Gene Symbol: spn-A
Description: spindle A
Alias: CG7948, D37788, DMR, DMR/DroRAD51, DMR1, Dm Rad51, DmRAD51, DmRad51, Dmel\CG7948, Dmrad51, RA51, RA51_DROME, RAD51, Rad51, Rad51dm, Spn-A, SpnA, dmRAD51, dmrad51, rad51, spnA, spindle A, CG7948-PA, CG7948-PB, Rad51-like, Spindle-A, spn-A-PA, spn-A-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Wei D, Rong Y. A genetic screen for DNA double-strand break repair mutations in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;177:63-77 pubmed
    ..We show that Drosophila Rad51 and Rad54 are both required for homologous repair by gene conversion, but are dispensable for single-strand ..
  2. McKee B, Ren X, Hong C. A recA-like gene in Drosophila melanogaster that is expressed at high levels in female but not male meiotic tissues. Chromosoma. 1996;104:479-88 pubmed
    ..The RecA-like proteins Rad51 and Dmc1 of yeast are both required for meiotic recombination and the former is also necessary for repair of ..
  3. Brough R, Wei D, Leulier S, Lord C, Rong Y, Ashworth A. Functional analysis of Drosophila melanogaster BRCA2 in DNA repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:10-9 pubmed
    ..Dmbrca2 physically interacts with dmrad51 (spnA) and the two proteins become recruited to nuclear foci after DNA damage...
  4. González Reyes A, Elliott H, St Johnston D. Oocyte determination and the origin of polarity in Drosophila: the role of the spindle genes. Development. 1997;124:4927-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, these mutants reveal a novel link between oocyte selection, oocyte positioning and axis formation in Drosophila, leading us to propose that the spindle genes act in a process that is common to several of these events. ..
  5. Larocque J, Jaklevic B, Su T, Sekelsky J. Drosophila ATR in double-strand break repair. Genetics. 2007;175:1023-33 pubmed
    ..However, this does not account for all of the defects we observed. We propose a novel role for MEI-41 in DSB repair, independent of the Chk1/Chk2-mediated checkpoint response. ..
  6. Thacker J. A surfeit of RAD51-like genes?. Trends Genet. 1999;15:166-8 pubmed
    ..The recent cloning and functional analysis of eukaryotic recombination genes suggests that at least part of the intricate mechanism involved is conserved from bacteria to humans, but is also yielding some surprises. ..
  7. Holmes A, Weedmark K, Gloor G. Mutations in the extra sex combs and Enhancer of Polycomb genes increase homologous recombination in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;172:2367-77 pubmed
    ..We propose that esc and E(Pc) mutants enhance homologous recombination by modulating the histone acetylation status of histone H4 at the double-strand break. ..
  8. McVey M, Larocque J, Adams M, Sekelsky J. Formation of deletions during double-strand break repair in Drosophila DmBlm mutants occurs after strand invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15694-9 pubmed
    ..Flies lacking DmRad51 do not have an elevated deletion frequency...
  9. Sekelsky J, Brodsky M, Burtis K. DNA repair in Drosophila: insights from the Drosophila genome sequence. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:F31-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Chiolo I, Minoda A, Colmenares S, Polyzos A, Costes S, Karpen G. Double-strand breaks in heterochromatin move outside of a dynamic HP1a domain to complete recombinational repair. Cell. 2011;144:732-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Rad51, which mediates strand invasion, only associates with DSBs that relocalize outside of the domain...
  2. Staeva Vieira E, Yoo S, Lehmann R. An essential role of DmRad51/SpnA in DNA repair and meiotic checkpoint control. EMBO J. 2003;22:5863-74 pubmed
    ..b>DmRad51/spnA null mutants are viable but oogenesis is disrupted by the activation of a meiotic recombination checkpoint...
  3. Klovstad M, Abdu U, Schupbach T. Drosophila brca2 is required for mitotic and meiotic DNA repair and efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e31 pubmed publisher
    ..BRCA2 maintains genome stability in part through the regulation of Rad51-dependent homologous recombination...
  4. Joyce E, McKim K. Drosophila PCH2 is required for a pachytene checkpoint that monitors double-strand-break-independent events leading to meiotic crossover formation. Genetics. 2009;181:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, PCH2-dependent delays in prophase may allow additional crossovers to form. ..
