is supposed that the disturbance of RNA silencing system in germinal cells might cause transposition burst. ..
- Tomari Y, Du T, Haley B, Schwarz D, Bennett R, Cook H, et al. RISC assembly defects in the Drosophila RNAi mutant armitage. Cell. 2004;116:831-41 pubmed..Our results suggest that armi is required for RISC maturation. ..
- Arkov A, Ramos A. Building RNA-protein granules: insight from the germline. Trends Cell Biol. 2010;20:482-90 pubmed publisher..These data suggest a widespread use of several protein motifs in germline development and further our understanding of other ribonucleoprotein structures, for example, processing bodies and neuronal granules. ..
- Peng J, Karpen G. H3K9 methylation and RNA interference regulate nucleolar organization and repeated DNA stability. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:25-35 pubmed..These results suggest a mechanism for how local chromatin structure can regulate genome stability, and the organization of chromosomal elements and nuclear organelles. ..
- Patil V, Kai T. Repression of retroelements in Drosophila germline via piRNA pathway by the Tudor domain protein Tejas. Curr Biol. 2010;20:724-30 pubmed publisher..Aub and Spn-E also bind to the tudor domain at the C terminus. Our data suggest that Tej contributes to the formation of a macromolecular complex at perinuclear region and engages it in the production of germline piRNAs. ..
- Shpiz S, Kwon D, Rozovsky Y, Kalmykova A. rasiRNA pathway controls antisense expression of Drosophila telomeric retrotransposons in the nucleus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:268-78 pubmed publisher..Finally, this regulation occurs in the nucleus since disruption of the rasiRNA pathway leads to an accumulation of TART and HeT-A transcripts in germ cell nuclei. ..
- González Reyes A, Elliott H, St Johnston D. Oocyte determination and the origin of polarity in Drosophila: the role of the spindle genes. Development. 1997;124:4927-37 pubmed..Thus, these mutants reveal a novel link between oocyte selection, oocyte positioning and axis formation in Drosophila, leading us to propose that the spindle genes act in a process that is common to several of these events. ..
- Vagin V, Yu Y, Jankowska A, Luo Y, Wasik K, Malone C, et al. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis. RNA. 2013;19:1064-77 pubmed publisher..We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur. ..
- Rongo C, Lehmann R. Regulated synthesis, transport and assembly of the Drosophila germ plasm. Trends Genet. 1996;12:102-9 pubmed..These results imply that the limiting steps in the assembly of the germ plasm are localization of the OSK RNA and regulated synthesis of the OSK protein, encoded by oskar, which are components of the germ plasm. ..
- Seong K, Li D, Shimizu H, Nakamura R, Ishii S. Inheritance of stress-induced, ATF-2-dependent epigenetic change. Cell. 2011;145:1049-61 pubmed publisher..The results suggest a mechanism by which the effects of stress are inherited epigenetically via the regulation of a tight chromatin structure. ..
- Stefanov Y, Glukhov I, Kotnova A, Salenko V, Pasyukova E, Lyubomirskaya N, et al. Amplification of "defective" retrotransposon gtwin in D. melanogaster strain carrying large complex chromosomal aberration. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;284:373-81 pubmed publisher..Gtwin copies are predominantly localized in euchromatic regions and at least three of them are situated in heterochromatin. One copy was found in the piRNA cluster that might have caused silencing of the element. ..
- Blumenstiel J, Fu R, Theurkauf W, Hawley R. Components of the RNAi machinery that mediate long-distance chromosomal associations are dispensable for meiotic and early somatic homolog pairing in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;180:1355-65 pubmed publisher..Thus, there appears to be at least two mechanisms that bring homologous sequences together within the nucleus: those that act between dispersed homologous sequences and those that act to align and pair homologous chromosomes. ..
- van Bergeijk P, Heimiller J, Uyetake L, Su T. Genome-wide expression analysis identifies a modulator of ionizing radiation-induced p53-independent apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36539 pubmed publisher..These and other results support the emerging notion that there is not a single dominant mechanism but that both positive and negative inputs collaborate to induce p53-independent apoptosis in response to IR in Drosophila larvae. ..