  5. Abdu U, González Reyes A, Ghabrial A, Schupbach T. The Drosophila spn-D gene encodes a RAD51C-like protein that is required exclusively during meiosis. Genetics. 2003;165:197-204 pubmed
    ..As there is no apparent ortholog of the meiosis-specific DMC1 gene in the Drosophila genome, and given their meiosis-specific requirement, we suggest that spn-B and spn-D may have a function comparable to DMC1. ..
  6. McVey M, Adams M, Staeva Vieira E, Sekelsky J. Evidence for multiple cycles of strand invasion during repair of double-strand gaps in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;167:699-705 pubmed
    ..We examined the effects of mutations in spn-A, which encodes the Drosophila Rad51 ortholog. As expected, there is little or no repair synthesis in homozygous spn-A mutants after P excision...
  7. Andersen S, Bergstralh D, Kohl K, Larocque J, Moore C, Sekelsky J. Drosophila MUS312 and the vertebrate ortholog BTBD12 interact with DNA structure-specific endonucleases in DNA repair and recombination. Mol Cell. 2009;35:128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and biochemical evidence described here and in related papers suggest that MUS312 and BTBD12 direct Holliday junction resolution by at least two distinct endonucleases in different recombination and repair contexts. ..
  8. Trowbridge K, McKim K, Brill S, Sekelsky J. Synthetic lethality of Drosophila in the absence of the MUS81 endonuclease and the DmBlm helicase is associated with elevated apoptosis. Genetics. 2007;176:1993-2001 pubmed
    ..Lethality and elevated apoptosis were partially suppressed by a mutation in spn-A, which encodes the ortholog of the strand invasion protein Rad51. These findings provide insights into the causes of synthetic lethality.
  9. McVey M, Radut D, Sekelsky J. End-joining repair of double-strand breaks in Drosophila melanogaster is largely DNA ligase IV independent. Genetics. 2004;168:2067-76 pubmed
    ..SDSA requires strand invasion mediated by DmRad51, the product of the spn-A gene...
  10. Johnson Schlitz D, Flores C, Engels W. Multiple-pathway analysis of double-strand break repair mutations in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e50 pubmed
  11. Beaucher M, Zheng X, Amariei F, Rong Y. Multiple pathways suppress telomere addition to DNA breaks in the Drosophila germline. Genetics. 2012;191:407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that disruption of DSB repair factors (Rad51 or DNA ligase IV) or DSB sensing factors (ATRIP or MDC1) resulted in more efficient telomere formation...
  12. Johnson Schlitz D, Engels W. Template disruptions and failure of double Holliday junction dissolution during double-strand break repair in Drosophila BLM mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16840-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, an analysis of DmBlm mutants in conjunction with mus81 or spnA (Rad51) reveals a second function of BLM distinct from the repair of induced double-strand breaks and possibly related to ..
  13. Milan M, Clemente Ruiz M, Dekanty A, Muzzopappa M. Aneuploidy and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;28:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss the role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis in light of the contribution of Drosophila epithelial cancer models and propose a stress-induced tumor-promoting role of aneuploidy. ..
  14. Ferguson S, Blundon M, Klovstad M, Schupbach T. Modulation of gurken translation by insulin and TOR signaling in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This model might explain how flies can maintain the translation of developmentally important transcripts during periods of nutrient limitation when bulk cap-dependent translation is repressed. ..
  15. Ryu T, Spatola B, Delabaere L, Bowlin K, Hopp H, Kunitake R, et al. Heterochromatic breaks move to the nuclear periphery to continue recombinational repair. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:1401-11 pubmed publisher
  16. Alexiadis V, Lusser A, Kadonaga J. A conserved N-terminal motif in Rad54 is important for chromatin remodeling and homologous strand pairing. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27824-9 pubmed
    ..remodeling enzyme that is important for homologous strand pairing catalyzed by the eukaryotic recombinase Rad51. The chromatin remodeling and DNA-stimulated ATPase activities of Rad54 are significantly enhanced by Rad51...
  17. Pawlowski W, Cande W. Coordinating the events of the meiotic prophase. Trends Cell Biol. 2005;15:674-81 pubmed
    ..Understanding the coordination between chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination lends insight into many poorly explained aspects of meiosis, such as the nature of chromosome homology recognition. ..
  18. Li X, Zhuo R, Tiong S, Di Cara F, King Jones K, Hughes S, et al. The Smc5/Smc6/MAGE complex confers resistance to caffeine and genotoxic stress in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59866 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptosis in these mutants is exacerbated by inhibition of ATM or ATR checkpoint kinases but suppressed by Rad51 depletion, suggesting a functional interaction involving homologous DNA repair pathways that deserves further ..
  19. Ptak S, Petrov D. How intron splicing affects the deletion and insertion profile in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;162:1233-44 pubmed
    ..Altogether we demonstrate that constraints in introns may explain much of the difference in the pattern of deletions and insertions observed in Drosophila introns and pseudogenes. ..
  20. Maruyama S, Ohkita N, Nakayama M, Akaboshi E, Shibata T, Funakoshi E, et al. RecQ5 interacts with Rad51 and is involved in resistance of Drosophila to cisplatin treatment. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:2017-22 pubmed
    ..However, little is known about this possible function of RecQ5 in DSB repair. Here, we report that Rad51 protein, which plays a critical role in DSB repair, interacted with RecQ5 in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila...
  21. LaFave M, Andersen S, Stoffregen E, Holsclaw J, Kohl K, Overton L, et al. Sources and structures of mitotic crossovers that arise when BLM helicase is absent in Drosophila. Genetics. 2014;196:107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important new insights into sources and structures of mitotic crossovers and functions of BLM helicase. ..
  22. Yu A, McVey M. Synthesis-dependent microhomology-mediated end joining accounts for multiple types of repair junctions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that a single underlying mechanism could be responsible for all three repair product types. Genetic analysis indicates that SD-MMEJ is Ku70, Lig4 and Rad51-independent but impaired in mus308 (POLQ) mutants.
  23. Alexander J, Beagan K, Orr Weaver T, McVey M. Multiple mechanisms contribute to double-strand break repair at rereplication forks in Drosophila follicle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:13809-13814 pubmed
    ..Conversely, we show that fork progression is enhanced in the absence of both Drosophila Rad51 homologs, spindle-A and spindle-B, revealing homologous recombination is active and actually impairs fork movement ..
  24. Lancaster O, Breuer M, Cullen C, Ito T, Ohkura H. The meiotic recombination checkpoint suppresses NHK-1 kinase to prevent reorganisation of the oocyte nucleus in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001179 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we propose that NHK-1 is a crucial regulator of meiosis and that the meiotic checkpoint suppresses NHK-1 activity to prevent oocyte nuclear reorganisation until DNA breaks are repaired. ..
  25. Yoo S. Characterization of Drosophila Rad51/SpnA protein in DNA binding and embryonic development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:1310-8 pubmed
    The Rad51 is a highly conserved protein throughout the eukaryotic kingdom and an essential enzyme in DNA repair and recombination...
  26. Bolterstein E, Rivero R, Marquez M, McVey M. The Drosophila Werner exonuclease participates in an exonuclease-independent response to replication stress. Genetics. 2014;197:643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of WRNexo in the HU-induced stress response is independent of Rad51. Interestingly, the hatching defect and HU sensitivity of WRNexo mutants do not occur in flies containing an ..
  27. Bozas A, Beumer K, Trautman J, Carroll D. Genetic analysis of zinc-finger nuclease-induced gene targeting in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;182:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of HR dropped significantly in flies homozygous for mutations in spnA (Rad51) or okr (Rad54), two components of the invasion-mediated synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway...
  28. Brendel V, Brocchieri L, Sandler S, Clark A, Karlin S. Evolutionary comparisons of RecA-like proteins across all major kingdoms of living organisms. J Mol Evol. 1997;44:528-41 pubmed
    ..The archaeal sequences branch monophyletically and are most closely related to the eukaryotic paralogous Rad51 and Dmc1 groups...
  29. Molla Herman A, Vallés A, Ganem Elbaz C, Antoniewski C, Huynh J. tRNA processing defects induce replication stress and Chk2-dependent disruption of piRNA transcription. EMBO J. 2015;34:3009-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus link tRNA processing, DNA replication, and genome defense by small RNAs. This unexpected connection reveals constraints that could shape genome organization during evolution. ..
  30. Zhaunova L, Ohkura H, Breuer M. Kdm5/Lid Regulates Chromosome Architecture in Meiotic Prophase I Independently of Its Histone Demethylase Activity. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006241 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore Kdm5/Lid controls chromatin architecture in meiotic prophase I oocytes independently of its demethylase activity. ..
  31. Pare C, Suter B. Subcellular localization of Bic-D::GFP is linked to an asymmetric oocyte nucleus. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 12):2119-27 pubmed
    ..The subcellular polarity defined by the Bic-D focus and the nuclear polarity marks some of the first steps in antero-posterior and subsequently in dorso-ventral polarity formation. ..
  32. Dekanty A, Barrio L, Milan M. Contributions of DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints and cell death to suppressing the DNA damage-induced tumorigenic behavior of Drosophila epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2015;34:978-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumorigenic response of the tissue to IR is enhanced by depletion of Okra/DmRAD54 or spnA/DmRAD51--genes required for homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks in G2--and it is independent ..
  33. Loh B, Cullen C, Vogt N, Ohkura H. The conserved kinase SRPK regulates karyosome formation and spindle microtubule assembly in Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, bi-orientation and segregation of meiotic chromosomes are also defective. Therefore, this study demonstrates new roles of this conserved kinase in two independent meiotic steps specific to oocytes. ..
  34. Joyce E, Paul A, Chen K, Tanneti N, McKim K. Multiple barriers to nonhomologous DNA end joining during meiosis in Drosophila. Genetics. 2012;191:739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..first by the activity of the MCM-like protein MEI-218, which is required for crossover formation, and, second, by Rad51-related proteins SPN-B (XRCC3) and SPN-D (RAD51C), which physically interact and promote homologous recombination (..
  35. Andersen S, Kuo H, Savukoski D, Brodsky M, Sekelsky J. Three structure-selective endonucleases are essential in the absence of BLM helicase in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002315 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies of synthetic lethality provide insights into the multiple functions of DmBLM and how various endonucleases may function when DmBLM is absent. ..
  36. Barbosa V, Kimm N, Lehmann R. A maternal screen for genes regulating Drosophila oocyte polarity uncovers new steps in meiotic progression. Genetics. 2007;176:1967-77 pubmed
  37. Yoo S, McKee B. Overexpression of Drosophila Rad51 protein (DmRad51) disrupts cell cycle progression and leads to apoptosis. Chromosoma. 2004;113:92-101 pubmed
    ..To examine the function of Drosophila Rad51 (DmRad51) in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, DmRad51 protein was overexpressed using a heat shock-inducible promoter ..
  38. Blanton H, Radford S, McMahan S, Kearney H, Ibrahim J, Sekelsky J. REC, Drosophila MCM8, drives formation of meiotic crossovers. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:e40 pubmed
    ..Epistasis experiments suggest that REC acts after the Rad51 ortholog SPN-A but before the endonuclease MEI-9...
  39. Alexiadis V, Kadonaga J. Strand pairing by Rad54 and Rad51 is enhanced by chromatin. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2767-71 pubmed
    We investigated the role of chromatin in the catalysis of homologous strand pairing by Rad54 and Rad51. Rad54 is related to the ATPase subunits of chromatin-remodeling factors, whereas Rad51 is related to bacterial RecA...
  40. Kusch T. Brca2-Pds5 complexes mobilize persistent meiotic recombination sites to the nuclear envelope. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In Rad51(-/-) females, all persistent DNA breaks are directed to the nuclear envelope...
  41. Morris J, Lehmann R. Drosophila oogenesis: versatile spn doctors. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R55-8 pubmed
    ..Genes of the spindle class, which encode double-strand break repair enzymes and RNA helicases, affect oocyte polarity and the decision whether to differentiate as an oocyte or a nurse cell. ..
  42. Navarro C, Bullock S, Lehmann R. Altered dynein-dependent transport in piRNA pathway mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that aggregate formation is a cellular response to protect germ cells from DNA damage caused by elevated retrotransposon expression. ..
  43. McCaffrey R, St Johnston D, González Reyes A. A novel mutant phenotype implicates dicephalic in cyst formation in the Drosophila ovary. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:908-17 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which dicephalic is involved in the proper adhesion between the oocyte and the somatic follicle cells. ..
  44. Kuo H, McMahan S, Rota C, Kohl K, Sekelsky J. Drosophila FANCM helicase prevents spontaneous mitotic crossovers generated by the MUS81 and SLX1 nucleases. Genetics. 2014;198:935-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Fancm mutants can tolerate loss of a single resolvase, we were able to show that spontaneous mitotic crossovers that occur when FANCM is missing are dependent on MUS312 and either MUS81 or SLX1. ..
  45. Huynh J, St Johnston D. The role of BicD, Egl, Orb and the microtubules in the restriction of meiosis to the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2000;127:2785-94 pubmed
    ..These results lead us to propose a model in which BicD, Egl and Orb control entry into meiosis by regulating translation. ..
  46. Findley S, Tamanaha M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Maelstrom, a Drosophila spindle-class gene, encodes a protein that colocalizes with Vasa and RDE1/AGO1 homolog, Aubergine, in nuage. Development. 2003;130:859-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, maelstrom mutant ovaries show mislocalization of two proteins involved in the microRNA and/or RNAi pathways, Dicer and Argonaute2, suggesting a potential connection between nuage and the microRNA-pathway. ..
  47. Nagel A, Fischer P, Szawinski J, La Rosa M, Preiss A. Cyclin G is involved in meiotic recombination repair in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that CycG has a role in an early step of meiotic recombination repair, thereby affecting EGFR-mediated patterning processes during oogenesis. ..
  48. Marin Vicente C, Domingo Prim J, Eberle A, Visa N. RRP6/EXOSC10 is required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:1097-107 pubmed publisher
    ..variant H2Av (Drosophila) or H2AX (humans), but impairs the recruitment of the homologous recombination factor RAD51 to the damaged sites, without affecting RAD51 levels...
  49. Akaboshi E, Inoue Y, Ryo H. Cloning of the cDNA and genomic DNA that correspond to the recA-like gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Jpn J Genet. 1994;69:663-70 pubmed
    We have isolated a cDNA homologous to the yeast DMC1 and RAD51 genes from Drosophila melanogaster...
  50. González Reyes A, St Johnston D. Role of oocyte position in establishment of anterior-posterior polarity in Drosophila. Science. 1994;266:639-42 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the generation of AP asymmetry requires signaling from the germ line to the soma and back again. ..
  51. Li W, Klovstad M, Schüpbach T. Repression of Gurken translation by a meiotic checkpoint in Drosophila oogenesis is suppressed by a reduction in the dose of eIF1A. Development. 2014;141:3910-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We further propose that reduction of eIF1A allows more efficient Grk translation possibly because of the presence of specific structural features in the grk 5'UTR. ..
  52. Raffa G, Cenci G, Ciapponi L, Gatti M. Organization and Evolution of Drosophila Terminin: Similarities and Differences between Drosophila and Human Telomeres. Front Oncol. 2013;3:112 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of additional Drosophila genes encoding non-terminin proteins involved in telomere protection might lead to the discovery of novel components of human telomeres. ..
  53. Mishra M, Sharma A, Shukla A, Pragya P, Murthy R, de Pomerai D, et al. Transcriptomic analysis provides insights on hexavalent chromium induced DNA double strand breaks and their possible repair in midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Mutat Res. 2013;747-748:28-39 pubmed publisher
  54. Pastink A, Lohman P. Repair and consequences of double-strand breaks in DNA. Mutat Res. 1999;428:141-56 pubmed
  55. Joyce E, Pedersen M, Tiong S, White Brown S, Paul A, Campbell S, et al. Drosophila ATM and ATR have distinct activities in the regulation of meiotic DNA damage and repair. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:359-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that ATM is primarily required for the meiotic DSB repair response, which includes functions in DNA damage repair and negative feedback control over the level of programmed DSBs during meiosis. ..
  56. Ashburner M, Ball C, Blake J, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry J, et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet. 2000;25:25-9 pubmed
  57. Janssen A, Breuer G, Brinkman E, van der Meulen A, Borden S, van Steensel B, et al. A single double-strand break system reveals repair dynamics and mechanisms in heterochromatin and euchromatin. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This direct analysis reveals important insights into heterochromatin DSB repair in animal tissues and provides a foundation for further explorations of repair mechanisms in different chromatin domains. ..
  58. Chan S, Yu A, McVey M. Dual roles for DNA polymerase theta in alternative end-joining repair of double-strand breaks in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001005 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish pol theta as a key protein in alternative end joining in Drosophila and suggest a potential mechanistic link between alternative end joining and interstrand crosslink repair. ..
  59. Alexander J, Barrasa M, Orr Weaver T. Replication fork progression during re-replication requires the DNA damage checkpoint and double-strand break repair. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1654-60 pubmed publisher
    ..NHEJ appears to continually repair forks during re-replication to maintain elongation. ..